Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

bod1

and country, chiefly through the medium of the Church, which SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE AND REIGN OF RICHARD II. gradually emancipated a large number of those whom it claimed Richard II. was the son of the famous Black Prince, and the its villeins,

grandson of Edward III. He was the twelfth King of England In the reign of Edward III., however, another cause operated after the Norman Conquest, and the eighth and last of the to enlarge their ranks. A dreadful disease, known as the Black Plantagenet dynasty. Death, which appears to have originated in China, in which

Born at Bordeaux . Jan. 6, 1367 The King takes the governcountry thirteen millions of men, women, and children are said

Death of the Black Prince 1376 ment into his own hands. 1389 to have died, swept across Europe from the East, and coming to Began to reign. . June 22, 1377 Statute of "Præmunire" en. England, destroyed half the population. Villeins were left with Wat Tyler resists the poll-tax 1378 acted . . . . . . . 1392 out masters, masters without villeins, and death in many cases Insurgents under Wat Tyler Quarrel and subsequent banmade equal the high and low. After the Black Death went march to London June 12, 1981 ishment of Norfolk and away, the number of workmen was found to be much reduced ; | Wat Tyler slain in Smithfield

Bolingbroke, afterwards the price of their labour, therefore, ought to have been much

by the Lord Mayor of Lon.

Henry IV. . . . . . 1398 higher, in accordance with the law of supply and demand, since

I don, Sir William Walworth, Bolingbroke lands at Raven

June 15, 1381 spur, in Yorkshire . . . 1399 the demand had increased while the supply had diminished.

Death of Wickliffe . Dec. 31, 1384 The King is deposed Sept. 29 1399 In the country, where the rayages of the plague had been | Battle of Otterburn (Chevy Murdered in Pontefract or desolating, there was a cry for more wages, and the number of

Chase). .. . Aug. 10, 1388 Pomfret Castle . Feb. 14, 1400 men who were freed by their owners' death from bondage made the number of wages-takers formidable. The men would not

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH RICHARD II. work without "outrageous and excessive hire," as the employers Denmark, Sovereigns of./ Germany, Emperors of. Clement VII. said; so a Parliament, consisting wholly of employers, passed

Olaus V. , . . 1376 Charles IV, . 1347 (anti-pope), 1378 law called The Statute of Labourers by which the wages of Margaret . . . 1387 Wenceslas. . . 1378 Boniface IX. . . 1389

Union of Calmar". Norway, Kings of. Benedict agriculturists were fixed at the price they had been before the

XIII.

by which Sweden, Haco VII. . . 1343! (anti-pope) . . 1394 plagae. An ox-herd had six shillings and eightpence a year;

Norway, and Den. Olaf IV. . . . 1380 a farın bailiff, thirteen shillings and fourpence; and a shepherd,

Scotland, Kings of.

mark are united Eric III, . . . 1387 Rohe ten shillings a year, and clothing; and no man was to quit

Robert II. . . 1371 under Margaret Norway united to

Robert III. . , 1390 his work withont leave, under pain of being put in the stocks. and Eric of Nor Denmark . . 1397 An ordinance, made about the year 1370, ordered that saddlers, way. . . . 1397 Poland, Kings of.

Spain, Kings of. ekinners, and tanners should be "chastised for charging ex.

Louis . . .
Louis ...

. 1370 Henry II. . . . 1369 Eastern Empire. Ladislas V. .

16
. 1384 John I.
John I.

. cessively."

.

.

. . 1379 Three find that among the principal cases of the viging of Johu Palælogus . 1354 Portugal, Kings of. Henry II. · · 1390 the labouring classes in 1382, were the practice of villeinage,

| Manuel Palælogus 1391 | Ferdinand I. . 1367 Sweden, Kings of.

John I. . . . 1383 Albert of Meckwhich was not yet extinct, the unfair and oppressive regulations

| France, Kings of. Rome, Popes of. lenburg . . . 1363 about wages, the dearness of living, and the demands, barba- Charles V. . . 1364 Gregory XI. . 1370 Sweden united to nously made, and frequently brutally enforced, for taxes out of Charles VI. · · 1380) Urban Vi. .. 1378! Denmark . . 1389 the people, notwithstanding. As has been said, the people got little at the moment by

*** It will be noticed that the word “anti-pope" is added to their rebellion, the disastrous conduct and termination of which

the names of two of the Popes of Rome above. The anti-pope left them with the fetters of bondage more firmly riveted on

was a pope chosen by the will of some king, or the intrigues of their necks. A fresh and more stringent Statute of Labourers

a party hostile to the reigning pope, who had been elected by was passed, and the poor people in country places suffered on

the College of Cardinals. Urban VI., for instance, had been

chosen by the cardinals to please the people of Rome, who for many years. In towns the workmen were better off—better able to defend

wished for an Italian pope, who would reside in the Eternal themselves--and the interests of the employers could not there

City, and not at Avignon or elsewhere, as some of the popes be advanced without a corresponding advantage to the men.

who preceded him had done. On his election the French and Some Acts of Henry VII. (1485—1509) and Henry VIII.

Spanish cardinals retired to Provence, and chose Robert of Geneva (1509-1547), which aimed at fixing the price of skilled labour,

to occupy the papal chair. This ecclesiastic assumed the title proved to be abortive, and things remained on the old basis

of Clement VII., and as soon as his election was made known till 1563, when a law was passed, which remained unrepealed

Christendom was riven asunder, and presented the appearance till 1813, though it must have become inoperative in many

of a house divided against itself, France, Spain, Scotland, and places before that date. This was, perhaps, one of the most

Savoy declaring for Clement VII., while Italy, Germany, England, exceptionable laws ever put on the statute roll. Justices of

and other parts of Europe acknowledged Urban VI. as the the peace in the country, and the mayor, sheriffs, or other

visible head of the Church. As a matter of course, these rivals adthorities in towns, were to meet every year after Easter, and

for the enjoyment and management of the temporalities of the taking into consideration the price of living, and of house rent,

“ Vicar of Christ," as the bishops of Rome delight to style the demand and supply for labour. were to fix the wages of alí | themselves, utterly ignored the “new commandment” of the Forkmen and labourers for the ensuing year. Any one giving meek

meek and gentle Master whom they professed to follow. They more than these wages was to be fined five pounds and out in solemnly cursed each other by bell, book, and candle, and each prison for ten days; any one taking more was to be imprisoned de

declared his opponent, and those who supported him, excomfor three weeks. No workman or labourer was to leave his

municated. Those who gave the matter thoughtful considerawork without a passport sealed with the town seal, and approved

tion soon began to see that the dogma of the infallibility of the by two householders. If he did so he was liable to scourging,

popes must be a mistake, and the quarrels of the angry claimants exposure in the stocks, and imprisonment. The hours of labour

for the chair of St. Peter, in the persons of the popes and antiwere fired, for weekly or daily labourers, at from five a.m. til popes, kindled the spark that smouldered till the sixteenth between seven and eight pm.. between the middle of March century, and then suddenly broke forth into the glorious blaze and the middle of September, two hours and a half being allowed of the Reformation. for meals and refreshment. Sach was the state of things till 1813, except that there were

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-X. besides some very objectionable laws, punishing with great severity all workmen who combined to raise the price of their

FRACTIONS. labour, and to make an open market. These laws were, how. 1. WHEN a number or thing is divided into two equal parts, ever repealed in 1825, since which date the workman has been each of these parts is called one half; if the number or thing be as free as the merchant to buy and sell his labour in the best divided into three equal parts, each is called one third ; if it is market, and even to a great extent to make the market. He is divided into four equal parts, each of the parts is called one Dow, politically speaking, the equal of any of his fellow country- fourth, or one quarter; and so universally when a number or DED, and as far removed in every respect from his prototype as thing is divided into any number of equal parts, the parts take he existed in the days of King Richard II. as the freeman is their name from the number of parts into which the thing or from the slave.

I number is divided.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

One of these parts, or a collection containing any number of rator takes exactly so many times more of them. Similarly it them, is called a fraction of the original number or thing. follows, that if we divide both the numerator and the denomi.

Thus, if a straight line be divided into seven parts, each part nator by the same quantity, the value of the fraction remains is one-seventh of the line, and any number of the parts-as, unaltered. for instance, five of them, i.e., five-sevenths of the whole-is a 7. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. fraction of the whole line.

The numerator and denominator of a fraction are sometimes The number of parts into which the unit or whole is divided called the terms of the fraction. If both the numerator and is called the denominator, because it indicates or denominates denominator of a fraction can be divided by the same number the number of parts into which the whole is divided.

(an operation which we have just seen does not alter its value), The particular number of these parts taken to form any frac- it is said not to be in its lowest terms. A fraction, then, may tion of the whole is called the numerator, because it expresses be defined to be in its lowest terms when the numerator and the number of parts taken.

denominator have no common factors. Hence to reduce a fracThus in the case given above, 7 is the denominator, because tion to its lowest terms, we must first find the greatest common the line is divided into seven parts, and 5 is the numerator of measure of the numerator and denominator, and then divide the fraction.

them both by it. Fractions are expressed by writing the numerator above the denominator, and drawing a line between them. Thus the

EXAMPLE.—Reduce to its lowest terms. above fraction would be written , one half would be written,

The greatest common measure of 27 and 36 is 9, and thereeight-ninths, &, and so on.

* fore dividing numerator and denominator by 9 we get the fracThe word fraction, which means a part or portion broken from

tion expressed in its lowest terms. It is not

3 x 9 any integer or whole, is derived from fractus, broken, a part of 33 = cö= necessary always to find the G. C. M. of the the Latin verb frangere, to break. The word integer is simply

numerator and denominator, but it is often a Latin adjective meaning fresh, entire, or unbroken, which has more convenient in practice to divide the numerator and denobeen adopted into the English language.

minator by numbers which are seen to be factors common to 2. A proper fraction is one whose numerator is less than its both until we arrive at the lowest terms. Thus denominator, as }, }, ..

10 x 231

3 x 77

7 x 11 An improper fraction is one whose numerator is not less than

99 = 10 * 273 = IN} = 3 x 3 = 31 = 7 * 13 = }}, its denominator, as % 4, etc.

the fraction in its lowest terms. A mixed number consists of a whole number and a fraction

EXERCISE 22. expressed together; for example, 3 and This is generally written thus, 31; similarly, 42, 73, etc.

1. Reduce the following fractions to their lowest terms :Fractions in which the denominators are 10, or any power

1. is.
9. H.

17. 1818 of 10 (Lesson VI., Art. 5), are called Decimal Fractions, or

10. 1984.

18. 31888. Decimals. All other fractions are called Vulgar Fractions.

11. 1911

19. 2013. A compound fraction is a fraction of a fraction, as of, of

12. 1981.

20. 11443. of %; for any fractional part of a unit may be regarded as a

13. IN.

21. 78510886 new unit. This fractional part may itself be divided into any

14. W

22. 1486. number of equal parts, and a certain number of them may be 7.

15. 1131

23. marts taken.

8. ?!.
16. 2016

24. HH. A complex, or mixed fraction, is one which has a fraction in 2. In a joint-stock company which was divided into 10,800 its numerator or denominator, or in both ; as, for instance, shares, what part of the whole concern belongs to the individual

who holds 4,050 shares ?

3. A ship is worth £21,600; what fraction of the ship belongs Every whole number may be looked upon as a fraction, of which to him who contributed to this sum no less than £12,960 ? the denominator is unity; thus 5 is .

8. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixed number. 3. Fractions, it will readily be seen, are expressions of un- Divide the nnmerator by the denominator. If there is no executed division, the numerator being the dividend, and the remainder. the quotient will be the equivalent whole number. denominator the divisor. Take, for example, &. We are sup- If there is a remainder. the improper fraction is equivalent to : posed to have one unit or thing to be divided, and dividing it ) mixed number, of which the quotient is the whole number (or, into 9 equal parts, to take 4 of them. But it will be the same

as it is called, the integral part), and the remainder the numething if we take 4 such units, and dividing this collection into

rator of the fractional part, which will evidently have the same 9 equal parts, take one of these parts. This gives the same

denominator as the original improper fraction. Thus, 4 = 3, a fraction of the original unit as before; but, looked at in this

whole number; and 2 = 33. Since 7 sevenths make one whole light, it expresses the quotient which results from dividing the

unit, 23 sevenths will make as many whole units as 7 is connumerator by the denominator.

tained in 23, i.e., 3 whole units, and 2 sevenths over. Hence 4. To multiply a fraction by a whole number.

*3 = 33. Multiply the numerator by the whole number. For instance, 1 9. To convert a mixed number into an improper fraction. to multiply : by 4. Here the unit is divided into 9 parts, two

| Multiply the integral part by the denominator of the fracof which are taken; four times as many of these parts will give tional part, to which product add the numerator of the fractional eight parts, or $; therefore 4 x 2 = %.

part. This sum will be the numerator, and the denominator of 5. To divide a fraction by a whole number.

the fractional part will be the required denominator. Thus, Either divide the numerator or multiply the denominator by | 49 = ?**+0=*; for 49 = 4+9=-**+ 9 = 78 + , and 28 the whole number. Thus, , • 2 = ; for, the unit being divided into 7 parts, 6 are taken, halving which gives 3 parts,

sevenths and 6 sevenths make 34 sevenths, or . or ). Again, 4 = 2 = = In the unit is divided into

EXERCISE 23. 7 parts, 5 of which are taken. In f the unit is divided into

1. Reduce the following improper fractions to whole or mixed 14 parts, 5 of which are taken. But each of these latter 14th

numbers :parts is equal to each one of the former 7th parts divided by

1. . 1 3. 1 5. 31. 7. 03. 9. 9:34

2.1.2. 4.. 6. 8. 10. 2, and therefore five of the latter will be equal to five of the

10. 2007. former divided by 2, or =,= 2.

2. Reduce the following mixed numbers to improper fractions 6. From the above reasoning we see that it produces exactly

ove rensoning we see that it produces avantly I in their lowest terms:-the same result whether we divide the numerator or multiply 1. 17. 3. 115,5. 5. 253. i 7. 47251. 9. 6214. the denominator by any number. Hence, if we multiply both

2. 484. I 4. 13044. 1 6. 8561. 8. 525.6.1 10. 891. numerator and denominator by the same quantity, the value of 3. Reduce 445 to tenths, fourteenths, seventeenths and thirds. the fraction is unaltered. Multiplying the denominator divides 4. Reduce 672 to eighths, twelfths, eighteenths and fourths. the unit into so many more parts, and multiplying the nume. 1 5. Reduce 3830 to hundredths, fifteenths and thirty-fifths.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.-V.

It has been remarked, that while the ears of carnivorous

animals are directed forwards, those of herbivorous animals THE EAR (continued).

are turned backwards ; so that, in the pursuit of the latter The external ear of brutes is often 80 marked a feature in the by the former, the ears of both are so placed as to catch outline of their bodies, it adds so much grace and finish to the the sound from the object whose movements it is of the highest head, its movements give such animation to the gestures, and it importance they should be acquainted with. Perhaps this idea is itself an organ so ornamental, that it is almost superfluous to has been dwelt on too much, yet every one must have noticed remind the reader that its form and foldings are very various | how the cat, the fox, and the ferret, carry their ears prioked throughout the class Mammalia. Every one who is alive to forward, while the ears of the deer and hare are, at least, as the beauties of animated nature and there are few who are readily turned backward as forward. In the case of the hare, dead to their attractions must have looked with delight on tho however, the shape and direction of the ear seems to be given ear of the squirrel, with its tassel of soft brown hair. That in relation to the habit it has of crouching in its form. While universal favourite, the rabbit, the dainty little fennec fox, in its form, the long ears stretch along the flanks, with their and even the fallow deer, despite the excelling majesty of its orifices turned outward, and must be very efficient in apprehorns, would all cut but sorry figures without the external ear. hending the sounds which proceed from the feet of man or dog

Among the strangest forms of ears, we may mention that of as they beat the stubble. the African elephant, which makes him look like a warrior The concha, or external ear, is very generally found througharmed with a double shield. So flat and ample are these ears out the whole of the class Mammalia, but in a few it is “con. that Sir Samuel Baker cut a tolerably good mattress out of one spicuous from its absence." Thus, two of our native in. of them. The membraneous and delicate ear of our larger | sectivorous mammals, the mole and the shrew, are without it.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

English bat is proportionately as monstrous, but instead of In the whale and his tribe, it is not only absent, but the very being flat, its foldings are so decided, that it looks like an ear foramen which leads to the internal ear in this enormous animal within an ear. The long trumpet-shaped ear of ruminants and will scarcely admit a pin. Indeed, this entrance to the ear horses, capable of being turned in any direction, is admirably seems to be retained only to establish or strengthen the affinity suited by its shape, and by the fringe of hair which encircles it, between the whale and the land mammalia, for the impressions and partially extends across its orifice, to accomplish the double of sound are probably conveyed to the internal ear through the purpose of receiving aerial waves, and excluding any small par- substance of the animal's body, as in the case of fish. The ticles of dust, rain, or hail, which would otherwise get down to the tympanic cavity, however, is kept supplied with air by an sensitive tympanum. This office of protection is, indeed, by no eustachian tube that communicates with the passage which meana unimportant, as any foreign body on the drum membrane runs to the blow-hole near that orifice; so that when the monster cases exquisite annoyance, and the steadiest horse will become discharges the air from the reservoir of its lungs with so forcible restive when thus troubled. In the setter and spaniel dogs, the a jet that it carries the sea-water before it like a fountain, the function of protection seems paramount to that of collection of air of the tympanie cavity is, at the same time, partially renewed; sounds, so that the thick matted ear hangs down, when at rest, and when he plunges once more unseen into the depths, this right over the orifice of the ear. In the above cases the ear is cavity is in communication with the air he carries with him. not only an organ of definite utility, but of conspicuous beauty, This arrangement, whereby sound, which has been conveyed and, indeed, it is a fine exemplification of how use and beauty from the exterior through the solid structures of the body, is go hand in hand throughout all God's works. Why stupidity made afterwards to traverse, or to be regenerated in, an internal should, in popular estimation, be especially associated with the air cavity, is not uncommon among the denizens of the water, 4273 of the ass, is even more inexplicable than why it should be and sometimes it is effected by such singular contrivances, as we considered as the special attribute of that much-abused animal. shall find when we describe the ear of some fish, that we are The fairy Titania, when “enamoured of an ass,” showed a almost justified in supposing that there is some quality in the di criminating appreciation of good points when she kissed the vibrations of an elastio fluid, like the air, which makes it e "fair large ears" of her “gentle joy.”

| better medium for transmitting sound to the nerve fit FOL. L

receive such impressions, than those inelastic or solid media in abstract his thoughts from intrusive noises, and directing his which its vibrations are more energetic. This is the more attention, even when most attentive, to the thoughts that singular, because in no case is air or gas the last substance sounds embody rather than to the sounds themselves, is at a through which sound passes to the sentient nerve, only it seems disadvantage when brought into contact with the unthinking desirable that it should be one link in the chain for conveying brute, and he will sometimes pass through scenes teeming with sound. It is difficult to conceive how the message should be life, and think them inanimate solitudes, because he, the object made more distinct by the fact, that air carries it for one postal of dread, has no corresponding acuteness of observation to stage in the central part of its course, yet such seems to be the detect the animals which hide themselves at his approach. Yet, case.

as we have seen, his organ is as delicate and complicated as any In the case of the whale, the bony sheath of the tympanum is of theirs, and the disadvantage arises rather from neglect than not embedded in the substance of the ear-bone, as in other deficiency, and when the kind of impression comes which strikes animals, but hangs below it, and is shaped like a scroll, or like the mind, the sense is found to be wonderfully wakeful. Many the shell of a volute, or bulla, with a very thick column or inner will remember the thrilling anecdote of the Scotch woman, central part, and a very thin outer lip. By this thin outer who, when besieged at Delhi, expecting with all the Europeans margin of the scroll it is attached to the remainder of the ear- nothing but cruel massacre, for no earthly help seemed availbone, but the attachment is so slight that in the dry skull it is able, started up, and said, " I hear them; they are playing The easily broken off. In some geological strata this part of the Campbells are coming.'And those who then thought her mad ear-bone is found commonly, while the other bones of the whale rejoiced with her on the same day, for a regiment of Scottish are rare ; and some attribute this anomaly to the easy severance soldiers had marched to their relief. of the bone, by fracture, from the rest of the skull, just men. tioned. It is supposed that from the huge rotting carcase, distended with gas, and beaten about by the waves, the dense

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-X. tympanic bones may have dropped and been quickly covered by

SECTION XVIII.-DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VERBS OF THE preserving sediment, while the remainder of the animal, drifted

OLD AND NEW CONJUGATIONS. to shore, and being left to the influence of the atmosphere, left no other vestige behind to attest the presence of these VERBS of the Old Conjugation (commonly called irregular verbs) whales in the ancient seas.

differ from those of the New, not only in respect to terminaWe have dwelt thus long on the outer courts of the ear, in tional variations, but also in regard to changes of the radical the animals that give suck to their young, because the variety vowels, as :-Ich komme, I come ; ich fam, I came; ich dreibe, I displayed in these non-essential parts of the ear is not shown in write ; id schrieb, I wrote; ich sehe, I see; ich fah, I saw. (See the parts of the internal or essential ear. All the parts of the $ 77 ; also list of irregular verbs, & 78. 1.) internal ear, the semi-circular canals, the vestibule, with its oval The form of the past participle, in verbs of the Old Conjugahole, and the cochlea, are always present in all mammals. There tion, frequently differs from that of the infinitive only by the are, however, some slight differences in the proportion of the augment ge, as :-Infinitive, fommen. Past participle, ge fommen. parts; thus the so-called circular staircases which mount the cochlea have three and a half turns, or whirls, in the guinea

Infinitive.

Present. pig and porcupine, and only one and a half in the whale, and in Fallen, to fall ;

ich falle, I fall. this last it can scarcely be called a staircase at all, as it does Geben, to give;

ich gebe, I give. not mount upward, but only curls inwards on the same plane, Geben, to go;

ich gehe, I go. like the hollow of the shell of the nautilus, instead of that of the Kommen, to como;

ich fomme, I come. trochus, or top-shell. There is some variation also in the little Sprechen, to speak ;

ich spreche, I speak. chain of bones which spans the drum from the drum membrane Syringen, to spring;

ich springe, I spring. to the oval hole ; thus the hammer and anvil bones are fused Schreiben, to write;

ich schreibe, I write. together in the pouched animals. These slight differences, Singen, to sing ;

ich finge, I sing. however, do not invalidate the statement that the ears of all Sehen, to see ;

ich sehe, I see. mammals are made on the same pattern; and if the reader have the patience to accomplish the by no means easy task of dis.

Imperfect.

Past Participle. secting out from its bony case the ear of any such animal, while Ich fiel, I fell ;

gefallen, fallen. referring to the description of the human ear, given in the first 3d gab, I gave;

gegeben, given. article on the ear, he will be able to identify the several parts, Ich ging, I went ;

gegangen, gone. or if he fail to do so, he may search again, for they are all Ich fam, I came;

gekommen, come. there, though minute and difficult to trace.

Id sprad, I spoke ;

gesprochen, spoken. The efficiency of the sense of hearing in brutes is a matter of Ich sprang, I sprang;

gesprungen, sprung. notoriety. Whoever has had the opportunity of watching a Ich schrieb, I wrote ;

geschrieben, written. herd of wild animals, while unobserved by them, will have been Ich sang, I sang ;

gesungen, sung. struck with the vigilance with which each unaccustomed sound Ich fah, I saw ;

gesehen, seen. is remarked. The electrio start, by which every individual of the community is thrown at once into an attitude of attention and

1. The present tense of some verbs of the Old Conjugation is preparation for a hasty flight, is a beautiful sight. When we

| irregular in the second and third persons singular, as :remember how many animals are nocturnal in their habits, how

Fallen, to fall.

Geben, to give. many find their home in dense tangled forests, and also how Io falle, I fall.

Jou gebe, I give. necessary it is that dispersed members of a gregarious tribe, the

Du fållst, thou fallest.

Du gibit, thou givest. sexes of wandering species, the helpless young, and protecting

Er fällt, he falls.

Er gibt, he gives. dams, should be able to find each other, it is not surprising that this sense is made so wonderfully acute. So much is this

Sehen, to see.

Spreden, to speak. sense relied upon for the above-named purposes, that the crafty Id sebe, I see.

Id spreche, I speak. backwoodsman finds no better expedient for alluring shy game Du siehst, thou seest.

Du sprichst, thou speakest. to within reach of his rifle than by imitating the call of the

Er sieht, he sees.

Er spricht. he speaks. species ; yet so discriminating are the wild animals, that the slightest error in the intonation, or even the frequency, of the

2. In the imperfect tense of verbs of the Old Conjugation, as cry, will send them scampering away from the ambush.

well as of the New, the second and third persons are regularly It would seem as thongh man, who employs this organ so formed from the first person singular in the following manner, generally in the higher uses of the mind and soul, necessarily as : sacrifices to these uses some of the acnteness to mere sound of

Gehen. which the car is capable. The savage starts like the brute when Id ging, I went;

wir gingen, we went. a sound, such as the European would searcely be aware of, Du gingst, thou wentest; ihr ginget, you went. reaches him from the distant hill; but civilised man, who passes Gr, fie, or et ging, he, she, or it his life amidst the hum of crowded cities, striving rather to

went;

{ fie gingen, they went.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »