Εικόνες σελίδας


preises, and suffixes. Suffixes are sometimes called affixes (ad, trust that the healthful sympathies of the people will do some1; and figo, I fix). They may also be designated terminations, thing to restore the original idioms of tne English tongue. especially when they are not so much fragments of words as A, of Saxon origin, is also used as an intensive. An intensive letter-endings, or additions forming the specific parts of speech (in, on, and tendo, I stretch) is that which increases the force of in each case. Thus right becomes righteous, and righteous a word, expanding, as it were, its essential power. A, as an becomes righteousness, and righteously; where cous, ness, and intensive, is of frequent use, and is excmplified in these words, ly are terminations; the first modifying the adjective, the third ashamed, afraid (old form afcarel), arise, amain (a and mogen, converting the adjective into an adverb, and the second chang- to be able; nacht, power, in the German; compare the Latin ing the adjective into a noun.

| magnus, great). Thus Dryden :Of these three classes, the roots are by far the most nume

“She said ; her brimful eyes that ready stood, rous. The roots also undergo very various modifications from

And only wanted will to weep a flood, the prefixes and the suffixes. On these accounts, it seems

Relcased their wat'ry store, and poured amain, desirable to study the prefixes and suffixes before we study the

Like clouds, low-hung, a sober show'r of rain.'

A, of Latin origin, meaning from, is found in the forms a, ab, Before entering into the requisite details, I wish to make l abs-e.., abatement (French, abattre, to beat down), a beating another distinction.

from or down; abbreviation (Latin, brevis, short), a shortening; Take the word truthfulness. Analyse the word. Obviously Lobo

bviously I abstraction (Latin, traho, I draw), a drawing from, or away. it consists of three elements : 1, truth; 2, full; 3, ness. Truth

“But man the abstract is the primitive word. By the addition of full (or ful), truth

Of all perfection which the workmanship becomes truthful, an adjective; and the adjective truthful is

Of Heaven hath modelled, in himself contains made into a noun by the annexation of the syllable ness.

Passions of several qualities.”---Ford. Instead of a noun, I might have formed an adverb by subjoining ly; thus, truthfully. I have said that truth is the primitive

A, of Greek origin, found chiefly in scientific words, nas a word. Primitive is here used in opposition to the word deriva- | negative or primitive force; that is, it reverses the meaning, or tire. In relation to its derivatives truthful, truthfully, and denies what is implied in the term, as acephalous (Greek, truthfulness, the word truth is a primitive word, for it is their kepain, pronounced kef-a-le, head), without head; a term applied source. It is another question whether truth may not be in anatomy to the young of any animal born, from original reduced to a simpler form. In the same way, truthful is a defect of organisation, without a head. To avoid an hiatus primitive term when viewed in relation to its derivative truth. ' (Latin, hiatus, gaping), a becomes an before a vowel ; as anarchy: fully. As with human beings, each word is in turn child and the absence of government; government in Greek being apx, parent. Still there must be a common stock. But genealogies

pronounced ar'-key. in language are scarcely less obscure than other genealogies.

Ad, of Latin origin, to, passes into the forms ac, af, ag, al, an, In linguistical genealogies, authority must receive great defer- | ap, ar, as, at--that is, the terminating consonant of the prefix ence. Now the word truth can be reduced to a simpler form. is, for the sake of ease in pronunciation, changed into the initial and yet remain a word. From truth take th, and you have trui (Latin, initium, beginning) consonant of the noun ; e.g.:--that is, true. So from strength take th, and you have streng, | Ad. An adjournment is no more than a continuance of the session an old form of strong. But fowl is not a derivative word, from one day to another, as the word (jour, French, day) itself because you cannot reduce it to another word in a simpler form; signifies."-Blackstone. for, if you remove the l or the wl, the remainder is no word at Ac. “The greatness of sins is by extension and accumulation." all. Words, then, which appear to be primitive, may be deriva

Jeremy Taylor. tive; and the rule by which to ascertain whether a noun is

"'Tis most true primitive or derivative is this: words which, on the removal of

That musing meditation most affects

The pensive secrecy of desert-cell one or more of their letters, have a distinct meaning, are deriva. /

Far from the cheerful haunts of men and herds.”—Milton. tives; and words which, on the removal of one or more of their

Ag. “ Corporations aggregate consist of many persons united together letters, have no distinct meaning, are primitives. By the appli

into one society, and are kept up by a perpetual succession of cation of this rule, we learn that king dom is a derivative, and

members, so as to continue for ever."-Blackstone. addition a derivative; while pen and head are primitives.

Al. “Then by libel (libellus, a little book), or by articles drawn out in The prefires and the offixes in the English language are nume. a formal allegation, set forth the complainant's ground of com: rous. Without a correct acquaintance with their import, the

plaint."--Blackstone. exact force of words can scarcely be understood. But these An.

“This god-like act prefixes and affixes are of Latin and of Saxon origin. Conse

Annuls thy doom."

Milton. quently, in our attempt to ascertain their meaning, we must | Ap. “God desires that in his church, knowledge and piety, peace aná borrow aid from the Latin and from the Saxon. A few prefixes charity, and good order should grow and flourish; to which come from the Greek, the signification of which is to be found purposes he hath appointed teachers to instruct and governors in the Greek. I shall treat first of prefixes, and, for the sake of

to watch over his people."-Barror. facility of reference, take them up in alphabetical order.

Ar. "Arrogant is he that thinketh he hath those beauties in him thnt,


Are you discontent A (an), of Saxon origin, has the force of in or on; as along, With laws to which you gave your own assent ?"--Pope. clongside, aback, ahead, abed. In this sense it is used in con- At. "The most wise God hath so attempered the blood and bodies of nection with present participles, as, a hunting ; that is, in or at fishes, that a small degree of heat is sufficient to preserve their hunting. The form occurs in our common version of the Scrip. due consistency and motion, and to maintain life."--Ray. tures, in John xxi. 3, being a relic of the language in its older Amb, of Latin or rather Greek origin, found in the Greek state, such as in part it is now found in colloquial diction. The quo! (pronounced am'-fi), around, and in the Latin ambo, both, phrase may be exemplified, and its meaning shown by com- signifies on both sides, as ambidertrous (Latin, dexter, the right paring together the renderings of different versions of this hand), literally, having a right hand on both sides; that is, one passage :

who uses his left hand equally well with the right. Common Version. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing.

“ Should I that am a man of law Widlif (1980). Symount Petir seith to hem, I go to fische.

Make use of such a subtile claw, T ndale (1534). Simon Peter sayde vnto them, I goo a fysshinge.

In London or in Exeter; Crarmer (1599). Simon Peter sayeth vnto them, I will go a fisshinge.

And bc of both sides, as you were, Geneva (1557). Simon Peter sayd vnto them, I go a fysshing.

People would count me then, I fear, Eheirs (1582). Simon Peter saith to them, I goe to fish.

A knavish ambodexter. -Brome. Authorised (1611). Simon Peter saith vnto them, I goe a fishing.

| Anab is found in the form of amph, as amphitheatre, a theatre Not only are these instances curious as exhibiting varieties of of two sides or circus; amphibious, double-lived, that is, living spelling, but they seem to show how thoroughly a part of the on land and in water. language is this prefix in the sense now illustrated. Yet is the Ana, of Greek origin, up, back, as in anachronism (Greek, wage disallowed, and by some regarded as a vulgarism. 1xpovos, pronounced kron'-os, time), an error in date by which an

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event is placed too high up or too far back; generally a devia- Anti, of Greek origin (artu, pronounced an'-te, against), in tion from the order of time.

opposition to, as in antichrist, opposed to Christ“The dresses and buildings of the time are preserved, though by

“If once that antichristian crew,

Be crush'd and overthrown, frequent anachronisms."-Walpole.

We'll teach the nobles how to crouch, The ana is found also in anagram (Greek, ypauua, pronounced

And keep the gentry down."- Quarles. gram'-ma, a letter), which is a word produced by the transposi

In theology, antitype stands correlatively over against type, as tion of its letters, having a meaning different from the original.

the counter-pattern to the pattern, the corresponding and com. “And see where Juno, whose great name

pleting form. Is Unio in the anagram,

"The Mosaic law was intended for a single people only, who were Displays her glittering state and chair."-Bon Jonson.

to be shut in, as it were, from the rest of the world, by a fence of Ante, of Latin origin, before, as antedate, to date before time, legal rites and typical ceremonies; and to be kept by that means to anticipate

separate and unmixed until the great antitype, the Messiah, should

appear, and break down this fence and lay open this inclosure."" Andromache, my soul's far better part,

Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart ?
No hostile band can antedate my doom,

The į in anti is sometimes dropped before a vowel, as in
Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb."-Pope's Homer. | antarctic, which means opposite to or over against the north.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XIII. In a former lesson (see page 173) it was remarked that

there were some letters of the writing alphabet whose form is IN Copy-slip No. 43 the learner is shown how the letter q is based on that of the letter 0. These letters, which are c, x, e, connected with the letter u, which may be justly termed its and s, may be fairly termed modifications of the letter o, in the inseparable companion, as there is no word in the English same way that we have the letters t and l as modifications of the language in which q appears without being immediately followed pot-hook or bottom-turn. The first of them, the letter c, is com. by u. It is just possible, however, to give a word which forms menced about the same distance above the line ce as the letter an exception to this rule; and to satisfy those who may be o, but instead of beginning with a hair-line, a dot is first formed curious on the point, and to make some slight addition to their from which a hair-line is carried round to the left, and the rest stock of geographical knowledge, we may at once tell our readers of the letter is formed in the same way as the letter o, with this that if they will take the trouble to search the map of France, exception, that the fine turn at the bottom of the letter is carried they will find it in the name of a little country town called ACT to the right and joined to the letter that follows it, as may be or Ax, which is situated in the department of Arriége, near the seen in Copy-slip No. 45. The dot with which the letter C is foot of the Pyrenees, and noted for the hot springs that are commenced is made (the self-teacher must carefully note this), found in its neighbourhood. In writing the word quill, the not exactly in the same spot in which the letter o is usually learner will find a useful exercise in carrying letters above and commenced, but about a hair's breadth to the left of it, and the below the lines a 0, bb, in the same word, the practice afforded hair-line is carried on from the bottom of the dot, and not from

similar to that which was given by the words put and the top of it, in a direction which turns first to the right and then Copy-slips 30 and 34.

| upwards, after which the letter is completed as described above.

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jener ist beuk sehr lahm. 10. Wem ichiden Sie den schönen Ring ? 11. what is the same thing, write the decimal points under one Jay ít, ide ibn tem Manne, welden Sie so sehr gelobt haben. 12. Haben another, and then proceed to add thus :-8 ten thousandths and Die tre Freunte meines Brubers gelebt? 13. Ja, ich habe sie gelobt. 14. 4 ten thousandths are 12 ten thousandths, i.e., 1 23-35 haben Sie miciilben nicht geliebt? 15. Ich habe eine Fleine Schwester, thousandth and 2 ten thousandths; write down 2 315-3294 welche ich liebe, lieben Sie micielbe ? 16. Der Dheim liebt seinen Neffen, under the ten thousandths' place, and carry the 1 to .0018 76er terselbe ist untantbar. 17. Ier Vater liebt seinen Fleinen Sohn, wiel | the next column of figures, as in simple addition. 64 ceridibe gut ift. 18. Warum sint so viele Truppen in der Stadt? 19. The same method will evidently apply for all the

380.0812 Weil sie aus rem fricte gelommen find. 20. Warum lieben uns unsere columns, since the value of each place of figures in. Eltern? 21. Weil wir ihre Kinder sind 22. Zu wem gehen Sie ? 23. creases tenfold from left to right. The decimal point in the 3d ache zu meinem Wetter. 24. Mit wem gehen Sie ? 25. Ich gehe mit answer will clearly fall under the column of decimal points. meinem Druter.

We may also exhibit the process thus :-

28:35 = 235, 345-3294 = 3193206, .0018 = Telo, 64 = 9.1. Is your brother at home? 2. Yes, but he is ill. 3. Where have you bought this watch ? 4. I bought (gekauft] it of the

And therefore reducing all these fractions to a common denomiwatchmaker. 5. Tnche rings are beautiful, will you give me one

nator, 10000, and adding them, we get for their sumof them ? 6. The troops which went to Leipgic returned yes

283500 + 3453294 + 18 +64000 terday. 7. The teacher loves the boy, because he writes beauti


= 38002 = 380·0812. fully. 8. Do you go to your parents ? 9. I go with my brother. Hence we get the following 10. These children love their teacher, because he is good to Rule for the Addition of Decimals. therm. 11. Do you require my books any longer ? 12. I will Write the decimals under one another, so that the decimal give you them back zurüd] to-morrow.

points may fall under each other. Begin at the right hand, or column of the lowest order, and add as in simple addition,

placing the decimal point in the row of figures so obtained LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—XIII. under the other decimal points. DECIMALS (continued).

EXERCISE 30. 6. It is evident, also, from the explanations given in Lesson 1. Find the sum of the following decimals : XII., that to multiply a decimal by any power of 10, we need only move the decimal point as many places to the right as

1. 25:7, 8389, 23.056, and 57.145.

2. •00162. .1701, 325, 2.7031, and 3.000701. there are ciphers in the multiplier. For example :

3. 1.03041, 6:578031, 2:4178, and 4.72103. 31567 x 100 is 31:567.

4. 467-3004, 28.78249, 1-29468, and 378211. For "31567 * 100 - 80 100 = 498 = 34.567.

5. 293.0072, 89.00301, 29-84567, 924.00369, and 72.39602.

6. 396.61, 81-928, 36218103, 640-203, and 51216291-30002. Similarly, to divid a decimal by any power of 10, we must

7. 36.238, 2:0675, 382 45, and 7.3984, move the decimal point as many places to the left as there are

8. 32.761, 5-78, 16:0037, and 493046. ciphers in the divisor. If there are more ciphers in the diviser

9. 4:25, 6-293, 4:612, 38:07, 2.056, 3.218, and 1.62. than there are places in the decimal, we must prefix a sufficient 10. 35.7603, 47.0076, 129.03, 100.007, and 20:32. number of ciphers (Art. 5). For example :-

11. 246134, 800-7, 29461, 1.7506, and 3:45.

12. 15.001, 163 4231, 20-3315, 634.2104, and 234.90213. 456329 + 100 is 1:56329.

13. 1.721311, 8.62 017, 51.720315, 2.681, and 62:204607. 456329

14. 1.293362, 3.000 12, 9:70031 46, 3.600426, 7.0040031, and 8.7200489. For 15.0992 =

58" 99 = 4.56329.
For 100 = 1000 x 100 – low
*329 + 100 is .00329.

2. Add together the following, after writing them as decimals:

1. 45 thousandths, 6 millionths, 9 tenths, and 11 ter millionths. For 10 = Tiw x 100 = 1 = .00329.

2. 25 hundredths, 8 tenths, 65 thousandths, 16 hundredths, 142 Here, in order to move the decimal point two places to the left,

thousandths, and 39 hundredths. we must place two ciphers before 3, the first significant digit of 92 millionths.

3. 9 tenths, 92 hundredths, 162 thousandth 9 thousandths, and the dividend.

4. 29 hundredths, 7 millionths, 62 thousandths, and 12567 ten EXERCISE 29.

millionths. 1. Express as decimals

5. 95 thousandths, 61 millionths, 6 tenths, 11 hundredths, and 265 1. loro. 18

hundred thousandths.

6. 1 tenth, 2 hundredths, 16 thousandths, 7 millionths, 26 thon2. 2516, 4156, 9tober

sandths. 95 ten millionths, and 7 ten thousandths. 3. 7:8. 43,04% 3,00056, 9:38:''s.

7. 96 hundred thousandths, 92 millionths, 25 hundredths, 45 thou2. Express as fractions, or mixed numbers

sandths, and 7 tenths. 1, 22, 246, 3624.

8. Subtraction of Decimals. 2. 03697, .000-46.

It is evident, from the remarks we have made with respect to 3. 48.068, 007006, 1.100192, *0000018.

the addition of decimals, that the process of subtraction will be 3. Multiply and also divide each of the decimals in the pre- performed in exactly the same way as in simple subtraction. ceding examples by 100 and by 10000.

Thus, to subtract 3.275 from 6-14, we write the decimal 4. Diride 1 and 40-0039 by 10000 and also by 10000000. points under each other, as in the margin, adding a cipher

5. Express as fractions or mixed numbers the following to 6:14 for convenience, to make the number of decimal 6-140 decimals

places correspond with that of the number to be sub- 3-275 90-0106 2.3.6213

1.13006 tracted. We then say—borrowing 1 (really do, or mi) 2. 12:30 19683 171020

9 2.3167 i from the next highest order of figures, as in simple addi 9.183126


tion-5 from 10 leaves 5, then 8 from 14 leaves 6, and so on, 1368 33 173

8 3319

the decimal point in the row of figures obtained falling under XXX9 07.18

the other decimal points.
17 101
DIN 107


We may also exhibit the process as follows:-

6:14 = 14:

23-275 = 14, 6. Write the fractional part of the following mixed numbers in decimals

Tuercfore 614 - 3.275 - 6140 - 3275

1000 = 1005 = 2.865. O's.- The methods of simple addition and subtraction apply

to decimals, because the only condition upon which their truth 7. Decals

depends is, that the places of figures should increase in value 885131904, 0018, and 6:4.

in a tenfold ratio from right to left, which is the case with under unita, tonths ander tenths, etc.; or, decumils.

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proverb receives its fulfilment in human history, "When God 1. Find the difference in the following pairs of decimals :

loathes aught, men come presently to loathe it too." 1. 3.405 and 2.179. 13, 10 and .0000001.

Justice in the administration of the law is a glory to any 2. 9 and 79999.

14. 9 and .999999.

people. It is well known that in the degenerate days of Rome 3. 456 0546 and 36.3123.

15. 4636 and 4654.

the judges were in the guilty habit of receiving bribes, and it 4. 1400-32 and 32.756218.

16. 25.0050 and 567.392. is needless to say that at this period the national character 5. 91.67 and .682319.

17. 76.2784 and 29'8:234. had degenerated, when other things beside the ermine of 6. 816323:01 and 9.163.

18. '0000001 and .0001.

justice were dragged in the dirt. English law is above sus7. 100 506 and 19:30723.

19. '0000004 and .00034.

picion for purity and honour in its administration. Trial by 8. 070365 and 009023478.

20. 32 and .00032.

jury answers to a very large extent the high ends of justice, 9. 1 and 99.

21. 24681 and 87023.

whilst the Courts of Equity, now so much more used than in 10. 10 and 1000001.

22. 25 and -25. 11. 6500001 and 96823 17.

23.000-45 and 45.

olden days, save the cause of truth from being lost by more 12. 3-29 and 999.

21. 00200099 and 99.

legal quibbles and technicalities.

Justice in commercial life is the very cement of society. When 2. Subtract the less from the greater of the following |

| it is infringed upon by wrong-doing, depression settles down on numbers :

trade and commerce, and for this single reason, that in civilised 1. 7 hundred and 7 hundredths.

states of society all bartering and exchanging is carried on upon 2. 46 hundredths and 46 thousandths.

credit, which is only another word for confidence ; if, therefore, 3. 95 thousandths and 909 ten thousandths.

that be damaged, it is easy to see how all the interests of the 4. I billionth and 1 trillionth. 5. I thousandth and 1 millionth.

nation must suffer with it. Then only are we safe from paltry 6. 29 thousand and 92 thousandths.

jobbery and trickery, when we can honestly say, "I hate op7. 236 millions and 256 thousandths.

pression and robbery.” 8. 2874 millionths and 211 billionths.

We are not to be just only because it will be rewarded here 9. 6231 hundred thousandths and 154 millionths.

and hereafter: we are to do right because it is right. At the 3. Find the value of 04:203 – 0049 + .175 - 17.5.

same time we cannot conceal from ourselves the fact that in the 4. Find the value of $ 56.001 - 219:123 - 0305 +1.00007. system of things in which we live there are rewards accompanying

an upright life such as no wealth can purchase. To be looked upon as unimpeachable for integrity, and unquestionable concern.

ing justice, is to have that atmosphere of respect around us which ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-II. can only be ensured by persistent continuance in well-doing.

Injustice, whatever form it assumes, apart from

its inner

penalties, will bring coldness and suspicion with it, and we shall THERE is a sense of accountability in every human breast. lose two of the sweetest enjoyments of life—the sense of an Savage and civilised races alike manifest its existence. The approving conscience, and the good name which, we are told on degree of its intensity, as a power, may differ, but it is as much the highest authority, is rather to be chosen than silver or gold. an integral part of the moral nature of man, as the eye and Only quibblers ask, “What is justice ?” They try to set the ear are parts of his physical economy. All injustice is aside its claims by casuistical questions concerning its nature. contrary to our moral sense. It may be indulged to gratisy Justice is, in a word, the practice of those essentially Christian passion, pride, ambition, covetousness; but it is condemned maxims, doing unto others as we would they should do unto by the high court of judicature within, and sooner or later us, and loving our neighbour as ourselves. We have treated of injustice brings its terrible penalty with it. Naboth's vine- justice first amongst the moral principles in our consideration of yard may be unjustly secured by covetous pillage, but neither life and duty, because we have in it the basis of national, as it the groves nor the grapes can minister lasting happiness : the is of individual, prosperity and honour. Above all, let us regnawing sense of wrong will be awakened. That which a member that it is this faculty in the moral sense which, whilst than sows he is sure to reap. This fine and delicate sense, it ensures for us the favour of man, keeps us also in the fear it is admitted, may be dimmed by ignorance, darkened by of God. superstition, and sometimes, by long neglect, it may but slumber in the breast ; but it never dies out. All nations have more or

LESSONS IN DRAWING.–VII. less honoured the God-given sentiment of justice. The Greeks had their Justitia, called Astræa and Themis ; the Romans had To draw Fig. 51, proceed as follows: draw the horizontal line a goddess, which was at one time an abstraction rather than a HL, arrange the Ps, and place the point a where the corner of deity possessing personality. The coins, however, that have the wall crosses the horizontal line; next, the points d and e, with been preserved, represent Justice as a maiden wearing a diadem, the perpendiculars passing through them. As the arch is semiholding a sword and scales. Sometimes she is represented as circular, its centre will be at h, perpendicular to i, found by the holding in the one hand a cup, and in the other a sceptre. Nor intersection of the diagonal lines f k and b m; the point h is then can we forget that in the earlier ages of history, three years the radiating point for the points of the stones forming the before Xerxes invaded Greece, the Athenians hastened to call to arch. If the arch were lower, as Fig. 52, draw the chord ab; their political councils, and to the command of their armies, one from the centre d mark the required height cd, draw ca and who had before received the memorable cognomen of Aristides cb, bisect ac and cb by the lines fe and ge, e will then be the the Just. It need scarcely be said that the Scriptures also are centre of the circle of which a c b is a segment; the lines full of honours paid to the just.

| 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., will radiate at e. To bisect a line, as cb in Fig. Nothing is so mean as injustice. Lacking the element of 52, from c and b, with the same distance in the compasses mako Justice in character, no other qualification will be of much arcs to cut one another in p and s; through these points p and s avail. Generosity is only a misnomer where justice is set at' draw a straight line, which will bisect the line cb, that is, it will nought. If we give prodigally to some whilst we are defrauding divide it into two equal parts. others, we are not generous but merciless. Injustice, however, It will be seen that the heights of many kinds of arches are does not merely relate to our dealings in material commodities. regulated by their diameters; the two pointed arches, Figs. 53 It appertains to our estimates of each other, to our expressions and 54, will exemplify this. Let the diameter of the pointed concerning each other, and to all the aspects of our common horse-shoe arch, Fig. 53, be ab, bisect it in e, and draw to any life. We may do the very greatest injustice to others even length ef; bisect a e in c, and eb in d; from c, with the radius by the suppressio veri, or the mere keeping back of truth con. cb (or distance of cb taken with the compasses), describe the arc cerning them. Justice is of immense importance to nations. Of; also from d, with the same radius, describe the arc af. The The preservation of treaties, the payment of bonds and interests' higher-pointed arch, called the early English, Fig. 54, radiates on national loans is of the highest moment to the reputation from a and b, with the distance a b producing the arcs a d and bd.. of any people, and the infraction of just principles is sure to The semi-elliptical arch, Fig. 55. Let ab be the diameter; work out national punishment in the loss of credit and prestige. bisect ab in e by the line cd; bisect eb and ea in the points As it is with nations, so it is with individuals. Men come to f and 9; from f, with the radius f g, draw the arc gh, and from Abrink with disdain from the wifully unjust, and the old g, with the same radius, draw the arc fh; draw from h, through

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