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- Fun and longitudes of This vowel is sometimes under a grave accent, thus-à là, - -. in. He constructed voilà ; but its sound is not materially affected thereby.
e ce projection of the 33. Â. Â.-Under the circumflex accent, this vowel has the in president of the
long sound represented by a in the English word mark, and is - - 5.122 sefore Hipparchus, . . -.
named ah. It has, besides, a little more than the sound just : sommerce of the Red -511
spoken of, for the sound must be prolonged, and to do this conHe was the first
veniently, the mouth must be opened a little wider than in utter. 1.- 2 .sians; he mentions
| ing its short sound, represented by a in the English word fat. - Le reg of Egypt on the
Be careful, however, not to pronounce A à like the sound of
vasking them, and the the English word awe, but give it the sound of ah prolonged, in . a. 2-6, of the tools of copper that . * en tused by the native
the following examples, namely :-
Kah pr' Caper.
Grâce Grah-s Favour.
Bah-sh Auning. Male Mah-1 Male.
zwards accomplished the Båt Bah Pack-saddle. Pâle Pah-1 Pale.
34. E, e.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the
English word day.
Pronounce aloud the word day until you have a distinct idea of the single sound of the combination of the letters ay; and
then pronounce the word without the d, namely:-- -- FRENCH.—III.
and thus you have the sound of the vowel e, which deserves the - 20STYCIATION (continued).
greatest attention, because of its importance in the French lan- E DCO OP THE VOWELS.
guage. It is used more than any other letter, namely:in five J2 : enti, ie the letter a in the English different ways, and hence it has five different names, namely :
e silent, e mute or unaccented, é acute, è grave, é circumflex. s ruri mars aloud several times, with
35. E, e, SILENT. —When final, and unaccented in words of - - cu of the French letter a, until you more than one syllable, e is silent, as in the following words :
FRENCH. PRON. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRON. ENGLISI. Ni ways belongs to the French letter
Abaque A-bak Abacus. Domestique Do-mes-teek Domestic. ... 235 . whenever the French alphabet is
Abatage A-ba-tazh Killing. | Passage Par-sazh Passage. in einst letter the sound of a in the English | Algarado Al-ga-rad Insult. Possible Po-see-bl Possible.
Approche A-prosh Approach. Spectacle Spek-ta-kľ Sight.
* pua its position in a word, and upon the In the following words the e is silent :-
Celui pronounced Suh-lwee.
Suh-lah. as A. another sound, which we illustrate by
Pree-ray. wter in the English word fat. Pronounce Again, in the following words, the e in the middle of each
soud several times, with strict reference word is silent :
Autremont, Entrevoir, Paiement, etc.
| In the word contenance both e's are silent; ordinarily, the e www.kos n the English word fat.
| before a and o is silent, as in Jean and Georges. .-. but the English word mark.
SECTION VI.-IDIOMATIC USES OF "AVOIR.”
1. The verb avoir is used idiomatically in French, with the wund of the French vowel a.
words quelque chose, chaud, froid, faim, honte, peur, raison, to wund representod by a in the English word tort, soif, sommeil. word by boll, and generally when it begins or
J'ai quelque chose,
Something is the matter with me.
He is warm.
Il a chaud,
Elle a faim,
She is hungry. wildly noblow by the reador in tho spelling by
Nous avons honte,
We are ashamed. bouw, dowlnod to illustrato the pronunciation
Vous avez peur,
You are afraid.
They are wrong. in wund represented by a in the English word
Avez-vous raison ?
Are you right? I wanneell as the firat lottor of the French
I am sleepy. . . om hun under the viroumflex accent, which will
2. A noun, whether taken in a general or in a particular sense,
is in French commonly preceded by the article le in its different Helalderd upon the short sound of the French vowel
forms ($ 77 (1) (2)]. hay pa 'ronounce avory French word in
Le pain est nécessaire, Broad is necessary. .., lulu woul, and, when ponalblo, always study your
Il a le pain,
He has the bread,
3. A noun, preceded by the article le, retains that article after Wwwi | Punca PRON. INOLINI.
ni, nor, neither; but a noun taken in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. M Manitha femt Curean Kross Endearmont. Dame Dam
1), takes after ni neither article nor preposition.
We have neither tree nor garden,
av haykay, Instalve ench a in onoh adjective, takes merely the preposition de ($ 78 (3)].
Ionutish word fal in the next 5. The following adjectives generally precede the poun :-
Vieux, old. 16 final of this word (it larme) in Bon, good. I large.
Mauvais, bad. Vilain, ugly. Bravo, worthy. | Gros, large. | Meilleur, better.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
3. The possessive adjectives mon, m., ma, f., my; ton, m., ta, A Fez-vous quelque chose ?
Is anything the matter with you ? f., thy; son, m., sa, f., his, her, agree in gender with the object Je n'ai rien (literally, I have nothing). Nothing is the matter with me. possessed, that is, with the noun following them ($ 21 (1) (2)]. Votre frère a-t-il chaud ?
Is your brother warm? Il n'a ni froid ni chaud.
Mon pupitre, m.,
Have you my letter ?
Avez-vous ma lettre? f.,
He has his gun.
Il a son fusil, m.,
Il a sa cravate, f.,
He has his cravat. Mon ami n'a ni sommeil ni peur. My friend is neither sleepy nor afraid. 4. Before a feminino noun in the singular, commencing with Avez-vous raison ou tort? Are you right or wrong?
a vowel or an h mute, the masculine form, mon, ton, son, is used Avez-vous du lait ou du vin ? Have you milk or wine?
[$ 21 (3)]. Je n'ai ni lait ni vin. (R. 3.) I have neither milk nor wine.
J'ai mon épée, f.,
I have my sword.
Have you the milk or the wine!
C'est son habitude, f., It is his or her habit.
Le général à son armée, f., The general has his army. coffee?
5. The adjectives notre, our; votre, your; leur, their, are used VOCABULARY.
without variation before a noun of either gender in the singular An contraire, on the Fusil, m., gun. | Peur, f., fear, afraid.
[$ 21 (1)]. contrary. Froid, m., cold. Poivre, m., pepper.
Notre argent, m., Our silver. Bouton, m., button. Gros, large.
Quel, what, which.
Votre canne, f.,
Your cane. Capitaine, captain. Honte, f., shame, Raison, f., reason, right.
Leur terre, f.,
6. The possessive pronouns le mien, m., la mienne, f., mine; Chaud, m., heat, warm. Mais, but.
Sel, m., salt.
le tien, m., la tienne, f., thine; le sien, m., la sienne, f., his or | Menuisier, m., joiner. I sleepy.
hers, can never be prefixed to nouns. The article preceding Ferblantier,m., tinman. Petit, small, little. Tort, m., wrong.
these pronouns, and forming an indispensable part of them, EXERCISE 9.
takes the gender of the object possessed ; mien, tien, sien, vary 1. Qui a sommeil ? 2. Mon frère a faim, mais il n'a pas som
for the feminine—notre and vôtre used as pronouns have the meil. 3. Avez-vous raison ou tort? 4. J'ai raison, je n'ai pas
I have your book and mine. tort. 5. Avez-vous le bon fusil de mon frère ?
J'ai votre livre et le mien, 6. Je n'ai pas
She has her dress and mine. le fusil. 7. Avez-vous froid aujourd'hui ?
Elle a sa robe et la mienne, 8. Je n'ai pas froid;
Vous avez votre plume et la nôtre, You have your pen and ours. au contraire, j'ai chaud. 9. Avez-vous de bon pain? 10. Jo n'ai pas de pain. 11. N'avez-vous pas faim ? 12. Je n'ai ni
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. faim ni soif. 13. Avez-vous honte ? 14. Je n'ai ni honte ni | Votre ami a-t-il le marteau ? Has your friend the hammer? peur. 15. Avons-nous du poivre ou du sel ? us du poivre on du sel?
16. Vous n'avez
He has it, she has it. ni poivre ni sel. 17. Quel livre avez-vous ? 18. J'ai le livre de
Il ne l'a pas.
He has it not. mon consin. 19. Avez-vous le marteau de fer ou le marteau
N'avez-vous pas l'encrier d'argent? Have you not the silver inkstand ?
We have it not. d'argent ? 20. Je n'ai ni le marteau de fer ni le marteau
Avez-vous votre fusil on le mien ? Have you your gun or mine? d'argent, j'ai le marteau de bois du ferblantier. 21. Avez-vous
Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le mien.
I have neither yours nor mine. quelque chose ? 22. Je n'ai rien. 23. Avez-vous le gros livre son épouse a-t-elle sa robe ou la Has his wifo her dress or yours? du libraire ? 24. Je n'ai ni le gros livre du libraire, ni le petit vôtre ? livre da menuisier ; j'ai le bon livre du capitaine.
Elle n'a ni la sienne ni la vôtre. She has neither hors nor yours. EXERCISE 10.
Ne l'avez-vous pas ?
Have you it not?
Has not your brother it?.
VOCABULARY. pepper nor salt; I have cheese. 5. Is your brother thirsty or Assiette, f., plate. | Crayon, m., pencil. Tarent, m., relation. hungry? 6. My brother is neither thirsty nor hungry. 7. Is Biscuit, m., biscuit. Cuisinier, m., cook. tani, m., dish. your sister right or wrong?
Fourchette, f., fork.
Poisson, m., fish.
Boucher, m., butcher. I Matelot, m., sailor. 9. Is the good joiner afraid? 10. He is not afraid, but ashamed.
Porcelaine, f., china.
Commode, f., chest of Mouton, m., mutton, Sofa, m., sofa. 11. Have you milk or cheese ? 12. I have neither milk nor
Tout, all. cheese; I have butter. 13. Have you the fine cloth or the Couteau, m., knife. Miroir, m., looking-glass | Veau, m., voal, calf. good tea ? 14. I have neither the fine cloth nor the good tea. 15. Is anything the matter with you, my good friend ? 16.
EXERCISE 11. Nothing is the matter with me, my good Sir. 17. Have you
1. Avez-vous la fourchette d'argent ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, jo no bread ? 18. Yes. Madam. I have good bread, good butter. | l'ai. 3. Le cuisinier a-t-il le beuf ? 4. Non, Monsieur, il no and good cheese. 19. Is the carpenter sleepy ? 20. The car-| l'a pas. 5. Quel mouton avez-vous ? 6. J'ai le bon mouton et penter is not sleepy, but the tinman is hungry. 21. Have you le bon veau de boucher. 7. Votre parent a-t-il la commode ? the tinman's wooden hammer? 22. I have not his wooden 8. Non, Monsieur, il ne l'a pas. 9. A-t-il mon poisson ? 10. hammer. 23. Which hammer have you? 24. I have the steel Qui a tout le biscuit du boulanger? 11. Le matelot n'a ni son henmer. 25. Have you a good cloth coat? 26. No, Sir, but pain ni son biscuit. 12. A-t-il son couteau et sa fourchette ? I have a silk dress. 27. Has the tailor the good gold button ? | 13. Il n'a ni son cout
13. Il n'a ni son couteau ni sa fourchette, il a son assiette. (R. 28. Yes, Sir, he has the good gold button.
4.) 14. Quel plat a-t-il ? 15. Il a le joli plat de porcelaine.
16. Avez-vous le mien ou le sien ? 17. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le SECTION VII.—PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. sien, j'ai le nôtre. 18. Avez-vous peur, Monsieur ? 19. Non,
1. The pronouns le, him, it; la, her, it, are, in French, placed Madame, je n'ai pas peur, j'ai faim. 20. Quelqu'un a-t-il ma before the verb.* These pronouns assume the gender of the montre d'or? 21. Non, Monsieur, personne ne l'a. 22. Qu'aveznoun which they represent.
vous, Monsieur ? 23. Je n'ai rien. Voyez-vous le couteau ? m., Do you see the knife ?
EXERCISE 12. Je le vois,
I see it. Voyons-nous la fourchette ? f.,
1. Have you the silver pencil-case ? 2. No, Sir, I have it not.
Do we see the fork? Nous la voyons,
We see it.
3. Have you my brother's plate ? 4. Yes, Madam, I have it. 2. The vowel of the pronouns le and la is elided before a verb
5. Has the butcher the good biscuit ? 6. He has it not; he commencing with a vowel or an h mute ($ 146].
has the good beef, the good mutton, and the good veal. 7.
Have you my knife and my fork p* 8. I have neither your Avez-vous le båton ? m.,
Have you the stick ? Je l'ai,
9. Who has the good sailor's biscuit ? I have it.
knife nor your fork. Arons-nous la canne ? f.,
11. Have you mine Have we the cane ?
10. The baker has it, and I have mine. Nous l'avons,
We have it.
also ? 12. I have neither yours nor his. 13. Are you hungry?
• Except in the second person singular, and in the first and second * The possessive adjective must in French be repeated before every persons plural of the imperative, used affirmatively.
| noun ($ 21 (4)].
r . Are you abont to copy is composed; and he must also be exact in determont bos I um ou mining the relative position of the points in which these lines
tot gat meet or intersect. When to these directions we have added the aive me . He following-namely, that the learner must also carefully observe
te: e as your the lengths of the lines which form the angles, we have given b iezae19. So in very few words the instructions that he chiefly requires to 12. Eave you enable him to draw forms, such as ornamental scrolls, flowers,
leaves, single figures, etc., in delineating which he can have no assistance whatever from the rules of linear perspective. Knowing from practical experience the necessity of repeating instructions whilst personally engaged in teaching, we trust the papil will
consider our repeating in various ways the more important and in Fig. 20, 21, essential regulations which guide the mind, and consequently te man in these the the hand, as intended to convey a deep impression of their
te, marted in the importance. in crest care that Before commencing a drawing it should invariably be the wth regard to each ! practice of the pupil, when he has placed his copy before him,
wat before line is drawns let the whether it be a drawing or the object itself, to look carefully NW This w M a nent ' example, over it for a few minutes, and examine its contours—that is,
(Fe 30), taking care they | the bondings of the curves, and the forms which a combination WARA and that it i s repectively of these curves present. By this close examination of the sub
ww w na In drwing the line | Joot his mind will receive such an impression of it that, as he WA WANH 6 t he passed, and so comes to understand its form, first as a whole, and the details
a be placed so as to afterwards, the hand, which is only an instrument, will readily line i Arwww www them to pan through executo the suggestions which the mind has received. There
VN H y i tw In Thu, 29, are many who make the great mistake of supposing that the RUM W O HF Mide view of four steps, hand is to receive all the attention in training; on the contrary, l
the randy, the dotted let the mind fully understand the subject, and then the hand will it
will win the Fomainder of nood loss practice in order to fulfil its requirements. In short, W w w wat waaiwed the samples wiven educate the mind, and the education of the hand will follow.
Fig. 24, a purse, is almost entirely an example of curved lines, We wan a w, ha mnat entne like the vino leaf (Figs. 18, 19), but in this there is more uniWARAKA Netent of the anglos reformity that is, the opposite sides have a reversed resemblance
T o on on of the lines to each other. The pupil must notice the position of a and WWM WWW the example that he tab, and d, also a and c, b and d, and so on, with every other
angle or remarkable change which a line takes in its curva- direct lines and curves, advising the pupil not to shade his ture. Perhaps after this remark it will be better to leave the drawings for the present, until he has gained sufficient conpupil to himself whilst copying this subject, as by this time fidence in outline. he must be, we hope, able to anticipate much that would be only The value and importance of a correct and ready method of a repetition of the principles already laid down.
drawing the simple forms of objects cannot be over-estimated. We have given a vine leaf as a further illustration of this He who is master of this enviable power can apply it to any method of arranging a drawing—that is, marking in its charac- branch of art he pleaseg. The greatest impediment to the teristic points and angles. (See Figs. 18 and 19). Fig. 18 is the progress of many a pupil is most likely to arise from his imfirst part of the work, which must be carried out as follows:- patient desire to arrive, without a moment's delay, at the power Commence at some important and leading feature of the object, of making a drawing. Irregular and misdirected efforts in say the centre, at a; mark in b; observe the inclination of copying drawings of cottages and stumps of trees appear to be a to b; join a b; mark in c; also observe the distance of c a much more pleasant task than the performance of exercises from b; join a c. The line ade will be found not a direct so arranged as to lead the student from the knowledge of one line, d is the point where it varies ; mark d first and e next; principle to an acquaintance with another; nevertheless, the join a d and de; a f g is a similar line; also a hi. These aro latter is essential to him who wishes to be master of drawing. the great and leading characteristic lines and points, which The training of the hand and the eye which such exercises are it would be advisable to mark in the order we have written calculated to impart, will make the copying of a large number
them. The secondary parts are i k c, i m n o p g. The of simple figures as easy as it is to mako alphabetical characters points q and s, t and u, must be arranged with an eye to c, by the conjunction of " straight strokes, pot-hooks, and hangers." b, and e. These are the minor divisions, all of which must be The simple figures we are setting before the learner in these respectively joined together by straight lines, or in some special early lessons constitute in fact the alphabet of drawing, and cases by a curve, as from r to t, or v to e. Partially rub out the with these, if he would make himself a sound draughtsman, arrangement—that is, "faint it,” and then draw the finished he must become well acquainted; for just as the combination outline as in Fig. 19, which may be, in the detail, further of letters, syllables, and words, forms in the printer's hands ** marked in," as the points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Let the student either a poem or an auctioneer's catalogue, so does the applicompare both figures as he proceeds.
i cation of the elements of linear drawing constitute, in the As the above instructions apply to all flat objects, whether com. hands of the artist, an historical picture, a portrait, a landscape, posed of straight or curved lines, we again urge most earnestly a design for an ornamental framework, or the plan and elevation the strict observance of this practice, as so much depends upon of a building. it for the understanding and successfully carrying out of all that Unacquainted with these elements, how much industry, and we shall have to advance hereafter in these lessons.
even talent, has many a youth thrown away! Let us take an We have added in Figs. 16 and 17, and some smaller copies instance of such a youth. He makes his earliest essays, it me in outline (which are without numbers, as there is no necessity be, at copying some finished production, or some elahto make any special reference to them in our remarks), a few engraving. He tries his best to produce a neat and · examples for practice, of subjects in the flat, composed of copy, and he endeavours to give the details of his