« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
to the men of war that they might so combine as to compel the de Langton kept them up to their work, not permitting them king to enlarge and re-grant it. This was in August, 1213. to lag, but not suffering them to overbear. It was on the 15th In November of the following year the barons met again at of June, Friday, that the conference came to an end. In the Bary St. Edmunds, Langton having in the meantime pre- royal tent sat John (Lackland as they called him), with some pared a draft of the demand that should be made upon the dozen attendants, whose hearts were not stout enough to oppose king. His were the brains, his the Geist, that marshalled the or to defend him; and round the table on which the Great warriors, and pointed out to them the direction in which their Charter lay stood the mightiest of the peers, men whose names strength should be employed. The draft was read by the are worthily inscribed on Fame's eternal bead-roll. Langton archbishop from the steps of the high altar, and was received argued for them. He spoke their minds, and patiently did with rapturous applause; and Langton, striking while the iron he bear with all that was urged against him, for he knew the was hot, reminded the barons of all their wrongs, and swore them power which was ready to back up his case. Never did summer to keep steadfast to the cause even unto death, until they had sun shine on a more splendid sight than the meadow by Runnyobtained their wish; "and at length it was agreed that after mede presented on this day in June, 1215. The king, after vainly the nativity of our Lord, they should come to the king in a trying to evade, to caress, and to intimidate, was forced to give body, to desire a confirmation of the liberties before-mentioned; in; the unbending firmness of Langton knew of no surrender and that in the meantime they were to provide themselves but the fullest. Not only did he insist upon and obtain the with horses and arms in the like manner, that if the king should king's signature to the grant, but he compelled the royal perchance break through that which he had specially sworn assent-and there the shoo pinched dreadfully-to a clause (which they well believed), and recoil by reason of his duplicity, empowering certain barons to assume sovereign power in the they would instantly, by capturing his castles, compel him to event of the king failing to keep his oath. give them satisfaction."
Thus was won for Englishmen the Great Charter of Liberties, Fully armed and in great numbers, the barons waited on the which has been handed down with honest pride from generation king on the 6th of January, 1215, and presented their demands. to generation, and which stands out as the rock on which our Jokn asked for time, and they gave him till Easter to think air-like freedom was founded, amid the sea of violence and about it. He employed the interval in attempts to break up selfishness which beat and broke on it in vain. the combination against him : he offered special privileges to the churchmen, got the Pope to write in his behalf, and tried
SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE OF KING JOHN. to detach the leaders from their comrades. But the nobles re
John was the sixth and youngest son of Henry II. ; tho mained firm, and getting.no reply to their demand by Easter, met in arms at Stamford, and sent thence to John for his final
seventh King of England after the Conquest, and the third decision. “By God's teeth, I will not grant them liberties that
of the Plantagenet dynasty. will mako me a slave!” he screamed to Langton, who read over Born at Oxford. Dec. 24, 1166 | England under Papal Interdict1208-13 the clauses of the charter to him; but the Primate read on, Began to reign . May 27, 1199 | Granted Magna Charta June 15, 1215 and when he had finished, John promised an answer speedily.
Lost Normandy ..1204 | Died at Newark .. Oct. 18, 1216 None came, so the barons marched, and after getting possession
SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH JOHN. of several large towns, entered London on the 24th of May, 1215. Rendered despairful, and being almost alone, John sent to say
Denmark, Kings of. Germany, Emperors of. | Scotland, Kings of.
Philip. . . . 1138 he would give what was asked. When and where should he
Canute VI. . . 1182
William . . . 1165 Waldemar II. . 1207
Otho IV. meet the lords?“ Let the day be the 9th of June--the place
. . 1208
Alexander II. , 1214
Norway, Kings of. Runnymede," was the answer sent back. A postponement to
Eastern Empire. the 15th was agreed to, and on that day John, attended by a
. . . 1184
Spain, Kings of.
Haco IV. . . 1202 Fmall retinue, met "the whole nobility of England," and nego- Alexius III.. . 1195 Haco V.... 1217
Alphonso IX. . 1158. tiations were opened forthwith.
Isaac II.. . . 1203
Portugal, Kings of.
Henry I.... 1214 No tricks, no lies, no subterfuges could now avail. John | Baldwin I. • . 1204
Sancho I. . . 1185 was absolutely in the hands of his indignant and determined Henry 1.. • • 120G
Alfonso II. . . 1212 Sweden, Kings of. lords, and he must agree to what they demanded, or take the
Rome, Popes of. Swerker II.. . 1199 consequences. Why need the liberty of others make him a
| France, King of.
Innocent III. , 1198 Eric II. . . . 1210 klave? Is it that tyrants feel stifled when their fellow-men Philip Augustus 1180 Honorius III. , 1216 ) John I. . . . 1216 breathe ? Better every way that they should feel stifled than that the alternative should present itself. But what were the stifling restraints on the royal respiration? Let us see.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-I. The Great Charter provided, first, “That the Church of England (not Rome, be it observed) shall be free, and have her! POSITION OF THE BODY, THE HAND, AND THE PEN. whole rights, and her liberties inviolable.” It then went on to Good handwriting is essential to almost all persons who have fix exactly the nature and extent of the feudal obligations, not to make their way in the world. Great stress is laid upon it only of the barony towards the king, but of the smaller holders in the examinations for all Government appointments; it is towards the barons; the liberties of cities and towns were required in every merchant's counting-house, in every office, in confirmed; the redress of existing grievances, such as the almost every shop. The boy who can write well obtains a situaemployment of foreign troops against Englishmen, arbitrary tion-however humble the situation may be--far more readily imprisonment without trial, the exaction of ruinous fines and than the boy whose “pot-hooks and hangers” are almost as the spoliation of wards and heiresses, was then assured ; and difficult to decipher as the cuneiform characters of ancient that power so sweet to despots, of arbitrary, irresponsible Nineveh. It is our purpose to devote a portion of our space punishment, was expressly renounced. But the grand clauses to “ Lessons in Penmanship.” Our efforts, at the outset, will which made the charter so truly great, and which are laws to be directed towards the instruction of those who have never this hour, are those which provided that no tax should be levied learned to write, and the improvement of those who write badly; hut by order of “the general council of our kingdom ;" that and we shall follow these lessons by a series of papers exhibiting the royal officers who acted illegally should be personally the different styles of handwriting required in Government responsible ; that the Court of Common Pleas should be in one offices, the merchant's counting-house, and the office of the fixed place, instead of following the king's person. The grandest solicitor, etc. etc., with instructions in German chirography clanses of all, however, are these
and the ordinary kinds of ornamental writing, especially the "No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseised, or black letter, or German text, so necessary to the solicitor's outlawed, or banished, or any ways destroyed ; nor will we pass clerk in engrossing deeds and legal documents. upon him, nor will we condemn him, unless by the lawful With these preliminary remarks, we hope our students will judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. We will sell to attend very carefully to our directions in endeavouring to no man, we will not deny to any man, either justice or right." acquire an elegant system of penmanship, as by this means,
For four days the negotiations went on; the country between combined with constant practice, they will surely become Staines and Windsor was white with the tents of the iron-clad good writers. men, who had come to demand a charter of liberties. Stephen In the first place, you should sit right in front of the desk or table at which you intend to write, then, placing your loft arm kept upright, so that the top of the pen may point to the right on the table and your left hand on the edge of the book or car when the hand is at the commencement of a line which you paper to hold it firm, if necessary, by pressure with the fingers, are about to write, and that as you move it along it must be take the pen in the right hand, and grasp it firmly, but not too kept parallel to this position throughout. It will assist you much so, between the thumb and the two fingers next to the very much in obtaining and keeping this position of the hand to thumb, that is, the forefinger and the midfinger, as shown in ' observe that the knuckle of the little finger and the knuckle or the accompanying representation of the hand with a pen in it. second joint of the thumb should both be kept always as near In this position, remember carefully that before you can draw as possible at the same distance from the paper, say about an a strukes the point of the pen must be plaoed at the distance inoh and a half, while in the act of writing. It will also be of of about fire-eighths or
the greatest advantage throquarters of an inch
if, at the commencement them the tip of the mid
of a line in writing, you finger, with its face or
should have the elbow of othom pure downwaris, and
the right hand pretty close 2016 lewning to one side or
to your right side, and as other: the pen must also
you more the hand along les peces longside of
the line, in writing, to the mail of the mnifinger,
preserve the arm parallel 1348M ho naal itself, but
to this position as well as the Hesher purt of the
the pen to its first posithe your class by it. The
tion; in fact, if you do the one correctly you will
necessarily do the other, are the knuelle en the
unless you choose to turist fine as series in the
the unist, which would be equally painfal, absurd, and unnecessary.
As to the position of As per the pain and
the head and shoulders,
stoop as little as posN O U : DAXD WHEX FOLDING THE PEX.
sabie; a gentle inclination of the head is all that
is necessary in general, in beste for want attention to the apparent triding minutie order that you may obverre earnestly and accurately the motion * *
want but writers hare arise, and some of of the band and the formation of the letters h Dear-sighted eren wordens who uht to know better what they are paras a greater inclination of the head is required than in perto Por tands to reas, and any one may poore it erinary cases; het in all cases whatsoever tas rule is absoD e r few trials that all the pea be allowed to fali lutely essential to deep the dust churiy over resu je
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-I.
Thus 1 79 4 3 would denote geven thousands, nino
hundreds, four' tens, and three ones; or, as it would be THE term Arithmetic, which is derived from the Greek verb expressed, seven thousand, nine hundred, and forty-three. apiðueu (pronounced a-rith-me-o), to count, is properly applied to Similarly, | 8 3 0 | 5| 417 would denote eight times a the science of Numbers, and the art of performing calculations hundred thousand, three times ten thousand, no thousands, fivo by them, and investigating their relations. To a certain extent, hundreds, four tens, and seven ones; or, as it would be moro this science must have been coeval with the history of man. briefly expressed, eight hundred and thirty thousand, five hun. As an art, arithmetic is indispensable in daily business; and dred and forty-seven. the man who is best acquainted with its practical details has Wo need not, however, draw the columns: it will be the samo always the proference in every mercantile establishment. Our thing if we imagine them, and, instead of columns, talk of object in these lessons shall be twofold—to develop its principles figures being in the first, second, third, fourth places, etc. as a science, and to show the application of its rules as an art. The symbol o put in any placo, as already indicated in tho For this purpose, it will be necessary to begin with the first previous example, denotes that the number corresponding to tho principles of Numeration and Notation, and to give such rules particular column or place in which it stands is not to be taken as will enable any one to read and write a given number at all: tho 0 only fills up the place—thus, however, answering correctly.
the important purpose of increasing the figure after which it NOTATION AND NUMERATION.
stands tenfold. 1. Any single thing-as for instance, a pen, a sheep, a houso
| Thus, 10 means that once ten and no units aro taken--i.e., it - is called a unit: we say there is one such thing. If
denotes the number ten ; 100 means that once a hundred but another single thing of the same kind be put with it, there are
510 tens and no units aro taken-i.c., it denotes the number a said to be two such things; if another, three; if another, four ;
hundred; 5001 means that fivo thousands, no hundreds, no tens, if another, five; and so on.
and ono unit, are taken, or, as it would bo moro briofly oxEach of these collections of things of which wo have spoken
pressod, five thousand and one. is a number of things; and the terms one, two, three, four, five,
4. Beforo proceeding further, we will give tho names of tho etc., by which we express how many single things or units are
successive numbers :under consideration, are the names of numbers. A number
... 10 :
Nineteca... therefore is a collection of units. This is also sometimes called Eleven
... 11 Twenty an integer, or whole number.
Thirty It will be seen that the idea of number is quite independent
Fifty of the particular kind of units, a collection of which is counted.
Sixty Thus, if there are four pigs, the number of pigs is tho samo as
Seventy if there were four pens. We can thus abstract a numbor from
Eighty any particular unit or thing, and talk of the number four, tho Eighteen...
... 18 Ninety ... namber five, etc. Numbers thus abstracted from their referenco to any particular unit or thing are called abstract numbers. Hundred (ten times ten)... ... When a collection of things or objects is indicated, it is called
Thousand (ten hundreds)
Million (a thousand thousands)... ... 1000000 a concrete number.
Billion* (a million millions)
... 1000000,000000 We shall treat first of abstract numbers.
Trillion (a million billions)
... 1000000,000000,000000. 2. The art of expressing numbers by symbols, or figures, is called Notation.
The numbers between twenty and thirty are expressed thus: In the system of notation which we are about to explain, all twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, etc., up to twenty-nine, numbers can be expressed by means of ton symbols (figures, or to which succeeds thirty; and similarly between any other two digits, as they are called), representing respectively the first of the names above given, from twenty up to a hundred: thus, nine numbers, and nothing, i.e., the absence of number. These 95 is called ninety-five. are
After one hundred, numbers are denoted in words, by men. I representing the number one | G representing th, number six tioning the separate numbers of units, tens, hundreds, thousands, two
seven | etc., of which they are made up. For example, 134 is ono three 8
, cight hundred and thirty-four; 5,342 is five thousand three hundred four
nine and forty-two ; 92,547 is ninety-two thousand five hundred and five 0 called a nought, a cipher, or zero. forty-seven ; 84,319,652 is eighty-four millions, three hundred N.B.—Ten times ten is called one hundred; ten times a and nineteen thousas
and nineteen thousand, six hundred and fifty-two. hundred, a thousand.
5. It is useful, in reading off into words a number expressed 3. Nambers are represented by giving to the figures employed in figures, to divide the figures into periods of three, commencing what is called a local value-i.e., a value depending upon the
on the right, as the following example will indicato :positions in which they are placed.
Billions. Thousands of Millions. Millions. Thougands. Units. Let a number of columns be drawn as below, that being called 561
365 the frst which is on the right, and reckoning the order of the columns from right to left.
Thus the figures 561,234,826,479,365 would denote five hundred | and sixty-one billions, two hundred and thirty-four thousand
cight hundred and twenty-six millions, four hundred and seventy-
We have then the following
Divide them into periods of three figures each, beginning at the right hand; then, commencing at the left hand, read the figures of each period in the same manner as those of the righthand period are read, and at the end of each period pronounce its name.
The art of indicating by words numbers expressed by figures If a figure-5, for instance—be placed in the first column, it
it is callod Numeration. denotes five units, or the number five; if it be placed in the second column, it denotes five tens; if in the third, five hun.
EXERCISE 1. dreds ; if in the fourth, five thousands; if in the fifth, five times ten thousand; and so on, each column corresponding to a
Write down in figures the numbers named in the following number ten times as great as the one immediately on its right. exercisos :
Hundreds of Thousands.
Tens of Thousands.
* Digita. So called from digitus, a "finger." This decimal nota. bon clearly took its origin from these natural counting instruments.
In the foreign system of numeration a thousand millions is called a billion, a thousand billions a trillion, and so on.
8. Two millions, sixty-three from the Latin : I mean suggestion, continue, progress, numerous, 2. Four hundred and seven.
thousand and eight.
exemplification, assertion, proportion, language, Latin, origin. 3. Two thousand one hundred 1 9. Eleven thousand eleven hun|
Of the two-and-forty words of which the sentence consists, ten and nine.
dred and eleven.
are from the Latin. Should you ever possess an acquaintance 4. Twenty thousand and fifty 10. Fourteen millions and fifty
with the science of philology, or the science of languages, you seven.
six, 5. Fifty-five thousand and three. | 11. Four hundred and forty mil
will know that in the sentence there are other words which are 6. One hundred and five thousand
lions and seventy-two. found in the Latin as well as in other ancient languages. Indeand ten.
12. Six billions, six millions, six | pendently of this, you now learn that about one-fourth of our 7. Seven hundred and ten thou
thousand and six.
English words have come to us from the people who spoke sand three hundred and 13. Ninety-six trillions, seven
| Latin, that is, the Romans and other nations of Italy. In one.
hundred billions and one.
| reality, the proportion of Latin words in the English is much EXERCISE 2.
greater, as in time you may know. Observe, too, that these
Latin words in the sentence are the long and the hard words, Read off into words the numbers which occur in the following
and what perhaps you may call “ dictionary words." These are exercises :
the very words which give you trouble when you read an 1, 3506 8. 2021305 15. 400031256
English classic, or first-rate author. But they give me no 2. 6034 9. 4506580 16, 967058713
trouble. With me, they are as easy to be understood as any 3. 90621 10. 1640030 17. 20830720000
common Saxon term, such as father, house, tree. The reason 4. 73040 11. 70900038 18. 8503467039
why they have long ceased to give me trouble, is, that I am 5, 450302 12, 12604321
19. 450670412468 6. 603260 13. 70003000
familiar with their roots, or the elements of which they each
20. 58967324104325 7. 130070 | 14. 161010602 21. 42008120537062035
consist. Having this familiarity, I have no occasion to consult the dictionary. There are thousands of English words of Latin origin, the meaning of which I know, though I have never looked
them out in a dictionary. I wish to assist you in putting yourLESSONS IN LATIN.-I.
self into a similar position ; and although you may have no aid INTRODUCTION.
but such as these pages afford you, I do not despair of success,
if only you will strictly observe my requirements. BEING about to give you, reader, some lessons which may enable
PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN. you to learn the Latin language, with no other resources than such as may be supplied by your own care and diligence, I take You may practically regard the Latin alphabet as the same it for granted that you are desirous of acquiring the necessary as the English ; and in the pronunciation, too, you may in the skill, and willing to bestow the necessary labour. If the study main follow the best English usage, remembering always that were not recommended as a good mental discipline; if it were every vowel is pronounced in Latin, and that words which in not recommended as giving a key to some of the finest treasures English would be words of one syllable, are words of two syllaof literature ; if it were not recommended as a means of leading bles in Latin, owing to the distinct pronunciation of every you into communion with such minds as those of Cicero, Virgil, vowel. Thus the word mare in English, the feminine of horse, Horace, Livy, and Tacitus, it would have a sufficient claim on is pronounced ma-re in Latin, just as we pronounce the English your attention, as greatly conducing to a full and accurate name Mary, and means the sea. The Latin language, in short, acquaintance with your mother tongue—the English. The Eng. has no silent e as we have in English. lish language is, for the most part, made up of two elements Every modern nation pronounces the Latin as it pronounces the Saxon element and the Latin element. Without a knowledge its own tongue. Thus there are divers methods of pronunciation. of both these elements, you cannot be said to know English. This diversity would be inconvenient, if the Latin were, like the If you are familiar with both these elements, you possess means French, a general medium of verbal intercourse. At one time of knowing and writing English, superior to the means which it was so, and then there prevailed one recognised manner of are possessed by many who have received what is called a classi pronunciation. Now, however, for the most part, Latin is read, cal education, and have spent years in learned universities. not spoken. Consequently the pronunciation is not a matter of In order to be in possession of both those elements, you must, consequence. Even in our own country there are diversities, for the Saxon element, study German, and for the Latin element, but such diversities are secondary matters. To one or two study the lessons which ensue.
remarks, however, you should carefully attend. In Latin the In the instructions which I am to give you, I shall suppose my. vowels are what is called long or short. In other words, on self addressing a friend, who, besides some general acquaintance some the accent or stress of the voice is thrown, on others it with his mother tongue, has acquired from the English Lessons is not thrown. The vowel a, for instance, is mostly long; the in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, or from some other source, a vowel i is mostly short. A long vowel is said to be equal to knowledge of the ordinary terms of English grammar, such as two short vowels. We English people, however, have no other singular, plural, noun, adjective, verb, adverb, etc. The mean way of marking a long vowel, except by throwing on it the ing of such words I shall not explain. But everything peculiar accent or stress of the voice. It is also a fact, that in Latin the as between the English and the Latin I shall explain. I shall same vowel is somotimes short and sometimes long; in other also explain any grammatical term, which though used some words, the same vowel sometimes has, and sometimes has not, times in English grammar, you possibly may not understand. the accent on it; thus the i in dominus, a lord, is without the In my explanations I think it safer to err on the side of super-accent, while the i in doctrina, learning, has the accent; the fluity rather than on the side of deficiency. I have said that I former, therefore, is pronounced thus, dóm-in-us, the latter thus, shall suppose you to possess a general acquaintance with the doc-tri-na. Now observe that these words are trisyllables, or English language. But I advise you to suspect yourself as words of three syllables. Of these three syllables the lastbeing probably acquainted with it but in an imperfect manner. namely, us—is called the ultimate ; the second, in, is called the And this advice I give you in the hope that it may lead you penult; the first, or dom, is called the antepenult. And the to the constant use of a good English dictionary. In every general rule for pronouncing Latin words is, that the accent is case in which you have the least doubt whether or not you thrown on the penult, or if not on the penult, then on the anteknow the exact meaning of any word I use, look out the word penult. In doctrina the accent is on the penult, or last syllable in your dictionary, and put it down in a note-book to be kept but one. In dóminus, the accent is on the antepenult, or last for the purpose. Having written it in the note-book, add the syllable but two. In order that you may know where to lay the meaning. When you have, say, a score of words thus entered stress of your voice, I shall mark, as in dóminus and doctrina, in your note-book, look them over again and again until their on which syllable the accent lies. You will then understand signification is impressed on your memory. If you listen to this that when I put a mark thus 'over a vowel, I mean thereby that suggestion, and continue to make progress with me, you will you should let your voice rest, as it were, on that vowel. For soon find numerous exemplifications of the assertion I made but example, in the word incur, the accent you know is on the last now---namely, that a large proportion of the words in the English syllable, for you throw the stress of the voice on the syllable language are of Latin origin. Take, for instance, the last sen- our. This is indicated thus, incúr. So in the Latin amicus, a tence. In that sentence alone the following words are derived friend, the accent is on the i, and the word is to be pronounced
thas smious, the accent being on the penult. There is another in the old grammar schools, attached to the established methods way of marking the same fact; it is by the use of a short of pronunciation. After all, we cannot pronounce the Latin as it straight line, as ·, and a curve, as . The former denotes a was pronounced by the Latins themselves, nor can the besttrained long or accented syllable, for instance, doctrina; the latter lips pronounce their poetry so as to reproduce its music. denotes a short or unaccented syllable, for instance, dominus. You thus see that doctrina and doctrina, dóminus and dominus point out the same thing—namely, that in pronouncing doctrina you must lay the stress of the voice on the i, and in pronouncing
OUR HOLIDAY.-I. dóminus you must lay it on the o.
| As the possession of a healthful frame and strength of muscle I must point out to you another practice. In Latin, as you and sinew is absolutely necessary to all who desire to make the will presently learn, the endings of words have a good deal to most of their mental powers, we have thought it desirable to do with their meanings. It is, on that account, usual to pro- devote a portion of the POPULAR EDUCATOR to a series of nounce them at least very distinctly. Indeed, I might say, that papers on what is generally termed Physical Education, or, in on every terminating syllable a sort of secondary accent is laid. other words, the culture of the powers of the body. Thus, dominus is pronounced dóminús. So in other forms of We intend, therefore, to take “Our Holiday" at regular the word: thus, dóminí, dóminó, dóminúm. The object is to intervals, and invite our readers on these occasions to dismiss inark the distinction between, say, dominus and domino, a dis- all thoughts of graver studies for a while, and enter heartily into tinction of great consequence. Another form of this word is the consideration of the art of developing the strength, endudominos. For the same reason a stress is laid on the termina
rance, and agility of the human form by properly regulated tion os, which accordingly is pronounced as if it were written cymnastic exercises and athletio sports and games. oase, Words, too, which end in es have a secondary accent on The most recent addition to those of our pastimes which must the e; as vulpes, a fos, pronounced vulpees. In a few cases the be practised in the open air is Towel is what we call doubtful, that is, it is sometimes short and sometimes long. This peculiarity is marked thus, – as in
LA CROSSE, THE NATIONAL GAME OF CANADA, tenebrae, darleness, when the accent may be on the penult, as a game lately introduced into this country from tho “New tenebrae, or on the antepenult, as ténebrae. Observe, also, that Dominion," where it occupies a position like that so long held a vowel at the end of a word is always pronounced in Latin. by cricket in England. It is of Indian origin, and has been Take, as an example, docéré, to teach, which is pronounced as it played here by a party of Indians brought over for the purpose. is marked, that is, with an accent on the last syllable no less It is a ball game, and derives its name from the implement used than on the last syllable but one. And be sure that you pro- in striking the ball, which is a long hickory stick bent at one nounce docéré as a word of throe syllables, do-ce-re, and not end like a crosse, or bishop's crosier. Across this curve of the do-eere, as if it were a word of two syllables only, remembering, stick stout network is stretched, and extends nearly half-way as I have told you before, that the Latin language has no silent down its length. The “crosse" has, therefore, something of the €, as we have : for instance, in wife. Practise yourself, accord appearance of a racket-bat, but is much longer. ing to these rules, in pronouncing thus the opening lines of that To the spectator the game presents the appearanco of a fine poem, Virgil's “Æneid.” As I am anxious that you should combination of football and hockey, with some striking variations not pass anything without knowing its meaning, I subjoin tho from both. It is a very animated game, interesting to the lookertranslation made by the English poet Dryden.
on, and highly exciting to those engaged in the contest. It "Arma virúmque canó, Trójaé quí prímus ab óris
requires a large space of ground, not less, as a rule, than about Italiám, látó profugus, Lávinin vénit
400 yards square, and tolerably level. Towards the two ends of Littora ; múlt[um] ill[e] ét térrís jáctátus et alto,
this ground goal-posts are fixed, as at football, and the players VI superúm, saévaó memorém Júnónis ob iram;
are divided into two parties, each having its own goal. Each goal Múlta quoqu[e] ét bélló pássús dúm conderet úrbem,
consists of two poles about six feet high and seven feet apart, Inférrétque Deos Latió; genus únde Latinum,
ornamented with flags of the colour-say red or blue-chosen Albáníque patrés, átqu[e] áltać moenia Rómae."
by the party who may take that side in the game. The distance "Arms and the man I sing, who, forced by fate,
between the two goals is optional, depending upon the space of And haughty Juno's unrelenting hate,
ground in which the game may be played, and other conditions Expelled and exiled. left the Trojan shore.
either accidental or the subject of agreement between the Long labours, both by sea and land, he bore,
contending parties. The number of persons who may play is And in the doubtful war, before he won The Latin realm, and built the destined town
optional also, but they are usually equally divided, as in other His banished gods restored to rites divine,
field amusements.. And settled sure succession in his line,
The object which is pursued by either party throughout the From whence the race of Alban fathers carne,
game is to drive the ball through the opponents' goal—that is, And the long glories of majestic Rome."
between their goal-posts. When this is done the game is over, In the above piece of Latin poetry you will have noticed having been won by that side which has succeeded in the somne letters enclosed by brackets. By certain rules, which you attempt. The ball used is made of hollow india-rubber, and will meet with in Latin prosody, these letters are dropped, or must not be more than nine nor less than eight inches in circumnot sounded, under certain conditions of position in Latin ference. It must, as a rule, be touched only with the “crosse," poetry, although they are sounded distinctly in Latin prose. In and it may either be struck with this implement or carried upon pronouncing the third line, you must cut off the um in multum it. The crosse is about four feet long, and the network with before the vowel i in ille; and the e in ille before the e in et., which it is provided is nearly tight, but just sufficiently loose Also in the fifth line drop the e in quoque before the e in et. to hold the ball when resting on it. It is not allowed to assume In the last line, too, the e in atque is dropped or elided before the shape of a bag. Thus fashioned the ball may be readily the vowel a in altae, and the two words are run into one, and picked up from the ground and carried upon the crosse, or pronounced as if written atqualtae. Accuracy of pronunciation, flung from it towards the opponents' goal. however, is not easily acquired from any written or printed. The principal players engaged on either side occupy the directions. The living tongue is the only adequate teacher. following stations :1. Goal-koeper, who places himself near And it will be well if you can get some grammar-schoolboy to the goal, it being his duty to defend it when in imminent read to you and heat you read the passage I have given above danger. 2. Point, some twenty or thirty yards in front of from Virgil, and the exercises, or some of them, which you will the goal-keeper. 3. Cover-point, about the same distance in find in future lessons. Although the pronunciation of Latin is advance of point. 4. Centre, who faces the centre of the field; of secondary importance, yet you must try to be as correct as and, 5. Home, who is stationed nearest the opponents' goal. you can, if only from the consideration that what is worth | The remaining players are called the fielders, and have no doing at all, is worth doing well. But should you, as you fixed position. justifiably may, hope by these lessons to prepare yourself for The game is commenced midway between the two goals, the becoming even a teacher of Latin-say in a school-you would ball being struck off by the captain of one side, as may have in that capacity find the pronunciation considered as a matter been decided by lot. The struggle at once ensues, one party of consequence; indeed, a disproportionate value is, especially endeavouring, by striking and following up the ball, to carry it