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the world our blessed Lord and his apostles, found it in their

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XI. minds to give sentence against him, a sentence which they well

SECTION XX.–POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. knew consigned him to a dreadful death; and they persuaded themselves, by a delusion at which devils might have smiled, The possessive pronouns mein, sein, etc., as already seen (Sect. that they were doing the will of Him who refused to condemn XIV.), are rendered absolute possessives by means of the characany man, and whose vast love made Him lay down His own life, teristic endings er and es ($ 58. 4). not take that of another, that all mankind might follow the 1. The possessive pronouns are likewise converted into absoexample of His great humility.

lute possessives by prefixing to them the definite article, and Before Sautré was given over to the secular arm, it behoved suffixing the terminations e or ige, as :-Mein Gut ist weiß, und der that he should be degraded from his rank in the Church. This tein-e ist schwarz ; my hat is white, and thine is black. 3hr Band eminently painful operation, accomplished by means of a cere | ist ruth, und das sein-ige ift blau ; her ribbon is red, and his is blue. monial of which every part told with bitterness upon the poor The termination ige is the more common.* prisoner, was submitted to with a patience worthy of the Observe, that the absolute possessives mein-er, etc., aro in. sufferer. Into the church, wherein were gathered a large com flected like an adjective of pany of the bishops and clergy, Sautré was brought, attired in

THE OLD DECLENSION; AS, the robes and furniture appertaining to him as a priest. Set in

Masculine. Feminine.

Neuter. the midst, the observed of all observers, he was gradually denuded of the various emblems of his pastoral authority, prior

N. Mein-er,

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. to being handed over to the tender mercies of the sheriff and

6. Mein-es,

mein-er,

mcin-ce, of mine.

D. Mein-em, his officers.

mein-er,

mein-em, to, for mine. First, they gave into his hands a chalice and paten, * which

A. Mein-en,

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. were then taken from him, together with the scarlet robe or Note, also, that those preceded by the definite article, are, in chasable which priests only might wear, and in this way his respect to terminational inflection, varied like adjectives (Sect. authority as priest was visibly taken away from him. A copy | IX. 2) in the same situation; that is, according to of the Holy Scriptures in Latin, and the deacon's stole or

THE NEW DECLENSION ; AS, tippet were then taken from him, and he ceased to be a deacon ;

Masculine. Feminine. the alb or surplice, and the maniple were removed, and with

Neuter. them the dignity of sub-deacon; the giving and taking away of N. Der mein-ige, tie mcin-ige, das mein-ige, mine. a candlestick, a taper, and a small pitcher, showed that the O. Deo mein-igen, der mein-igen, des mein-igen, of mine. degree of acolyte had been abandoned; and then followed other | D. Dem mein-igen, der mein-igen, tem mein-igen, to, for mine. forms, which signified the completeness of the poor man's de- / A. Den mein-igen,

die mein-ige,

das mein-ige, mine. gradation. With his book of exorcisms he gave up his power ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES AS INFLECTED IN ALL GENDERS OF as an exorcist; with his book of daily lessons his task of reader;

THE PLURAL. with & sexton's gown and a church door key his authority as

After the Old Declension. After the New Declension. Sexton; and then, his priest's cap being removed, the tonsure,

N. Mein-e, or hair lock, was obliterated, and a common hangman's cap was

die mein-igen, mine.

G. Mcin-cr, put on his head.

der mein-igen, of mine.

D. Mein-en, What follows? A scene too awful, too horrible to be minutely

ten mein-igen, to, for mine.

A. Mein-e, described. Let a veil be drawn over the details ; let us “pro

die mein-igen, mine. vide a charitable covering for the sins of our forefathers." 2. When the absolute possessive pronouns do not relate to Soffice it to say that, on a gloomy February evening in the year some noun previously mentioned, they refer, in the plural, to 1401-2, the man we have been describing, the man whose sole one's relatives or family,t and in the neuter singular, to one's crime was that he believed differently from his ecclesiastical property, as :-Das Meine or tas Meinige, my property ; das Deine masters, and taught men so, was bound with an iron chain to a or das Deinige, thy property; das Seine or das Seinige, his prostake at Smithfield, and burned to death on a spot nearly in perty ; das Ihre or das Thrige, her property, your property, or front of the present gate of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. their property. Die Meinen or die Meinigen, my family, etc. ; tie

He was the first of a long list of men-ay, and women too Deinen or tic Deinigen, thy family, etc. ; die Seinen or die Seinigen, were included—who were tried by bigotry in the fiery trial of his family, etc. their faith, and showed themselves superior to their fate. Not

VOCABULARY. all the blame must fall on Catholic shoulders. Unhappily, alas ! Allmächtig, adj. al., Hemd, n. shirt. Schlüssel, m. key, it is the duty of the historian to record that those who might mighty.

Kutscher, m. coach. Sowohl als, as well be supposed to have learned tolerance and kindness, if not from Eigenheit, f. peculia-| man. the purer faith which they professed, yet in the hard school of rity.

Nehmen, to take. Stempel, m, stamp. persecution through which they had passed, proved themselves Fehler, m. mistake, Obla'te, f. wafer. Waschfrau, f. washera most equally cruel with their adversaries. If the Catholics

error.

Schidjal, n. fate, des woman. burned Sautré and Savonarola, Calvin himself burned Servetus; General', m. general. tiny.

Weltmeer, n. ocean. if Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer, and many more perished for con- Gott, m. God. Schlosser, m. lock-! Wiese, f. meadow. science' sake under“ bloody Mary," Joan Bocher and Van Paris Hand, f. hand.

I smith.

| Zwischen, between. were burned to death by order of the founder of Christ's Hospital, and “Good Queen Bess” had as long a list as her sister

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. of victims to the cause of freedom of conscience.

Wessen Uhr hat Ihre Mutter? Whose watch has your mother? The principle which actuated the destroyers of William Sie hat die ih'rige.

She has hers (or her own). Sautré in 1401 actuates the intolerant of all kinds in 1868. Haben Sie meine Brille oder die Have you my spectacles or Law, custom, and modern habits of thought preclude the Thrige ?

yours? rekindling of Smithfield fires; but the old hatreds are not dead, Ich habe die mei'nige.

I have mine (or my own). the old evil is still alive, and we are prone, in the absence of Je'termann schäßt das Sein'ige. Every man prizes his own (proChain and fagot, to make these hatreds felt with weapons

perty). Fhich cut deeper than swords, whose scathe is worse than the Licht auch Je'termann die Sei'nigen? Does every man likewise love fre, and whose bite is as that of the deadly serpent. But what

his family? said the apostle of Him in whose name bigotry slew its victims,

EXERCISE 29. the apostle of Him who condemned no man? "Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God,

1. Hat ter Capitän sein oder res Generals Schwert? 2. Er yat tas for Christ's sake, hath forgiven you.”+

Tseinige. 3. Haben Sie meine Scheere? 4. Nein, ich habe die meinige. 5.

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The cup for the wine, and the plate for the bread in the office of Holy Communion,

† Por Synopsis of Events in the Life and Reign of Richard II., and list of contemporary Sovereigns, see page 159.

• In the same way are treated Deiner, Deine, Deincs, thine; and Seiner, Seine, Seined, his.

† They may likewise refer (when the connection makes the application evident) to dependents, as servants, soldiers, subjeets, etc.

himself overmuch in such matters, unless the reformers in at the danger of standing firm that they recanted and renounced religion proved themselves to be reformers in the State also; their belief rather than go to the stake. Let no man mock but to Richard, his grandson, these exhortations of the Pope them for their weakness, but rather pity them, as men who appeared in the light of a duty. Richard agreed to a law which might excusably fear lest they should be doing wrong in departwas passed through a Parliament of which the Upper Chamber ing from the faith as delivered to them and as taught by the was at that time far more powerful than the Lower, and was existing Church, which was presumed to have the Holy Ghost composed of more spiritual than lay peers, by which it was for its guide, and as men-many of them fathers and husbands ordered that preachers of heresy should be apprehended and —who feared to wrench asunder the ties which bound them to imprisoned "till they will justify them according to the law and this world, who looked in their children's faces, and who listened reason of Holy Church." No other punishment of a penal to the entreaty of their wives, and then failed to pronounce the nature was permitted during this reign (1377-1399); but when words which would make the children fatherless and the wires Henry IV. in 1399 usurped the throne, and wanted the support widows. Others there were, cast in another mould, who bs of the clergy to back his bad title, he consented, as the price of their nature could not accept life as the price of their creed. their assistance, to a law called the Statute of Heresy, which was who looked upon the offer with scorn, and asked if that were intended to crush out effectually the troublesome Wycliffites, all they were to have in exchange for their souls. Equally who had increased in numbers and audacity during the late enthusiastic with their persecutors, though in another direction. king's reign, and were leading many out of the fold of the they made this matter “ very stuff o' the conscience," and resoCatholic Church. The Wycliffites no more wanted to go lutely refused to abjure. Not among the physically strong only out of the Catholic Church than John Wesley wanted to go were these men found; indeed, the delicate and sensitive, and out of the Church of England; but the Catholic Church said the men with highly strung nerves, were the boldest and most to them as the Church of England in effect said to him, courageous professors of their faith. Such esteemed the claims “ Holding opinions such as these, you are not of us, and we of wife and child, of kindred and friends, as merely so many will have nothing to do with you while you continue to hold temptations, strong temptations no doubt, which must be overthem.”

come, and they pointed for their justification to the words of Had the Catholic Church stopped there, no one could have the Saviour, where He declared that the man who loved wife and complained. Perfect liberty of conscience requires that men children and friends more than Him, was not worthy of Him, shall be free to choose what tenets they will embrace and and they clung exultingly to the assurance, “ There is no man what reject, but it forbids them to go further and say to those that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, who differ from them: “ Think and believe as we do, for if you for the kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive manifold will not we will burn and hang you." The Church of the day more in this prosent time, and in the world to come life everwould not act upon the advice given by Gamaliel to the Jews, lasting.” who wished to persecute the apostles : it could not bear the Of this class was William Sautré, priest of St. Osith's. It is idea that any one should presume to differ from what almost all not told us if he was a married man (the rule by which celibacy Christendom accepted as true. Believing firmly that acceptance was the appointed lot of the clergy was not yet of universal of all that the Church taught, and in the system of government application)-indeed, the chroniclers of the time speak very little which the Church had established, was the only way to salva- about him and his case, one of them, Thomas Walsingham tion, she was grieved beyond measure at the sight of her chil. monk of St. Alban's, merely mentioning that “a certain false dren going astray, and deemed any means, however violent, to priest was burnt in Smithfield in the sight of many people." be more than justified by the laudable end of bringing back the But married or not, he seems to have been a very good and wanderers. She hoped to make such an example as would honest man, bold to speak and preach the truth, according to deter fresh truants, and she hoped even for the offenders that his vision of it, in his parish church of St. Osith, Wood Street, God would accept the sufferings she inflicted upon them as an in the City of London. His character, as far as we know it, or atonement for the sins they had committed against Him, sup can judge of it from his behaviour before his judges and at his posing Him to be represented by the Pope and the Roman execution, would seem to have been not unlike that of the poor Church.

parson of a town," of whom Chaucer wrote in 1380. How easily does fanaticism of any kind cheat itself into

“To draw folk to heaven by fairnesse, the belief that its cause is God's cause, and that to perse

By good ensample was his business. cute its own opponents is to do God service. The Church accordingly procured from the king in the year 1400 his assent

A better priest I trow there nowhere none is. to a law passed by a Parliament constituted as above described,

He waited after no pomp ne reverence, by which persons who refused to renounce their so-called errors,

Ne maked him a spiced conscience, or relapsing after they had so renounced them, were to be given

But Christ's lore and His apostles tuelve over by the spiritual authorities to the sheriff, who "the same

He taught, and first he followed it himself.” persons after such sentence promulgate shall receive, and them His opinions, however, openly expressed, were in direct oppobefore the people in an high place see to be burned, that such sition to what the Church authorities permitted, and were in punishment might strike fear into the minds of others, whereby strict accordance with the teaching of Wycliffe. He was cited no such wicked doctrine, and heretical and erroneous opinions, to appear before his bishop, the Bishop of London, and was nor their anthors, nor fautors (an old English word meaning ordered to renounce his error; but this proceeding proving favourers) in this realm and dominions against the Catholic ineffectual, and his preaching continuing to attract mans, he faith, Christ's law, and determination of Holy Church be sus- / was summoned before the Convocation of the province of car: tained or in any wiso suffered.”

terbury, and put upon his trial for heresy, as in a court of This infamous and dreadful law was the price paid by Henry justice. for the support of the clergy, and the clergy, as has been sug- Earnestly the charge was pressed, and boldly was it met, gested, believed they were only doing a meritorious thing when argument for the defence was answered with invective by the they procured the king's signature to the act. For awhile the prosecution, and the prisoner stood loaded with obloquy. This new power remained like a sword in its sheath; the clergy were | however, was not hard for a man like Sautré to bear; the most almost afraid to handle the new'weapon, till taking it out and difficult and trying part for him, the real temptation, lay in the looking at it with curious and admiring eyes, they perceived entreaties of his friends--and they were many--and the friendly that they themselves were not called upon to do any of the prayers even of his judges, that he would be converted and live. dirty work. They were merely to find guilty or not guilty; upon But even against such mighty levers the man's mind was proof. the sheriff devolved the invidious task of execution. So they " Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you grew bolder, and the year following that in which the act was more than unto God, judge ye," was the answer he gave back passed, the Convocation of the province of Canterbury-an and nothing could persuade him but that he spoke by the inspi. assembly of which all the bishops and abbots were members, ration of God. and in which the inferior clergy appeared by their representa- Faithful as his friends called him, obstinate heretic as his tives - determined to draw the sword against those who dis- enemies called him, William Sautré was ready to die, if need sented from their religious opinions.

were, for his religion. Horrible to relate, that sacrifice pas Some persons who were brought before them were so terrified / required of him. The men who were supposed to represent to

the world our blessed Lord and his apostles, found it in their

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XI. minds to give sentence against him, a sentence which they well

SECTION XX.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. knew consigned him to a dreadful death; and they persuaded themselves, by a delusion at which devils might have smiled, The possessive pronouns mein, sein, etc., as already seen (Sect. that they were doing the will of Him who refused to condemn XIV.), are rendered absolute possessives by means of the characany man, and whose vast love made Him lay down His own life, teristic endings er and es ($ 58. 4). not take that of another, that all mankind might follow the 1. The possessive pronouns are likewise converted into absoexample of His great humility.

lute possessives by prefixing to them the definite article, and Before Sautré was given over to the secular arm, it behoved suffixing the terminations e or ige, as :-Mein Hut ist weiß, und der that he should be degraded from his rank in the Church. This tein-e ist schwarz; my hat is white, and thine is black. Ihr Band eminently painful operation, accomplished by means of a cere- ift ruth, und das sein-ige ist blau ; her ribbon is red, and his is blue. monial of which every part told with bitterness upon the poor The termination ige is the more common.* prisoner, was submitted to with a patience worthy of the

snbmitted to with a patience worthy of the Observe, that the absolute possessives mein-er, etc., are insufferer. Into the church, wherein were gathered a large com. flected like an adjective of pany of the bishops and clergy, Sautré was brought, attired in

THE OLD DECLENSION; AS, Je robes and furniture appertaining to him as a priest. Set in

Masculine. Feminine.

Neuter. the midst, the observed of all observers, he was gradually

N. Mein-er,

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. denuded of the various emblems of his pastoral authority, prior

G. Mein-cs,

mein-er,

mein-c8, of mine. to being handed over to the tender mercies of the sheriff and

D. Mein-em, his officers.

mein-er,

mein-em, to, for mine. First, they gave into his hands a chalice and paten, * which

A. Mein-en,

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. were then taken from him, together with the scarlet robe or Note, also, that those preceded by the definite article, are, in chaanble which priests only might wear, and in this way his respect to terminational inflection, varied like adjectives (Sect. authority as priest was visibly taken away from him. A copy | IX. 2) in the same situation; that is, according to of the Holy Scriptures in Latin, and the deacon's stole or

THE NEW DECLENSION ; AS, tippet were then taken from him, and he ceased to be a deacon ;

Masculine. Feminine.

Neuter. the alb or surplice, and the maniple were removed, and with them the dignity of sub-deacon; the giving and taking away of N. Der mein-ige, tie mcin-ige, das mein-ige, mine. 1 candlestick, a taper, and a small pitcher, showed that the

O. Des mein-igen, der mein-igen, des mein-igen, of mine. degree of acolyte had been abandoned; and then followed other D. Dem mein-igen, der mein-igen, tem mein-igen, to, for mine. forms, which signified the completeness of the poor man's de

A. Den mein-igen, die mein-ige, das mein-ige, mine. gradation. With his book of exorcisms he gave up his power ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES AS INFLECTED IN ALL GENDERS OF as an exorcist; with his book of daily lessons his task of reader;

THE PLURAL. with a sexton's gown and a church door key his authority as

After the Old Declension. After the New Declension. serton; and then, his priest's cap being removed, the tonsure,

N. Mein-e,

die mein-igen, mine. or hair lock, was obliterated, and a common hangman's cap was

G. Mein-cr, pat on his head.

der mein-igen, of mine.

D. Mein-en, What follows ? A scene too awful, too horrible to be minutely

ten mein-igen, to, for mine.

A. Mein-e, described. Let a veil be drawn over the details ; let us "pro.

die mein-igen, mine. vide a charitable covering for the sins of our forefathers.” 2. When the absolute possessive pronouns do not relate to Snffice it to say that, on a gloomy February evening in the year some noun previously mentioned, they refer, in the plural, to 1401.2, the man we have been describing, the man whose sole one's relatives or family, † and in the neuter singular, to one's crime was that he believed differently from his ecclesiastical property, as :- Das Meine or tas Meinige, my property ; bas Deine masters, and taught men so, was bound with an iron chain to a or das Deinige, thy property ; das Seine or tas Seinige, his prostake at Smithfield, and burned to death on a spot nearly in perty ; tas Ihre or das 3hrige, her property, your property, or front of the present gate of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

their property. Die Meinen or tie Meinigen, my family, etc. ; ric He was the first of a long list of men-ay, and women too Deinen or ric Deinigen, thy family, etc. ; die Seinen or die Seinigen, were included—who were tried by bigotry in the fiery trial of

bigotry in the fiery trial of his family, etc. their faith, and showed themselves superior to their fate. Not

VOCABULARY. all the blame must fall on Catholic shoulders. Unhappily, alas ! | Allmäch'tig, adj. al. Hemt, n. shirt. Schlüssel, m. key. it is the duty of the historian to record that those who might mighty.

Kutscher, m. coach. Sowohl als, as well be supposed to have learned tolerance and kindness, if not from Eigenheit, f. peculia- man.

as. the purer faith which they professed, yet in the hard school of rity.

Nehmen, to take. Stempel, m. stamp. persecution through which they had passed, proved themselves Fehler, m. mistake, Obla'te, f. wafer. Waschfrau, f. washera most equally cruel with their adversaries. If the Catholics

error.

Schidsal, n. fate, des woman. burned Sautré and Savonarola, Calvin himself burned Servetus ; | General', m. general. tiny.

Weltmeer, n. ocean. if Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer, and many more perished for con

| Schlosser, m. lock-! Wiese, f. meadow. science' sake under “ bloody Mary," Joan Bocher and Van Paris / Hand, f. hand. 1 smith.

| Zwischen, between. were burned to death by order of the founder of Christ's Hospital, and “Good Queen Bess” had as long a list as her sister

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. of victims to the cause of freedom of conscience.

Wessen Uhr þat Jhre Mutter? Whose watch has your mother? The principle which actuated the destroyers of William Sie hat tie ib'rige.

She has hers (or her own). Santré in 1401 actuates the intolerant of all kinds in 1868. Haben Sie meine Brille oder die Have you my spectacles or Law, custom, and modern habits of thought preclude the Shrige?

yours? rekindling of Smithfield fires; but the old hatreds are not dead, Ich habe die mei'nige.

I have mine (or my own). the old evil is still alive, and we are prone, in the absence of Jetcrmann schäßt das Sein'ige. Every man prizes his own (prochain and fagot, to make these hatreds felt with weapons

perty). which cnt deeper than swords, whose scathe is worse than the Liebt auch Je'termann die Sci'nigen? Does every man likewise love Gre, and whose bite is as that of the deadly serpent. But what

his family ? said the apostle of Him in whose name bigotry slew its victims,

EXERCISE 29. the apostle of Him who condemned no man? "Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God,

1. Hat ter Capitan sein oder des Generals Schwert? 2. Er hat tas for Christ's sake, hath forgiven you.”+

feinige. 3. Haben Sie meine Scheere? 4. Nein, ich habe die meinige. 5.

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The cup for the wine, and the plate for the bread in the office of Holy Communion,

† For Synopsis of Events in the Life and Reign of Richard II., azad Ilst of contemporary Sovereigns, see page 159.

* In the same way are treated Deiner, Deine, Deincs, thine; and Seiner, Seine, Seines, his.

† They may likewise refer (when the connection makes the application evident) to dependents, as servants, soldiers, subjeets, etc.

himself overmuch in such matters, unless the reformers in at the danger of standing firm that they recanted and renounced religion proved themselves to be reformers in the State also ; their belief rather than go to the stake. Let no man mock but to Richard, his grandson, these exhortations of the Pope them for their weakness, but rather pity them, as men who appeared in the light of a duty. Richard agreed to a law which might excusably fear lest they should be doing wrong in departwas passed through a Parliament of which the Upper Chamber ing from the faith as delivered to them and as taught by the was at that time far more powerful than the Lower, and was existing Church, which was presumed to have the Holy Ghost composed of more spiritual than lay peers, by which it was for its guide, and as men--many of them fathers and husbands ordered that preachers of heresy should be apprehended and who feared to wrench asunder the ties which bound them to imprisoned “till they will justify them according to the law and this world, who looked in their children's faces, and who listened reason of Holy Church." No other punishment of a penal to the entreaty of their wives, and then failed to pronounce the nature was permitted during this reign (1377-1399); but when words which would make the children fatherless and the wires Henry IV. in 1399 usurped the throne, and wanted the support widows. Others there were, cast in another mould, who by of the clergy to back his bad title, he consented, as the price of their nature could not accept life as the price of their creed, their assistance, to a law called the Statute of Heresy, which was who looked upon the offer with scorn, and asked if that were intended to crush out effectually the troublesome Wycliffites, all they were to have in exchange for their souls. Equally who had increased in numbers and audacity during the late enthusiastic with their persecutors, though in another direction, king's reign, and were leading many out of the fold of the they made this matter “very stuff o' the conscience,” and resoCatholic Church. The Wycliffites no more wanted to go lutely refused to abjure. Not among the physically strong only out of the Catholic Church than John Wesley wanted to go were those men found ; indeed, the delicate and sensitive, and out of the Church of England; but the Catholic Church said the men with highly strung nerves, were the boldest and most to them as the Church of England in effect said to him, courageous professors of their faith. Such esteemed the claims “ Holding opinions such as these, you are not of us, and wo of wife and child, of kindred and friends, as merely so many will have nothing to do with you while you continue to hold temptations, strong temptations no doubt, which must be overthem.”

come, and they pointed for their justification to the words of Had the Catholic Church stopped there, no one could have the Saviour, where He declared that the man who loved wife and complained. Perfect liberty of conscience requires that men children and friends more than Him, was not worthy of Him, shall be free to choose what tenets they will embrace and and they clung exultingly to the assurance, “ There is no man what reject, but it forbids them to go further and say to those that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, who differ from them: “ Think and believe as we do, for if you for the kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive manifold will not we will burn and hang you.” The Church of the day more in this present time, and in the world to come life ever. would not act upon the advice given by Gamaliel to the Jews, lasting." who wished to persecute the apostles : it could not bear the Of this class was William Sautré, priest of St. Osith's. It is idea that any one should presume to differ from what almost all not told us if he was a married man (the rule by which celibacy Christendom accepted as true. Believing firmly that acceptance was the appointed lot of the clergy was not yet of universal of all that the Church taught, and in the system of government application)-indeed, the chroniclers of the time speak very little which the Church had established, was the only way to salva- about him and his case, one of them, Thomas Walsingham, tion, she was grieved beyond measure at the sight of her chil. monk of St. Alban's, merely mentioning that “a certain false dren going astray, and deemed any means, however violent, to priest was burnt in Smithfield in the sight of many people." be more than justified by the laudable end of bringing back the But married or not, he seems to have been a very good and wanderers. She hoped to make such an example as would honest man, bold to speak and preach the truth, according to deter fresh truants, and she hoped even for the offenders that his vision of it, in his parish church of St. Osith, Wood Street, God would accept the sufferings she inflicted upon them as an in the City of London. His character, as far as we know it, or atonement for the sins they had committed against Him, sup- can judge of it from his behaviour before his judges and at h:s posing Him to be represented by the Pope and the Roman execution, would seem to have been not unlike that of the “poor Church.

parson of a town," of whom Chaucer wrote in 1380. How easily does fanaticism of any kind cheat itself into

"To draw folk to heaven by fairnesse, the belief that its cause is God's cause, and that to perse

By good ensample was his business. cute its own opponents is to do God service. The Church accordingly procured from the king in the year 1400 his assent

A better priest I trow there nowhere none is, to a law passed by a Parliament constituted as above described,

He waited after no pomp ne reverence, by which persons who refused to renounce their so-called errors,

Ne maked him a spiced conscience, or relapsing after they had so renounced them, were to be given

But Christ's lore and His apostles twelve over by the spiritual authorities to the sheriff, who " the same

He taught, and first lie followed it himself." persons after such sentence promulgate shall receive, and them His opinions, however, openly expressed, were in direct oppobefore the people in an high place see to be burned, that such sition to what the Church authorities permitted, and were in punishment might strike fear into the minds of others, whereby strict accordance with the teaching of Wycliffe. He was cited no such wicked doctrine, and heretical and erroneous opinions, to appear before his bishop, the Bishop of London, and was nor their authors, nor fautors (an old English word meaning ordered to renounce his error; but this proceeding proving favourers) in this realm and dominions against the Catholic ineffectual, and his preaching continuing to attract many, he faith, Christ's law, and determination of Holy Church be sus-was summoned before the Convocation of the province of Cantained or in any wise suffered.”

terbury, and put upon his trial for heresy, as in a court of This infamous and dreadful law was the price paid by Henry justice. for the support of the clergy, and the clergy, as has been sug- Earnestly the charge was pressed, and boldly was it met, tal gested, believed they were only doing a meritorious thing when argument for the defence was answered with invective by the they procured the king's signature to the art. For awhile the prosecution, and the prisoner stood loaded with obloquy. This new power remained like a sword in its sheath; the clergy were | however, was not hard for a man like Sautré to bear; the most almost afraid to handle the new'weapon, till taking it out and difficult and trying part for him, the real temptation, lay in the looking at it with curious and admiring eyes, they perceived entreaties of his friends-and they were many and the friendly that they themselves were not called upon to do any of the prayers even of his judges, that he would be converted and live. dirty work. They were merely to find guilty or not guilty; upon But even against such mighty levers the man's mind was proof. the sheriff devolved the invidious task of execution. So they “ Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you grew bolder, and the year following that in which the act was more than unto God, judge ye,” was the answer he gave back passed, the Convocation of the province of Canterbury-an and nothing could persuade him but that he spoke by the inspk assembly of which all the bishops and abbots were members, ration of God. and in which the inferior clergy appeared by their representa Faithful as his friends called him, obstinate heretic as his tives--determined to draw the sword against those who dig- enemies called him, William Sautré was ready to die, if need sented from their religious opinions.

were, for his religion. Horrible to relate, that sacrifice WAL Some persons who were brought before them were so terrified required of him. The men who were supposed to represent to

the world our blessed Lord and his apostles, found it in their

LESSONS IN GERMAN.—XI. minds to give sentence against him, a sentence which they well

SECTION XX.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. knew consigned him to a dreadful death; and they persuaded themselves, by a delusion at which devils might have smiled, The possessive pronouns mein, sein, etc., as already seen (Sect. that they were doing the will of Him who refused to condemn XIV.), are rendered absolute possessives by means of the characany man, and whose vast love made Him lay down His own life, teristic endings er and es ($ 58. 4). not take that of another, that all mankind might follow the 1. The possessive pronouns are likewise converted into absoexample of His great humility.

lute possessives by prefixing to them the definite article, and Before Sautré was given over to the secular arm, it behoved suffixing the terminations e or ige, as :-Mein Hut ist weiß, und der that he should be degraded from his rank in the Church. This tein-e ist schwarz; my hat is white, and thine is black. Ihr Band eminently painful operation, accomplished by means of a cere- ist roth, und das sein-ige ist blau ; her ribbon is red, and his is blue. monial of which every part told with bitterness upon the poor The termination ige is the more common.* prisoner, was submitted to with a patience worthy of the Observe, that the absolute possessives mein-er, etc., are insafferer. Into the church, wherein were gathered a large com. flected like an adjective of pany of the bishops and clergy, Sautré was brought, attired in

THE OLD DECLENSION; AS, he robes and furniture appertaining to him as a priest. Set in

Masculine. Feminine.

Neuter. the midst, the observed of all observers, he was gradually

N. Mein-er, denuded of the various emblems of his pastoral authority, prior

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. G. Mein-es,

mein-er, to being handed over to the tender mercies of the sheriff and

mein-cs, of mine.

D. Mein-em, his officers.

mein-er,

mein-em, to, for mine. First, they gave into his hands a chalice and paten," which

A. Mein-en,

mein-e,

mein-es, mine. were then taken from him, together with the scarlet robe or Note, also, that those preceded by the definite article, are, in chasuble which priests only might wear, and in this way his respect to terminational inflection, varied like adjectives (Sect. authority as priest was visibly taken away from him. A copy IX. 2) in the same situation; that is, according to of the Holy Scriptures in Latin, and the deacon's stole or

THE NEW DECLENSION ; AS, tippet were then taken from him, and he ceased to be a deacon ; the alb or surplice, and the maniple were removed, and with

Masculine Feminine. Neuter. them the dignity of sub-deacon; the giving and taking away of N. Der mein-ige, tie incin-ige, das mein-ige, mine. a candlestick, a taper, and a small pitcher, showed that the O. Des mein-igen, der mcin-igen, bes mcin-igen, of mine. degree of acolyte had been abandoned; and then followed other D. Dem mein-igent, der mein-igen, dem mein-igen, to, for mine. forms, which signified the completeness of the poor man's de- | A. Den mein-igen, die mein-ige, das mein-ige, mine. gradation. With his book of exorcisms he gave up his power ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES AS INFLECTED IN ALL GENDERS OF as an exorcist; with his book of daily lessons his task of reader;

THE PLURAL. with a sexton's gown and a church door key his authority as

After the Old Declension. After the New Declension. serton; and then, his priest's cap being removed, the tonsure,

N. Mein-e, or hair lock, was obliterated, and a common hangman's cap was

die mein-igen, mine.

Ø. Mein-er, pat on his head.

der mein-igen, of mine.

D. Mein-en, What follows? A scene too awful, too horrible to be minutely

den mein-igen, to, for mine. described. Let a veil be drawn over the details ; let us "pro

A. Mein-e,

die mein-igen, mine. vide a charitable covering for the sins of our forefathers.” 2. When the absolute possessive pronouns do not relate to Suffice it to say that, on a gloomy February evening in the year some noun previously mentioned, they refer, in the plural, to 1401-2, the man we have been describing, the man whose sole one's relatives or family,t and in the neuter singular, to one's crime was that he believed differently from his ecclesiastical property, as :- Das Meine or tas Meinige, my property ; tas Deine masters, and taught men so, was bound with an iron chain to a or das Deinige, thy property ; das Seine or das Seinige, his prostake at Smithfield, and burned to death on a spot nearly in perty ; tas Ihre or tas Thrige, her property, your property, or front of the present gate of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

their property. Die Meinen or vie Meinigen, my family, etc. ; tie He was the first of a long list of men-ay, and women too Deinen or tie Deinigen, thy family, etc.; die Seinen or die Seinigen, were included—who were tried by bigotry in the fiery trial of his family, etc. their faith, and showed themselves superior to their fate. Not

VOCABULARY. all the blame must fall on Catholic shoulders. Unhappily, alas ! Allmächtig, adj. al. Hemt, n. shirt. Schlüssel, m, key. it is the duty of the historian to record that those who might mighty.

Siutscher, m. coach. Sowohl als, as well be supposed to have learned tolerance and kindness, if not from Eigenheit, f. peculia-l man.

as. the purer faith which they professed, yet in the hard school of ríty.

Nehmen, to take. Stempel, m. stamp. persecution through which they had passed, proved themselves | Fehler, m. mistake, Obla'te, f. wafer. Waschfrau, f. washeralmost equally cruel with their adversaries. If the Catholics

error.

Schicksal, n. fate, des I woman. burned Sautré and Savonarola, Calvin himself burned Servetus; General', m. general. I tiny.

Weltmeer, n. ocean. if Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer, and many more perished for con- Gott, m. God. Schlosser, m. lock-! Wiese, f. meadow. science' sake under "bloody Mary,” Joan Bocher and Van Paris Hand, f. hand.

smith.

| Zwischen, between. were burned to death by order of the founder of Christ's Hospital, and " Good Queen Bess ” had as long a list as her sister

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. of victims to the cause of freedom of conscience.

Weisen Uhr hat Ihre Mutter? Whose watch has your mother? The principle which actuated the destroyers of William Sie hat die ih'rige.

She has hers (or her own). Santré in 1401 actuates the intolerant of all kinds in 1868. Haben Sie meine Brille otcr tie Have you my spectacles or Law, custom, and modern habits of thought preclude the Ihrige?

yours? rekindling of Smithfield fires; but the old hatreds are not dead, Ich habe tie mei'nige.

I have mine (or my own). the old evil is still alive; and we are prone, in the absence of Jedermann schäßt das Sein‘ige. Every man prizes his own (prcchain and fagot, to make these hatreds felt with weapons

perty). which cat deeper than swords, whose scathe is worse than the Liebt auch Je'termann die Sei'nigen? Does every man likewise love fire, and whose bite is as that of the deadly serpent. But what

his family? said the apostle of Him in whose name bigotry slew its victims,

EXERCISE 29. the apostle of Him who condemned no man? "Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God,

1. Gat ter Capitän sein uter tes Generals Schwert? 2. Er hat tas for Christ's sake, hath forgiven you."

feinige. 3. Haben Sie meine Scheerc? 4. Nein, ich habe die meinige. 5.

[graphic]

- In the same way are treated Deiner, Deine, Deines, thine; and Seiner, Seine, Seincs, his.

y likewise refer (when the connection makes the applica

lependents, as servants, soldiers, subjeets, etc.

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