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prefites, and suffixes. _Suffixes are sometimes called affixes (ad, trust that the healthful sympathies of the people will do some17; and figo, I fix). They may also be designated terminations, thing to restore the original idioms of tne English tongue. especially when they are not so much fragments of words as A, of Saxon origin, is also used as an intensive. An intensive letter-endings, or additions forming the specific parts of speech (in, on, and tendo, I stretch) is that which increases the force of in each case. Thus right becomes righteous, and righteous a word, expanding, as it were, its essential power. A, as an becomes righteousness, and righteously; where cous, ness, and intensive, is of frequent use, and is extmplified in these words, ly are terminations; the first modifying the adjective, the third ashamed, afraid (old form afcare i), arise, amain (a and mogen, converting the adjective into an adverb, and the second chang- to be able; nacht, power, in the German; compare the Latin ing the adjective into a noun.

magnus, great). Thus Dryden :Of these three classes, the roots are by far the most nume

“She said ; her brimful eyes that ready stood, rous. The roots also undergo very various modifications from

And only wanted will to weep a flood, the prefixes and the suffixes. On these accounts, it seems

Relcased their wat ry store, and poured amain, desirable to study the prefixes and suffixes before we study the

Like clouds, low-hung, a sober show'r of rain." roots. Before entering into the requisite details, I wish to make abs-e.g., abatement (French, abattre, to beat down), a beating

A, of Latin origin, meaning from, is found in the forms a, ab, another distinction.

from or down ; abbreviation (Latin, brevis, short), a shortening; Take the word truthfulness. Analyse the word. Obviously abstraction (Latin, traho, I draw), a drawing from, or away. it consists of three elements : 1, truth ; 2, full ; 3, ness. Truth

“But man the abstract is the primitive word. By the addition of full (or ful), truth

Of all perfection which the workmanship becomes truthful, an adjective; and the adjective truthful is

Of Heaven hath modelled, in himself contains made into a noun by the annexation of the syllable ness.

Passions of several qualities."--Ford. Instead of a noun, I might have formed an adverb by subjoining ly; thus, truthfully. I have said that truth is the primitive

A, of Greek origin, found chiefly in scientific words, nas a word. Primitive is here used in opposition to the word deriva- negative or primitive force; that is, it reverses the meaning, or tire. In relation to its derivatives truthful, truthfully, and denies what is implied in the term, as acephalous (Greek, truthfulness, the word truth is a primitive word, for it is their kepaan, pronounced kef'-a-le, head), without head; a term applied

It is another question whether truth may not be in anatomy to the young of any animal born, from original reduced to a simpler form. In the same way, truthful is a

defect of organisation, without a head. To avoid an hiatus primitive term when viewed in relation to its derivative truth (Latin, hiatus, gaping), a becomes an before a vowel ; as anarchy, fully. As with human beings, each word is in turn child and the absence of government; government in Greek being apxn, parent. Still there must be a common stock. But genealogies pronounced ar'-key. in language are scarcely less obscure than other genealogies.

Ad, of Latin origin, to, passes into the forms ac, af, ag, al, an, In linguistical genealogies, authority must receive great defer- ap, ar, as, at—that is, tho terminating consonant of the prefix ence. Now the word truth can be reduced to a simpler form, is, for the sake of ease in pronunciation, changed into the initial and yet remain a word. From truth take th, and you have trú (Latin, initium, beginning) consonant of the noun ; e.g.:--that is, true. So from strength take th, and you have streng, Ad. "An adjournment is no more than a continuance of the session an old form of strong. But fowl is not a derivative word, from one day to another, as the word jour, French, day) itself because you cannot reduce it to another word in a simpler form; signifies."-Blackstone. for, if you remove the l or the wl, the remainder is no word at Ac. The greatness of sins is by extension and accumulation." all. Words, then, which appear to be primitive, may be deriva- Jeremy Taylor. tive; and the rule by which to ascertain whether a noun is Af.

“ 'Tis most true primitive or derivative is this: words which, on the removal of

That musing meditation most affects

The pensive secrecy of desert-cell one or more of their letters, have a distinct meaning, are deriva. tites; and words which, on the removal of one or more of their Ag. “Corporations aggregate consist of many persons united together

Far from the cheerful haunts of men and herds.”—Milton. letters, have no distinct meaning, are primitives. By the appli

into one society, and are kept up by a perpetual succession of cation of this rule, we learn that king dom is a derivative, and

members, so as to continue for ever."--Blackstone. addition a derivative; while pen and head are primitives.

Then by libel (libellus, a little book), or by articles drawn out in The prefires and the offixes in the English language are nume- a formal allegation, set forth the complainant's ground of comrous. Without a correct acquaintance with their import, the

plaint."--Blackstone. exact force of words can scarcely be understood. But these An.

“This god-like act prefixes and affixes are of Latin and of Saxon origin. Conse.

Annuls thy doom."

Milton. quently, in our attempt to ascertain their meaning, we must Ap. “God desires that in his church, knowledge and piety, peace and borrow aid from the Latin and from the Saxon. A few prefixes charity, and good order should grow and flourish; to which come from the Greek, the signification of which is to be found purposes he hath appointed teachers to instruct and governors in the Greek. I shall treat first of prefixes, and, for the sake of

to watch over his people."-Barrov. facility of reference, take them up in alphabetical order. Ar. “Arrogant is he that thinketh he hath those beauties in him that,

he hath not."-Chaucer. PREFIXES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

As.

" Are you discontent A (an), of Saxon origin, has the force of in or on; as along, With laws to which you gave your own assent ?"--Pope. clongside, aback, ahead, abed. In this sense it is used in con- “The most wise God hath so attempered the blood and bodies of nection with present participles, as, a hunting; that is, in or at

fishes, that a small degree of heat is suficient to preserve their hunting. The form occurs in our common version of the Scrip- due consistency and motion, and to maintain life.”-Ray. turer, in John xxi. 3, being a relic of the language in its older Amb, of Latin or rather Greek origin, found in the Greek state, such as in part it is now found in colloquial diction. The ajo (pronounced am'-fi), around, and in the Latin ambo, both, phrase may be exemplified, and its meaning shown by com- signifies on both sides, as ambidertrous (Latin, dexter, the right paring together the renderings of different versions of this hand), literally, having a right hand on both sides ; that is, one passage :

who uses his left hand equally well with the right. Com Tron Version. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing.

“Should I that am a man of law Widif (1980). Symount Petir seith to hem, I go to fische.

Make use of such a subtile claw, Tyndale (1534). Simon Peter sayde vnto them, I goo a fysshinge.

In London or in Exeter; Crarmer (1599). Simon Peter sayeth vnto them, I will go a fisshinge.

And bc of both sides, as you were, Geneta (1557). Simon Peter sayd vnto them, I go a fysshing.

Peoplo would count me then, I fear, Eheims (1582). Simon Peter saith to them, I goe to fish.

A knavish ambodexter.-Brome. Authorised (1611). Simon Peter saith vnto them, I goe a fishing.

Arab is found in the form of amph, as amphitheatre, a theatre Not only are these instances curious as exhibiting varieties of of two sides or circus ; amphibious, double-lived, that is, living spelling, but they seem to show how thoroughly a part of the on land and in water. language is this prefix in the sense now illustrated. Yet is the And, of Greek origin, up, back, as in anachronism (Greek, wage disallowed, and by some regarded as a vulgarism. 1xpovos, pronounced kron'-os, time), an error in date by which an

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At.

event is placed too high up or too far back; generally a devia. Anti, of Greek origin (arti, pronounced an’te, against), in tion from the order of time.

opposition to, as in antichrist, opposed to Christ“The dresses and buildings of the time are preserved, though by

“If once that antichristian crew, frequent anachronisms."—Walpole.

Be crush'd and overthrown,

We'll teach the nobles how to crouch, The ana is found also in anagram (Greek, ypauua, pronounced

And keep the gentry down."- Quarles. gram'-ma, a letter), which is a word produced by the transposition of its letters, having a meaning different from the original. the counter-pattern to the pattern, the corresponding and com

In theology, antitype stands correlatively over against type, as And see where Juno, whose great name

pleting form.
Is Unio in the anagram,
Displays her glittering state and chair."-Ben Jonson.

"The Mosaic law was intended for a single people only, who were

to be shut in, as it were, from the rest of the world, by a fence of Ante, of Latin origin, before, as antedate, to date before time, legal rites and typical ceremonies ; and to be kept by that means to anticipate-

separate and unmixed until the great antitype, the Messiah, should

appear, and break down this fence and lay open this inclosure."“Andromache, my soul's far better part,

Atterbury.
Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart ?
No hostile hand can antedate my doom,

The i in anti is sometimes dropped before a vowel, as in
Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb.”—Pope's Homer. | antarctic, which means opposite to or over against the north.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XIII. In a former lesson (see page 173) it was remarked that

there were some letters of the writing alphabet whose form is IN Copy-slip No. 43 the learner is shown how the letter q is based on that of the letter 0. These letters, which are c, s, e, connected with the letter u, which may be justly termed its and s, may be fairly termed modifications of the letter o, in the inseparable companion, as there is no word in the English same way that we have the letters t and l as modifications of the language in which q appears without being immediately followed pot-hook or bottom-turn. The first of them, the letter c, is comby u. It is just possible, however, to give a word which forms menced about the same distance above the line c e as the letter an exception to this rule; and to satisfy those who may be o, but instead of beginning with a hair-line, a dot is first formed curious on the point, and to make some slight addition to their from which a hair-line is carried round to the left, and the rest stock of geographical knowledge, we may at once tell our readers of the letter is formed in the same way as the letter o, with this that if they will take the trouble to search the map of France, exception, that the fine turn at the bottom of the letter is carried they will find it in the name of a little country town called Acys to the right and joined to the letter that follows it, as may be or Ax, which is situated in the department of Arriége, near the seen in Copy-slip No. 45. The dot with which the letter c is foot of the Pyrenees, and noted for the hot springs that are commenced is made (the self-teacher must carefully note this), found in its neighbourhood. In writing the word quill, the not exactly in the same spot in which the letter o is usually learner will find a useful exercise in carrying letters above and commenced, but about a hair's breadth to the left of it, and the below the lines a a, bb, in the same word, the practice afforded hair-line is carried on from the bottom of the dot, and not from

similar to that which was given by the words put and the top of it, in a direction which turns first to the right and then Copy-slips 30 and 34.

upwards, after which the letter is completed as described above.

[graphic]

as :

come ;

come,

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XII.

EXERCISE 34. SECTION XXII.-THE VERB TO BE, ETC. 1. Is your sister who gave me these flowers (Blume] at home ? conjugation ; its different parts having been derived from words reside in Dresden. 6. The Queen has returned [zurücgekommen] sein, like the corresponding English verb, is very irregular in 2. No, she has gone into the country. 3. There has been some

4. Do you reside in Berlin ? 5. No, I now obsolete.

It is used as the auxiliary to many active intransitive verbs, from Belgium [von Belgien). 7. Do you know the merchant who such as femmen, gehen, etc., where haben cannot (like have for be little pleasure (wenig Vergnügen] on your journey (Reije]; you have

came from Vienna ? 8. Yes, I know him. 9. You have had in English) be substituted, as :-Er ist gekommen, he is come. Gr not been far (weit]. 10. You had more pleasure than we had, ist gegangen, he is gone. (§ 71. 3. 4.)

Sein is employed as the auxiliary in its own conjugation; but we have been as much pleased [ebenso vergnügt] as you. 25 :—Ich bin gewesen, I have been; literally, I am been. For com

SECTION XXIII.-VARIOUS IDIOMS. plete conjugation, see § 72. 2.

The word Haug, without the article, when preceded by nach, CONJUGATION OF THE PERFECT TENSE OF sein, fommen, answers to our "home" after verbs of motion, as :

-&r geht nach AND gehen.

Hause, he is going home. Id bin gewesen, I have been , wir sind gedesen, we have been. Zu Hause answers to our "at home,” as:–Er ist zu Bause, he is Du bist gewesen, thou hast been; ihr seid gewesen, you have been.

at home. Er ist geidejen, he has been; sie sind gewesen, they have been. Vei (with) is commonly used with verbs of rest, and signifies

(with a pronoun following) at one's house or place of business, Ich bin gekommen, I have come ; wir sind gekommen, we have come.

-Er wohnt bei uns, he lives at our house. Ich kaufte es bei Du bist gekommen, thou hast ihr seid gekommen, you have meinem Vetter, I bought it at my cousin's.

Mit (with) is chiefly used with verbs of motion, as :-Ich gehe Er ist gefommen, he has come; sie sind gefommen, they have come. mit ihm, I am going with him.

Zu Iemanden gehen signifies, frequently, to go to the house or 30 bin gegangen, I have gone ; wir sind gegangen, we have gone.

residence of some one, as:-Ich gebe zu meinem Dheim, I am going Du bist gegangen, thou hast gone; ihr seid gegangen, you have gone.

to my uncle's. Wollen Sie heute Abend zu uns fommen? will you Gr ist gegangen, he has gone; fic find gegangen, they have gone.

come to our house this evening ? (112. 3. 7. 8. 13.)

1. Derselbe (the same) is compounded of der and selber. It VOCABULARY.

is inflected precisely like derjenige.
Berlin', n. Berlin.
Käfig, m. cage. Schnee, m. snow.

DECLENSION OF bers, dies, das selbe.
Bleiben, to remain. Kennen, to know, to Schreiben, to write.
Bringen, to bring. be acquainted Sprechen, to speak.

Singular.

Plural.
Da, there.

with.
Vogel, m. bird.
Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

All genders. Dreiden, n. Dresden. | Kommen, to come. Wetter, n. weather.

N. Derselbe, dieselbe, dasselbe, dieselben, the same. Gliegen, to fly. Laufen, to run. Wien, n. Vienna.

G. Desselben, derselben, desselben, berselben, of the same. Friedrich, m. Frederick Marft, m. market. Wissen, to know.

D. Demselben, terselben, demselben, tenselben, to the same. Glauben, to believe. Nachricht, f. news. Wohnen, to reside, to A. Denselben, dieselbe, dasselbe, dieselben, the same. Jemand, somebody, Preußen, n. Prussia. dwell. anybody. Rindfleisch, n. beef.

2. Derselbe is often used in place of a personal pronoun, to

avoid repetition or ambiguity, as :-Haben Sie dieselbe (sie) gesehen? RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Have you seen (the same) her ? Der Mann lobt den Knaben, weil Die Werfe Gottes find manónigfal. The works of God are manifold; derselbe feine Mutter chrt; the man praises the boy, because the

tig; seine Liebe ist unend'lich und his love is infinite and in all same (he) honours his mother. Er liebt seinen Bruder, aber nicht die an allen Orten sichtbar. places visible.

Kinder desselben; he loves his brother, but not his children (he Ich war in der Stadt, als der Kör I was in the city when the loves his brother, but not the children of the same). nig da war. king was there.

The genitive of the substantive pronoun der is also thus used, Der Kronprinz ist vor'gestern hier The crown-prince was here the -&r liebt seinen Bruder, aber tefsen Kinder nicht; he loves his gewesen.

day before yesterday. brother, but not (that one's) his children. Wer ist mit der Schwester auf das Who has gone to the country

VOCABULARY. Land gegan'gen?

with your (the) sister ? Diesel'be, die vor'gestern mit ihr The same that

here Blei, n. lead.

Laden, m. shop, store. | Tasch'enuhr, f. watch. hierher gefom'men ist. (hither) with her the day Brauchen, to require, lahm, lame.

Truppen, troop. before yesterday.

to need.

Ring, m. ring. Un'dankbar, unthank. Geben Sie heute auf das land? Do you go to the country to. Eltern, parents. Schiden, to send. ful.

day ?

Krieg, m. war.
So, so, as.

Weil, because
Nein, weil ich sve'ben von dem Lande No, for I have just come from
gefom'men bin.
the country.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Wo ist der Fremte, der vor'gestern Where is the stranger who was EXERCISE 33.

bei uns war?

at our house the day before 1. If tiefer junge Mann frank? 2. Nein, aber er ist gestern frant

yesterday? gewesen. (Sect. XVII. 8.) 3. Wer ist in dem Garten Ihres Vaters Er ist gestern nach Wien gereist'. He went yesterday to Vienna. gewesen? 4. Niemand ist in dem Garten gewesen, aber Jemand ist in Ist rieses Buch tassel'be, welches Sie Is this book the same that you seinem Hause gewesen. 5. Wie lange bleibt der alte Bauer noch in ter gestern Abend gele'sen haben? read last evening ? Statt? 6. Id fenne den alten Bauern nicht, und weiß nicht, wie lange er Ich liebe diesen Schüler, weil er so I love this scholar, because he Heibt. 7. 3ft Ihr alter Freund, der Kaufmann, nach Wien gegangen? 8. fleißig ist.

is so diligent. Ich glaube, er ist nach Berlin zu seinem Bruder gegangen. 9. Von wem Meine Freundin aus Ame'rifa wat My friend from America was haken Sie heute diese Nachricht gehört? 10. Ich habe einen meiner Freunde gestern hier ; haben Sie dieselbe here yesterday ; have you gesprochen, welcher von Dresden gekommen ist, und mir einen Brief von schon gese hen?

seen her yet? meinem Vater gebracht hat. 11. Ich wohne bei meinem Dheim, und gehe Id habe des Schrers Buch, aber nicht I have the teacher's book, but mit ihm nach dem fleinen Dorfe. 12. Mein schöner Vogel ist aus dem das Messer desselben.

not his knife. Lifig geflogen, und mein kleines Pferd ist nach dem Walde gelaufen. 13.

EXERCISE 35. Bas hat Ihr Herr Vater Ihnen geschrieben? 14. Er hat mir einen langen Brief gesdrieben. 15. Wann sind Sie auf dem Markte gewesen? 16. Ich 1. Wo ist das Blei, welches Sie gekauft haben? 2. Es ist noch im bin roryeftern Abend da gewesen, und habe Rintfleisch gekauft. 17. Wir laden, wo ich es gekauft habe. 3. Haben Sie dieselbe Feter, welche ich haben diesen Nachmittag schönes Wetter gehabt. 18. Diese Schüler sind gehabt ħabe? 4. Wem werden Sie diese goldene Taschenuhr schicken? 5. faul unb jene fleißig gewesen. 19. Der Sohnee ist vorgestern schr tief Ich werde fie demselben Minne schiden, welcher sie mir geschickt hat. 6. garejen. 20. Ich bin nie frank gewesen. 21. Friedrich der Große war Wie viel Geld braucht dieser alte Soltat? 7. Er braucht viel, wiel er ein König von Breußen.

immer krank ist. 8. 3st ce derselbe, welcher gestern hier war? 9. Nein,

as:

came

28.35

64

380.0812

100

3453294
10000

10000

10000

jener ift beuk sehr lahm. 10. Wem itiden Sie den schönen Ring ? 11. what is the same thing, write the decimal points under one
Jay ít, ide ihn tem Manne, welchen Sie so sehr gelobt haben. 12. Haben another, and then proceed to add thus :-8 ten thousandths and
sie tue freunte meines Bruters gelebt? 13. Ja, ich habe sie gelobt. 14. 4 ten thousandths are 12 ten thousandths, i.e., 1
haben Sie dieselben nicht geliebt? 15. Ich babe eine kleine Schwester, thousandth and 2 ten thousandths; write down 2 345-3294
welche ich liebe, lieben Sie dieselbe ? 16. Der Oheim liebt seinen Neffen, under the ten thousandths' place, and carry the 1 to *0018
verterjilbe ist untanttir. 17. Ier Vater liebt seinen kleinen Sohn, wiel the next column of figures, as in simple addition.
rerielbe gut ift. 18. Warum sint so viele Truppen in der Stadt? 19. The same method will evidently apply for all the
Weil sie aus zem stie je gelommen find. 20. Warum lieben uns unsere columns, since the value of each place of figures in.
Eltern? 21. Weil wir ilre Kinder sind 22. Zu wem gehen Sie ? 23. creases tenfold from left to right. The decimal point in the
3dy zebe zu meinem Vetter. 24. Mit wem gehen Sie ? 25. Ich gehe mit answer will clearly fall under the column of decimal points.
meinem Druter.

We may also exhibit the process thus :-
EXERCISE 36.

28:35
345.3294

•0018 = 466:4 = 1. Is your brother at home? 2. Yes, but he is ill. 3. Where have you bought this watch? 4. I bought (gekauft] it of the And therefore reducing all these fractions to a common denomiwatchmaker. 5. Thero rings are beautiful, will you give me one nator, 10000, and adding them, we get for their sumof them? 6. The troops which went to Leipsic returned yes

283500 + 3453294 + 18 +64000

= 300812 = 380·0812. terday. 7. The teacher loves the boy, because he writes beautifully. 8. Do you go to your parents ? 9. I go with my brother.

Hence we get the following 10. These children love their teacher, because he is good to Rule for the Addition of Decimals. them. 11. Do you require my books any longer ? 12. I will

Write the decimals under one another, so that the decimal give you them back zurüc] to-morrow.

points may fall under each other. Begin at the right hand, or column of the lowest order, and add as in simple addition,

placing the decimal point in the row of figures so obtained LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—XIII. under the other decimal points. DECIMALS (continued).

EXERCISE 30. 6. It is evident, also, from the explanations given in Lesson

1. Find the sum of the following decimals :XII., that to multiply a decimal by any power of 10, we need only move the decimal point as many places to the right as

1. 25:7, 8:389, 23.056, and 57.145. there are ciphers in the multiplier. For example :

2.-00162, 1701, 325, 2-7031, and 3.000701,

3. 1.03041, 6:578034, 2-4178, and 4-72103. 31567 x 100 is 31567.

4. 467-3004, 28078249, 1-29468, and 378241. For •34567 * 100 - 489 100 = 100 = 34.567.

5. 293.0072, 89-00301, 29.84567, 924 00369, and 72.39602.

6. 391.61, 81-928, 36218103, 640-203, and 51216291.30002. Similarly, to divide a decimal by any power of 10, we must

7. 36 258, 2.0675, 382 15, and 7.3984, move the decimal point as many places to the left as there are

8. 32-761, 578, 16.0837, and 49 3046. ciphers in the divisor. If there are more ciphers in the divisor 9. 4-25, 6-293, 4:612, 38:07, 2:056, 3.218, and 1.62. than there are places in the decimal, we must prefix a sufficient 10. 35 7603, 47.0076, 129.03, 100·007, and 20:32. number of ciphers (Art. 5). For example :

11. 24-6434, 8007, 29. 461, 1.7506, and 3:45.

12. 15.001, 163 4231, 20:3)15, 634.2104, and 234.90213.
456.329 + 100 is 1:56329.

13. 1.721341, 8.62 O 47, 51.720315, 2-6S1, and 62:204607.
For 15.0922 =
454" 2 = 4.56329.

14. 16293262, 36000 12, 9-70031 46, 3.600426, 7*00-40031, and 8-7200-489.

2. Add together the following, after writing them as decimals: 329 + 100 is .00329. For 188

1. 45 thousandths, 6 millionths, 9 tenths, and 11 ter: millionths. .00329. TW) x 100

2. 25 hundredths, 8 tenths, 65 thousandths, 16 hundredths, 142 Here, in order to move the decimal point two places to the left, thousandths, and 39 hundredths. we must place two ciphers before 3, the first significant digit of

3. 9 tenths, 92 hundredths, 162 thousandth 49 thousandths, and

92 millionths. the dividend.

4. 29 hundredths, 7 millionths, 62 thousandths, and 12567 ten EXERCISE 29.

millionths. 1. Express as decimals

5. 95 thousandths, 61 millionths, 6 tenths, 11 hundredths, and 265 1. Yo r. 18

hundred thousandths. 2. 2516, 4136, 9color.

6. 1 tenth, 2 hundredths, 16 thousandths, 7 millionths, 26 thou3. 7,986, 43,66% 3,800, 93305

sandths, 95 ten millionths, and 7 ten thousandths.

7. 96 hundred thousandths, 92 millionths, 25 hundredths, 45 thou. 2. Express as fractions, or mixed numbers

sandths, and 7 tenths. 1, 32, 246, 3624,

8. Subtraction of Decimals. 2. 03687, .000-46.

It is evident, from the remarks we have made with respect to 3. 13.068, 007006, 1:100192, 0000018.

the addition of decimals, that the process of subtraction will be 3. Multiply and also divide each of the decimals in the pro- performed in exactly the same way as in simple subtraction. ceding examples by 100 and by 10000.

Thus, to subtract 3.275 from 6-14, we write the decimal 4. Divide 1 and 40.0039 by 10000 and also by 10000000.

points under each other, as in the margin, adding a cipher 5. Express as fractions or mixed numbers the following to 6:14 for convenience, to make the number of decimal 6-140 decimals:

places correspond with that of the number to be sub- 3-275 90-0106 2:36213

1:13004 tracted. We then say—borrowing 1 (really ido, or til) 13236 1.70230 92.33167

2-865

from the next highest order of figures, as in simple addi1974 201164 9:163126

9:2) 1076

tion–5 from 10 leaves 5, then 8 from 14 leaves 6, and so on, 33 x 192

8:09.3319

the decimal point in the row of figures obtained falling under OXX39

67 68 17 101 91007

the other decimal points. 101219

71650 (100010

We may also exhibit the process as follows :8140 30

6.14 = 149. 3 275 6. Write the fractional part of the following mixed numbers

61 40 - 3275 in decimals

Terefore 6'14 – 3.275 =

= 1006 = 2:865. 1 3. 11,

0's. The methods of simple addition and subtraction apply to decimals, because the only condition upon which their truth

depends is, that the places of figures should increase in value 8:35, 10331904, 0018, and '4.

in a tenfold ratio from right to left, which is the case with under unita, tonths under tenthe, oto; or., derumile.

456329 1000 x 100

lowo

399

329 100000

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3975 100

[graphic]

1000

JUSTICE.

EXERCISE 31.

proverb receives its fulfilment in human history, “When God 1. Find the difference in the following pairs of decimals :- loathes aught, men come presently to loathe it too."

Justice in the administration of the law is a glory to any 1. 3.405 and 2.179.

13. 10 and *0000001. 2 9 and 79999.

14. 9 and .999999.

people. It is well known that in the degenerate days of Rome 3. 456 0546 and 3613123.

15. 4636 and 4654.

the judges were in the guilty habit of receiving bribes, and it 4. 1400-2 and 32.756218,

16. 25.0050 and 567.392. is needless to say that at this period the national character 5. 21-67 and 682819.

17. 76.2781 and 29'8:234. had degenerated, when other things beside the ermine of 6. 81 +6923101 and 9.163.

18. 0000001 and "0001.

justice were dragged in the dirt. English law is above sus. 7. 100 536 and 19:36723.

19. *0000004 and '00034.

picion for purity and honour in its administration. Trial by 8. 070343 and 009623478.

20. 32 and *00032.

jury answers to a very large extent the high ends of justice, 9. 1 and 99.

21. 24681 and 87023. 10. 10 and "000001.

22. 25 and 25.

whilst the Courts of Equity, now so much more used than in 11. 6500001 and 3682317.

23. 00045 and 45.

olden days, save the cause of truth from being lost by mere 12. 3.29 and 999.

21. *00000099 and 99.

legal quibbles and technicalities. 2. Sabtract the less from the greater of the following it is infringed upon by wrong-doing, depression settles down on

Justice in commercial life is the very cement of society. When numbers :

trade and commerce, and for this single reason, that in civilised 1. 7 hundred and 7 hundredths.

states of society all bartoring and exchanging is carried on upon 2. 46 hundredths and 46 thousandths. 3. 95 thousandths and 909 ten thousandths.

credit, which is only another word for confidence; if, therefore, 4. 1 billionth and 1 trillionth.

that be damaged, it is easy to see how all the interests of the 5. I thousandth and 1 millionth.

nation must suffer with it. Then only are we safe from paltry 6. 29 thousand and 92 thousandths.

jobbery and trickery, when we can honestly say, “I hate op7. 256 millions and 256 thousandths.

pression and robbery.” 8. 2874 millionths and 211 billionths.

We are not to be just only because it will be rewarded here 9. 6231 hundred thousandths and 154 millionths.

and hereafter: we are to do right because it is right. At the 3. Find the value of $4203 – 0049 + .175 - 17.5.

same time we cannot conceal from ourselves the fact that in the 4. Find the value of 3 36.001 - 219.123 – 0305 + 1.00007. system of things in which we live there are rewards accompanying

an upright life such as no wealth can purchase. To be looked upon as unimpeachable for integrity, and unquestionable concern

ing justice, is to have that atmosphere of respect around us which ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-II.

can only be ensured by persistent continuance in well-doing.

Injustice, whatever form it assumes, apart from its inner

penalties, will bring coldness and suspicion with it, and we shall THERE is a sense of accountability in every human breast. lose two of the sweetest enjoyments of life-the sense of an Savage and civilised races alike manifest its existence. The approving conscience, and the good name which, we are told on degree of its intensity, as a power, may differ, but it is as much the highest authority, is rather to be chosen than silver or gold. an integral part of the moral nature of man, as the eye and Only quibblers ask, “What is justice ? They try to set the ear are parts of his physical economy. All injustice is aside its claims by casuistical questions concerning its nature. contrary to our moral sense. It may be indulged to gratisy Justice is, in a word, the practice of those essentially Christian passion, pride, ambition, covetousness; but it is condemned maxims, doing unto others as we would they should do unto by the high court of judicature within, and sooner or later us, and loving our neighbour as ourselves. We have treated of injustice brings its terrible penalty with it. Naboth’s vine- justice first amongst the moral principles in our consideration of yard may be unjustly secured by covetous pillage, but neither life and duty, because we have in it the basis of national, as it the groves nor the grapes can minister lasting happiness: the is of individual, prosperity and honour. Above all, let us regnawing sense of wrong will be awakened. That which a member that it is this faculty in the moral sense which, whilst than sows he is sure to reap. This fine and delicate sense, it ensures for us the favour of man, keeps us also in the fear it is admitted, may be dimmed by ignorance, darkened by of God. superstition, and sometimes, by long neglect, it may but slumber in the breast ; but it never dies out. All nations have more or

LESSONS IN DRAWING.–VII. less honoured the God-given sentiment of justice. The Greeks had their Justitia, called Astræa and Themis ; the Romans had To draw Fig. 51, proceed as follows : draw the horizontal line a goddess, which was at one time an abstraction rather than a HL, arrange the Ps, and place the point a where the corner of deity possessing personality. The coins, however, that have the wall crosses the horizontal line; next, the points d and e, with been preserved, represent Justice as a maiden wearing a diadem, the perpendiculars passing through them. As the arch is semiI holding a sword and scales. Sometimes she is represented as circular, its centre will be at le, perpendicular to i, found by the holding in the one hand a cup, and in the other a sceptre. Nor intersection of the diagonal lines f k and b m; the point h is then can we forget that in the earlier ages of history, three years the radiating point for the points of the stones forming the before Xerxes invaded Greece, the Athenians hastened to call to arch. If the arch were lower, as Fig. 52, draw the chord ab; their political councils, and to the command of their armies, one from the centre d mark the required height cd, draw ca and who had before received the memorable cognomen of Aristides cb, bisect ac and cb by the lines fe and ge, e will then be the the Just. It need scarcely be said that the Scriptures also are centre of the circle of which a c b is a segment; the lines full of honours paid to the just.

1, 2, 3, 4, etc., will radiate at e. To bisect a line, as cb in Fig. Nothing is so mean as injustice. Lacking the element of 52, from c and b, with the same distance in the compasses make justice in character, no other qualification will be of much arcs to cut one another in p and s; through these points p and s avail. Generosity is only a misnomer where justice is set at' draw a straight line, which will bisect the line cb, that is, it will nought. If we give prodigally to some whilst we are defrauding, divide it into two equal parts. others, we are not generous but merciless. Injustice, however, It will be seen that the heights of many kinds of arches ere does not merely relate to our dealings in material commodities. ' regulated by their diameters ; the two pointed arches, Figs. 53 It appertains to our estimates of each other, to our expressions and 54, will exemplify this. Let the diameter of the pointed concerning each other, and to all the aspects of our common horse-shoe arch, Fig. 53, be ab, bisect it in e, and draw to any life. We may do the very greatest injustice to others even length ef; bisect a e in c, and éb in d; from c, with the radius by the suppressio veri, or the mere keeping back of truth con- cb (or distance of cb taken with the compasses), describe the arc cerning them. Justice is of immense importance to nations. Df; also from d, with the same radius, describe the arc af. The The preservation of treaties, the payment of bonds and interests ' higher-pointed arch, called the early English, Fig. 54, radiates on national loans is of the highest moment to the reputation from a and b, with the distance a b producing the arcs a d and 6 d. of any people, and the infraction of just principles is sure to The semi-elliptical arch, Fig. 55. Let ab be the diameter; Fork out national punishment in the loss of credit and prestige. bisect a b in e by the line cd; bisect eb and ea in the points As it is with nations, so it is with individuals. Men come to f and g; from f, with the radius f g, draw the arc gh, and from abrink with disdain from the wifully unjust, and the old 9, with the same radius, draw the arc fh; draw from h, through

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