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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-IX.
Château, m., country house, villa, Paroisse, f., parish.
Chaumière, f., hut, cottage.
Pavé, m., pavement,
Pépinière, f., nursery of trees.
Cheminée, f., chimney.
Persienne, f., blind, open shutters.
Cimetière, m., burying-ground, Plafond, m., ceiling. 50. F, f.-In the commencement and body of words, this letter
Planche, f., board, is usually pronounced as the letter fin the English word for. It
Cloche, f., bell (large), church-bell, etc. Plancher, m., floor, is sometimes sounded also in the end of words. There are several | Clocher, m., church-steeple.
Poêle, m., stove. exceptions, however, which are best found in the French dic. Clochette, f., small bell.
Pompe, f., pump. tionary. In the French word neuf, which means nine, the f is cloitre, m., cloister.
Pont, m., bridge. silent when it precedes a word commencing with a consonant, Cour, f., yard, court.
Porte, f., door, gate. thus:--neuf lis, nine lilies, is pronounced as if printed neu lis. Couvent, m., con vent.
Poste, f., post, post-office. But the striking peculiarity of this letter consists in the fact
Cuisine, f., kitchen.
Poutre, f., beam.
Prairie, f., Pré, m., meadow. that it receives the sound of the letter v, as in the English word
Ecurie, f., stable. [bourhood. Prison, f., prison. roke, before another word commencing with a vowel or h mute,
Environs, m. pl., environs, neigh. Puits, m., well. and is joined with this word in pronunciation, as if it were its Escalier, m., stairs.
Quartier, m., quarter. first letter, namely:
Etage, m., story, floor,
Rampe (d'escalier), balustrade of a
staircase. Neuf animaux Neux animo
Rez-de-chaussée, m., ground floor.
Fontaine, f., fountain, well. Sacristie, f., vestry.
Salle, f., parlour, sitting-room.
Salon, m., drawing-room, hall, 51. G, g.-Before the vowels a, 0, and u, and the conso
Serre, f., conservatory.
Serre-chaude, f., hot-house. the hard sound of the letter g in the English word got, namely: Grange, f., barn,
Serrure, f., lock, FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH FRENCH, PRONUN. ENGLISH.
Grenier, m., garret,
Sonnette, f., bell. Gateau Gah-to A cake. Globe Glob Globe.
Haie, f., hedge.
Théâtre, m., theatre. Gosier Go-zeay Throat. Augment Og manh Increase.
Hameau, m., hamlet.
Toit, m., roof.
Tour, f., tower,
Hôtel-de-ville, town house, city house, Tuile, f., tile.
guildhall, city hall, town hall. Verger, m., orchard. The g final of the word bourg, a small town, takes the sound of
Meuble, m., piece of furniture, Verrou, m., bolt. the English k. This word is pronounced boork. Names of towns Meubles, m. pl., furniture,
Vestibule, m., hall, entry. ending in bourg drop the final 9, that is, the g is silent, as: Monnaie, f., mint,
Vigne, f., vignoble, m., vineyard, Augsbourg pronounced Ogz-boor.
Mortier, m., mortar.
Village, m., village.
Volet, m., icindow-shutter.
Palais, m., palace.
Voûte, f., vault, In the following French words, the initiai g has the sound of the letter k in the English word keel, namely:
7. MEUBLES.-FURNITURE. Allumette, f., match.
| Lit de plume, m., feather-bed. Gangrène as if printed Kangrène.
Allumette chimique, f., friction Lumière, f., light.
Lustre, m., sconce.
Marchepied, m., Footstool.
Mouchettes, f. pl., snuffers,
Mortier, m., mortar. No rule can be given for this peculiarity in pronunciation, Bassin, m., bowl, wash-boul. Moutardier, m., mustard-pot. except the rule of custom. It is believed the above five words Bassinoire, f., warming-pan. Nappe, f., tablecloth are the only ones in the French language concerning which this Berceau, m., cradle.
Oreiller, m., pillow. pecnliar pronunciation obtains.
Boite-à-fusil, f., tinder-box.
Panier, m., basket. Before the vowels e, i, and w, the letter g has the soft sound
Bougie, f., taper,
Paravent, m., screen,
Peinture, f., painting, picture. of the letters zh, namely:
Briquet, m., fire-steel,
Pelle, f., shovel, FEEXCH, PRONUS. ENGLISH. | FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH Cadre, m., frame.
Pierre à fusil, f., Aint. Åge Ah-zhay Aged. Gigot Zhe-go Leg oj mut. Candélabre, m., chandelier.
Pincettes, f. pl., tongs.
Poêle, f., frying-pan.
Poivrière, f., pepper-box. G final, before a vowel or an h mute, takes the sound of the
Chandelle, f., candle.
Pot, m., kettle. English k, and is connected with the following word in pronun
Charbon de bois, m., charcoal. Pupitre, m., desk.
Charbon de terre, m., pit-coal. Salière, f., salt-cellar, ciation, as if it belonged to that word, namely:
Chaudière, f., boiler.
Savon, m., soap.
Coffre, m., chest.
Seau, m., pail.
Commode, f., chest of drawers. Serviette, f., napkin.
Corbeille, f., basket.
Sofa, m., sofa.
Soufflet, m., bellous.
Cruche, f., pitcher.
Soupière, f., soup-tureen. aspirated h, is in most French words silent, namely:--
Cuvier, m., tub.
Sucrier, m,, sugar-dish.
Drap, m., sheet.
Tableau, m., picture.
Tablette, f., shelf.
Tapis, m., carpet. vowels e and i, in which case the first g is hard, like g in the
Essuie-main, m., tourel.
Théière, f., a tea-pot. English word go, and the second g has a soft sound represented Fer à repasser, m., iron.
Tire-bouchon, m., corkscrew, by the two letters zh, namely:
Fourgon, m., poker.
Tiroir, m., drawer,
Foyer, m., kcarth,
Traversin, m., bolster,
Ustensiles de cuisine, m. pl., kitchen SECTION XIV.-LIST OF WORDS FOR EXERCISES IN
Lanterne, f., lantern.
utensils. COMPOSITION (continued).
Lit, m., bed.
Verre, m., glass. 6. LA VILLE, LA MAISON, ETC.- Town, HOUSE, ETC.
8. PLATS, ETC. DISHES, ETC. Antichambre, f., antechamber. | Brique, f., brick.
Bæuf, m., beef.
Mouton, m., mutton.
Capitale, f., capital city, metropolis. Bouilli, m., boiled beef, boiled mcat. Euf, m., egg.
Omelette, f., omelet.
Porc, m., pork.
Rafraichissements, m. pl., refresh-
ments. Bourg, m., borough, small town. Chambre à coucher, f., bedroom. Gigot de mouton, m., leg of mutton. Röti, m., roast meat. Boarse, f., exchange. | Chapelle, f., chapel, | Jambon, m., hum.
Saucisse, f., sausage.
Soupe, f., soup.
7. Before the word onze, the article le or la is not elided Soupe maigre, f., vegetable soup. Vermicelle, m., vermicelli,
($ 146] :-
Nous avons le onze de Décembre, We have it is) the eleventh of December, 9. LEGUMES, GRAIN, ETC. —VEGETABLES, GRAIN, ETC.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
L'ouvrier a-t-il les outils que vous Has the workman the tools which
you have !
Les maisons que j'ai sont-elles aussi Are the houses which I have as good
bonnes que celles que vous avez? as those which you have ?
Combien de francs avez-vous ? How many francs have you ?
Je n'ai que dix francs, mais mon I have only ten francs, but my brother
frère en a plus de vingt.
has more than twenty (of them).
Avons-nous le quinze du mois ? Is it (have we) the fifteenth day of
the month ?
Non, Monsieur, nous n'avons que No, Sir, it is (we have) only the
Lequel de ces deux volumes avez- Which of those two volumes have
I have both.
Avez-vous la première place ou la Have you the first or the second
J'ai la première et mon frère a la I have the first, and my brother has
Pavot, m., poppy.
| Février, m., February. | Euvres, f., works. Pied d'alouette, m., larkspur.
Canelle, f., cinnamon. Franc, m., franc.
Outil, m., tool,
Centime, m., centime, Histoire, f., history.
Ouvrage, m., work.
the hundredth part of Italien, m., Italian Lis, m., lily.
Place, f., place.
Kilogramme, m., kilo. Quart, m., quarter.
Combien, how much, gramme, aboui tuo Septembre, m., Sep.
how many. Tulipe, f., tulip.
Cravate, f., cravat. Menuisier, m., joiner.
Volume, m., volume.
| Mousseline, f., muslin, !
5. Avons-nous le dix Septembre ? 6. Non, Les crayons que j'ai sont meilleurs The pencils (which) I have are better plus que moi. que ceux que vous avez,
than those (which) you have.
Monsieur, nous avons le neuf Février. 7. Avez-vous ma cravate 2. Ne before the verb, and que after it, are used in the sense
de soie ou ma cravate de mousseline? 8. J'ai l'une et l'autre.
9. Avez-vous huit kilogrammes de canelle? 10. Non, Monsieur, of only, but.
je n'en ai qu'un demi-kilogramme. 11. Combien de francs avez. Je n'ai qu'un ami, I have but one friend.
vous, Monsieur? 12. Je n'ai qu'un demi-franc, mais mon ami a 3. L'un et l'autre means both; les uns et les autres, these
un franc et demi. 13. Votre sour a-t-elle vingt-cinq centimes? and those, the latter and the former.
14. Oui, Monsieur, elle a un quart de franc. 15. N'avons-nous Vous avez l'un et l'autre,
You have both.
pas le premier Août ? 16. Non, Monsieur, nous avons le six 4. CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS ($ 22, 23).
Septembre. 17. Est-ce aujourd'hui le dix ? 18. Non, Monsieur,
c'est le onze. 19. Votre frère a-t-il la première place ? 20. CARDINAL
Non, Monsieur, il a la dixième. 21. Votre menuisier a-t-il bean.
22. Oui, Monsieur, il en a beaucoup. 23. Cet Tuo.
ouvrage a-t-il dix volumes ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a que Trois,
neuf. 25. J'ai le sixième volume des Quvres de Molière et 19 Quatre,
Fourth. premier volume de “L'Histoire de France" de Michelet.
1. Is that cinnamon good ? 2. That cinnamon is better than Huit,
yours and your brother's. (R. 1.) 3. What day of the month Neuf,
is it to-day? 4. It is the sixth. 5. Has your father twenty
francs ? 6. No, Sir, he has only six francs fifty centimes. 7. Douze,
How many volumes has your work? 8. It has many, it has
Thirteenth fifteen. 9. Has the joiner read (lu) the second volume of Miche-
Fourteenth. let's "History of France ?” 10. Yes, Sir, he has read the secord
Fifteenth. volume (of it). 11. Has your friend Molière's works? 12. He
has only two volumes of them. 13. Have you my cloth coat or Dix-sept, Seventeen, Dix-septième, Seventeenth
my velvet coat? 14. We have both. 15. We have this and Dix-huit,
that. 16. How much cinnamon have you ? 17. We have two
kilogrammes. 18. How many centimes has the merchant? 19.
He has twenty-six. 20. Have you the third or the fourth place? 5. The cardinal numbers are used in French for the day of 21. I have neither the third nor the fourth, I have the tenth. the month, except the first, for which the ordinal number premier 22. Are you not ashamed to-day? 23. No, Sir, I am not is substituted :
ashamed, but I am afraid. 24. Have you a quarter of a franc? Le dix Août, le cinq Juillet, The tenth of August, the
25. No, Sir, but I have a half franc. 26. Is it (have we) the Le premier du mois prochain, The first of next month.
sixth of July ? 27. No, Sir, it is (we have) the fourth of March. 6. The verb avoir, to have, is used actively $ 26 (1)] for the 28. Has your uncle six children? 29. No, Sir, he has only one. , 10 day of the month. The verb être may also be used :
30. Have you ten kilogrammes of meat ? 31. I have only five anier du mois el jour du mois avons-nous ? What day of the month ha
kilogrammes. 32. Is the butcher's meat good ? 33. It (elle) Che verb avoir, Is avons le vingt,
We have the licentieth.
is not very good. 34. How many kilogrammes have you (of it)? the month. aujourd'hui le dix,
To-day is the tenth,
35. I have only two, but my brother has four, ur du mois avono vons le vingt, - -- ) )9AOD2 JS AD&F TIL O wola
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-IX.
| On inspecting any copy-slip that has the letter 1 in it, it will
be found that the letter p extends as far below the line b b as The letter p is the first letter that the learner has met with the letter l extends above the line a a. That portion of the that extends below the line bb, and it will be necessary here to letter p which extends above the line a a is longer by one-sixsay something about its proportions, as they are given in Copy- teenth of an inch than the distance to which the letter t extends slips Nos. 28, 30, and 31.
above the same line, or the distance between the top of the It will be remembered that in “large text,” the distance | bottom-turn of the letter i and the dot above it, as may be seen between the lines a a, b b, that contain what we have called the by examining Copy-slips Nos. 30 and 31. body of the letter, is, or ought to be, exactly half an inch; and We have been thus particular in dwelling upon the distances as the line cc is midway between the lines a a, 5 b, the distance to which letters such as t, 1, h, p should extend above a a, or
between each of these lines and the central line, c c, is a quarter below b b, in order to induce the learner to pay strict attention of an inch. Now the distance between a a and the line f f, at to the relative proportions of his letters. The importance of which the long straight stroke of the letter p is commenced, is this will be seen by any one who is curious enough to extend also a quarter of an inch, and is equal to the distance between these letters to a greater or less length above a a, or below bb, a a and c c, or between bb and cc. The distance between b b than is allotted for their extension in our Copy-slips. The and 9 g, the line at which the long straight stroke terminates, is general appearance of handwriting that would otherwise be rather less than half an inch, or, to speak in exact terms, just good, is often completely spoiled by a want of proper proportion seven-sixteenths of an inch; that is to say, if an inch were in the heads, loops, and tails of the letters. Those who wish to divided into sixteen equal parts, the distance between bb and ggbe distinguished for writing a plain and legible hand, must aim is equal to seven of them, while the distances fa, ac, cb, on the at the neatness and beauty of the writing that is found in old straight line f g, are each equal to four-sixteenths of an inch, | deeds, and books copied by the monks who lived before which is merely another expression for a quarter of an inch, as time of Caxton. The letters of these famous penmen our learners will find when they have got on far enough in regular in their proportions and as sharply and delic Arithmetic to be working at Vulgar Fractions.
fined as if they had been carefully printed from well-c
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-IX.
This method of arrangement evidently gives the greatest LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE.
number of times which each prime factor occurs in any one o
the given numbers. Thus 2 occurs three times in 72, 3 occurs 1. One number is called a multiple of another when it can be twice in 72, and 7 occurs only once-viz., in 42 and 84. divided by the latter without a remainder. Thus, a measure and a multiple are the converse of each other.
EXERCISE 21. If a number divides another without remainder, it is said to be 1. Find the least common multiple of the following numbers:a measure of it, and the latter number is said to be a multiple 1. 15 and 45.
13. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. of the first.
2. 63 and 18.
14. 657, 350, 876, 1095, 2190, A common multiple of two or more numbers is a number 3, 6, 9, and 15.
and 5795. which can be divided by cach of them without a remainder. 4, 8, 16, 18, and 24.
15. 42, 12, 84, and 72. It will clearly be a composite number, of which each of the given 5. 9, 15, 12, 6, and 5.
16. 9, 12, 72, 36, and 144. numbers must be a factor, for it could not otherwise be divided
6. 5, 10, 8, 18, and 15.
17. 8, 12, 20, 21, and 25. by them.
7. 24, 16, 18, and 20.
18. 63, 12, 84, and 7. 8. 36, 25, 60, 72, and 35.
19, 54, 81, 63, and 14. The same numbers may clearly have an infinite number of
9. 27, 54, S1, 14, and 63,
20.75, 120, and 300. common multiples, for any one common multiple having been
10. 72, 120, 180, 24, and 36. 21. 96, 144, and 720. found, another may be obtained by multiplying it by any 11. 375, 850, 3100, and 5085. 22. 256, 512, and 1728. number.
12, 7, 11, 13, and 5.
23. 375, 850, and 3400. The continued product of two or more numbers will always give a common multiple of those numbers. The least common multiple of two or more numbers is the
LESSONS IN GERMAN.–VIII. least number which can be divided by each of them without a remainder.
SECTION XVI.-USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE; Thus, 70 is the least common multiple of 2, 5, and 35.
PROPER NAMES, ETC ETC. 2. The least common multiple of two or more numbers is The plural of Mann is Männer ; except in compoands, where it evidently composed of the continued product of all the different is generally Leute (S XV. Note), as lantmann, countryman : Landprime factors which compose the given numbers, each one being leute, country-people. Zimmermann carpenter; Zimmerleute, car. repeated as often as the greatest number of times it occurs in penters. Hauptmann, captain ; Hauptleute, captains. Kaufmann, any one of the numbers. For if it did not contain all the prime merchant; Kaufleute, merchants. factors of any one of the numbers, it could not be divided by Bolt corresponds mainly to our word people. Unlike this, that number.
however, it has different forms for the two numbers, as :--Dic On the other hand, if any prime factor were employed more Franzoien fint ein lebhaftes Volf; the French are a lively people. times than it is repeated in any one of the given numbers, it Die Fürsten schwelgen, und das Volt leidet ; the princes revel, and the would not be the least common multiple.
people suffer. Alle Völfer auf Grten, 1 Moses xviii. 18; all the For the sake of brevity the words “ least common multiple" nations of the earth, Genesis xviii. 18. are sometimes written L. C. M.
The word one, as a pronoun, is, in English, often inserted 3. EXAMPLE.-Find the L. C. M. of 12, 126, and 735. after an adjective, to avoid the repetition of the noun; in Ger. These are respectively equal to
man, however, the adjective in such a case stands alone, as :2 X 2 X 3, 2 X3 X3 X 7, 3 x 5 x 7 x 7.
Er hat einen guten Hut, unt ich habe einen schlechten; he has a good hat, Now 2, 3, 5, 7 are all the different prime factors which occur and I have a bad (one). Ich habe gute Küte, und er þat idylechte; 1 in any of the numbers ; and the greatest number of times which have good hats, an
have good hats, and he has bad (ones). Gr bat guten Wein, und ich 2 occurs is twice-namely, in the first; the greatest number
| Habe schlechten, he has good wine, and I have bad (wine). which 3 occurs is twice-namely, in the second ; 5 only occurs
The adjective and participle preceded by an article are often once-namely, in the third: and the greatest number of times used substantively, as well in the singular as in the plural, as :which 7 occurs is twice-namely, in the third. Hence the
Der Zufriedene (Sect. IX. 2) ist glüdlich; the contented (man) is L.C. M. required will be
happy. Die Zufriedene ist glüdlich; the contented (woman) is 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 5 X 7 X 7; that is, 8820.
happy. Die Zufrietenen sind glüdlich; the contented are happy,
Gin Zufriedener (Sect. X.) ist glüdlich; a contented (man) is happy. 4. The process, then, of finding the least common multiple of
Der Sterbende, die Sterbente; the dying (man), the dying (woman). two or more numbers is reduced to that of splitting up the
Die lebenden : the living numbers into their primo factors.
1. Adjectives in German are often, by means of the definite This may be effected, however, by a more convenient method
| article, converted into abstract nouns, as :-Gr verehrt das Schöne : of arrangement than splitting each number separately into
he adores the beautiful. factors would be, for which we give the following
2. The use of the definite article before nouns, taken in & Rule for finding the least common multiple of two or more
general sense, is much more frequent than in English, as :- Der numbers.
Tiger 1st flint : the tiger is agile. Der Diamant ist ein Etelstein ; the Write down the numbers in a straight line apart from each
diamond is a precious stone. Das Volt ist ein etels Metall ; (the) other. Divide by the least number which is a measure of two
gold is a precious metal. Die Luft ist ein Glement; the air is au or more of them, and set down the quotients and the undivided element. Das Wasier ift ein Glement: (the) water is an element. numbers in a line below. Take again the least number which
| Die Seele ist unsterblich; the soul is immortal. Der Mensch it is a measure of two or more of these numbers last set down, and
sterblich; (the) man is mortal. Die Faulbeit ist ein laster; (the) idleperform the same operation as before. Continue it until there
ness is a vice. are po two numbers which can be divided by any number greater than unity. The continued product of all the divisors, and the
The plural is used in the same manner, as:- Die Tiger sint flink; numbers set down in the last line, will be the least common
3. The definite article is sometimes used instead of the posmultiple required. 5. EXAMPLE.—To find the L. C. M. of 12, 42, 72, and 84.
sessive pronouns, as :-Er hat ein Buch in der Hand; he has a
book in the (his) hand. Das Kind ist bei dem Vater ; the child is The process will be sufficiently understood from the following
with the (its) father. working :2) 12, 42, 72, 84
4. Proper names and titles are often preceded by the defi
nite article, as :--Wo ist der Heinrich? where is (the) Henry? Der 2) 6, 21, 36, 42
Kaiser Heinrich; the Emperor Henry. Der König Heinrich : (the) King
Henry. 3) 3, 21, 18, 21
The definite article likewise commonly precedes the adjective
qualifying a proper name, as :-Die schöne Helene ; the beautiful 7) 1, 7, 6, 7
Helen. Der arme Richard ; (the) poor Richard.
The article is also generally used before the word Schule, 1, 1, 6, 1
Kirche, Marft, Mühle, xc., as:- Er ist in der Schule: he is (in) at (the) Henco the L. C. M. is 6 X 7 X 3 X 2 X 2; that is 504. school. Er ist in der Kirche ; he is (in) at (the) church. Er ist auf