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f, t'e Tre). , and tirough a the line hen; from f, with the the plural, three cases are alike in nouns ending in um. These
n., draw tie arc bi; from y, wii.. the radius ga, draw the three cases are the nominative, the accusative, and the vocative,
k; ud from him with the ralius hi, draw the arc ik;, which in the singular end in um, and in the plural in a. **sii miel be the arch required. It will be noticed that the I subjoin an in-tance of each of the four terminations, thus:
in of the joints of the stone composing these various hortus, a garden, has the first termination ; puer, & boy, the ars, in to the centres jrrin tich the arcs thu cires are drain. second; vir, a mail, the third ; bellum, war, the fourth. Tegive their few instances of the principioupon which arches
EXAMPLES IN THE SECOND DECLENSION. are con-trusted, in order to assist the pupil when drawing a
Singular. building from the object, or from a copy were these facts are
N. hortus, a garden. puer, a boy. vir, a man. bellum, uar, not indicated by adlütional lines, to cuderstand at once how he G. hort, of a garden, pueri. of a boy. viri, of a man. belli, of wer. is to proceed in fire-hand drairiity, when placing his points of D. horto, to a web puero, to a boy. viro, to a man. bello, to war. Erection or arrangement. We shall have frquent occasion to Ac. hortum, a guitab. puer, .n, a boy. virum, a man. bellum, war. week for help in Geometrical Problems, as they so materially ; V. horto, O gard n! puer, u boy! vir, o man! bellum, Owar! a ist us in our explanations, and we hope the pupil also in , Ab. horto, by a garien, puero, bja boy. viro, by a man. bello, by var. compre!: onding them; we dezire, therefore, that the pupil will
Plural. practirally go through the few problems given, in order to fix N. horti, gardens. puer, los. viri, men.
viri men bela, tcars. the principles of construction permanently in his mind. To G. hortorusid, of car. patrick, of virorum, of bellorum, of draw an arch in perspective--that is, in a rctiring position—the
scars. points of the arch and the points which help us in the con-truc- D. horts, to garelons. pueris, to bous. viris, to men. bellis, to vars. tion must all be used, as they are when the arch (like Figs. 51 Ac. hortos, gardens. puer”, bu $. viros, men, bella, tars. to 53) is in a parallel position. We will first give an example
v. horti, () guides! pueri, O box! viri, O men! bella, 0 wars! of a single retiring arch (Fig. 56), and then a group of them
Ab. hortis, by Guris ss. pueris, by W.$. viris, by men. bellis, by ears. under diferent arrangements. Draw the horizontal line 1 L, and 1 In ager, a fit' ?, and some other nouns, the e is rejected in all the line ab; from a draw a line to the v P; this will determine the cases except the nominative and vocative singular. Thus, toe length of the line cd; these are the perpendicular heights ager makes in the genitive singular agri :from which the arch springs. To find the centre, e, draw cb and
Cases. Plural. ad, draw eg, and mark f, the height of the arch. The difficulty
N. ager, a feil.
X. agri, fields. will be to find the point p in the curve fa, this curve not being
G. agri, oj a jedl.
G. agroruin, of fields. 80 straight as fc; through s draw the line m k from the vani-h
D. agro, to a jield.
D. agris, i fields. ing point; continue dc to m, and ba to k; draw the curve fc,
Ac. agrum, a field.
Ac. agros, fields. observing its distance from the line (or chord) cs; draw mi,
V. ager, Opeld!
V. agri, ( fields cuttin; the curve fc in r, draw ik; through r from the v P draw
Ab. agro, by a field.
Ab. agris, by jidds. the line on, cutting ki in P; JP al will be then the course of the Adjectives have terminations similar to the nouns of the first curve to form the remainder of the arch; the outer edge of the and second declension. Thus, bonus, gord, is declined like arch, tny kl, can be understood from the drawing; all the hortus, a garden, in the following manner :joints of the arch will radiate, as in Fig. 54, those from a to y
Plural. in c, and those from c to g in a; the horizontal lines of the
V. bonus hortus, a good garden. N. boni horti, gud gardens. (lenk. wall will vanish, as previously explained, at the point VP, if G. boni horti, oj a good garden. G. bonoruin hortoruit, of good garthe arch had been a semi-circular one, the joints of the arch D. bono horto, to a good garden. D. bonis hortis, to good gardens. would then have radiated in the perspective centre i. So the Ac. bonum hortum, a good garden. Ac. bonos hortos, good gardens. pupil will see that to accomplish the difficulties of a retiring v. bone horto, O goud garden! v. boni horti, O good gardens ! arch, he must first dot in that which may be termed the scaffold. Ab. bono horto, by a good garden. Ab. bonis hortis, by goed gardens. ing or perspective, and build his arch upon it.
Write out the following adjectives and nouns according :) Fig. 57 represents the interior of a tower having recesses these models :crowned by pointed arches. After the instructions given for
Malum bellam. the single arches, it will not be difficult to understand the
Magnus hortas. principles of drawing these.
Amica, -2, f., a female | Epistola, -æ, f., a letter, Multi, many.
Funestus, -a, -um., Peregrinus, i, m., a
Amicus, i, m., a friend.
Aper, apri, m., a boar. In (with the ablative Ripa, -2, I., a river's The second declension is known by the ending of the genitive
Britannia, Britain. I case), in or on; (with bank. singular in i. The terminations of the nominative are us, er,
Caper, capri, m., a the aceusative), into. Regnum, -i, 31., a kinggoat.
Ludus, -i, m., play. dom. ir, and um; of these terminations us, er, ir, are masculine, and
Discip«lus, i, m., a Magister, magistri, m., Schola, -æ, f., school. um is neuter; that is, nouns ending in us, er, ir, are of the scholar.
1. Boni viri bonos pueros amant. 2. Boni pueri amantur a bonis Sign I in the Genitire Singular.
viris. 3. Bonus puer scholam amat. 4. Boni magistri bonorum
puerorum amautur. 5. Estne tibi bonus magister ? 6. Funestum CASE-ENDINGS.
est bellum. 7. Est mihi bona amica. 8. Pueri sunt in schola. 9. LATIN. ENGLISH.
10. Peregrini multi in Britanniam
Nonne sunt pueri in scholâ ?
navigant. 11. Aper amici mei est magnus. 12. Est ludus in ripa. N. ús, er, ir, úm, (subject) N. 1,
13. Discipuli epistolas amant. 14. Ranæ sunt in ripis. 15. Caper est of G ürum,
magnus. 16. Bella funesta sunt in insula. to or for,
to or for. Ac.
EXERCISE 22.-ENGLISH-LATIN. üm, (object) Ac. Ös,
X, (object) V. $, er, ir, üm, 0 v. i,
1. I love good scholars. 2. Good scholars are loved by good men. Ab. 7, by, etc.
4. I have a boar. 5. Thou hast a goat. Ab.
3. Dost thou love a friend? is by, with or from.
6. The goats are on the river's bank. 7. A great and deadly war is A few remarks will make the meaning of the above table in the island. 8. Many fields are in Britain. 9. Boars are cten clear. First, let us speak of the singular. In the nominitive | deadly. 10. Omen, do you love the boys ? 11. My friends do not there are four terminations. The arrangement is meant to love strangers. 12. Boys love play. 13. Do boys love play? 16. show that of all these four í is the genitive-ending, and o the
Have you a female friend ? 15. I have not a large boar. 16. The dative-ending. In the nominative plural, there are two ter
letter of my female friend is in the garden. minations. The arrangement is meant to show that of both We are now in a condition to decline and study adjectives of these orum is the genitive-ending, and is the dative-ending. I what are called tiree terminations; as, amplus, ampla, amplum. The dative-ending and the ablative-ending is the same, being in large or spacious. Amplus, you see, is like hortus ; ampa, the singular o, and in the plural is. In both the singular and like mensa; and amplum is like bellum. In fact, amplas 23
the masculine gender, and is declined like a noun masculine it is thus declined: N. dii, G. deorum, D. diis, Ac. deos, V. dii, of the second declension ; ampla is of the feminine gender, Ab. diis. and is declined like a noun feminine of the first declension; | ERRATUM.-In the first Vocabulary, page 71, for Vincio, I conquer, and amplan is of the neuter gender, and is declined like a read, Vincio, I bind. noun neuter of the second declension. I subjoin the full de
VOCABULARY. pension of amplus, a, um. Like it are declined all adjectives Colo. 3, I cultivate, I Frumentum, -i, n.,corn. Rego, S, I guide, or, I ending in us, a, um; which are said to have three terminations honour, or, I worship. Granum, -1, n., & grain. rule. from the fact that such three terminations, us, a, um, etc., they Committo, 3, I intrust. Hinnio, 4, I neigh. Templum, i, n., a really have.
Curro, 3, I run. Juba, -&, f., a mane. temple.
Celeriter, swiftly. Longus, -a, -um, long. Varius, -a, -um, vario13, ADJECTIVES OP THREE TERMINATIONS OF THE FIRST AND
Equus, -i, m., a horse. Musca, -, f., a fly. Vireo, 2, I become green, SECOND DECLENSION.
Fecundus, -a, -um, Molestus, -a, -um, or, I become strong. EXAMPLE.--Amplus, m.; ampla, f.; amplam, n.; large. fruitful.
1. Equus hinnit. 2. Juba equi est pulchra. 3. Muscæ sunt N. amplus ampla amplum ampli ampla ampla
4. Sunt ne muscæ molesta ? 5. Boni discipuli non sunt ... ali amplo ampli amplorum amplirum amplorum molesti. 6. Longa bella sunt molesta. 7. Equi celeriter currunt. 1. auplo ampla amplo amplis amplis amplis 8. Vir regit equum. 9. Equus regitur a viro. 10. Equo pulchro As, ampl. amplam amplum amplos amplas ampla delector. 11. Agri sunt fecundi. 12. Herbæ agrorum sunt variæ. V. impla ampla amplum ampli amplos ampla 13. Agricola committit agris grana frumenti. 14. Agricola colit Ab anpb ampla amplo amplis amplis amplis agros. 15. Quam pulchre virentur agri ? 16. In agris florent variæ
herbæ. This form and other similar forms I advise you to learn
EXERCISE 24.- ENGLISH-LATIN. by beart in three ways; first, vertically, that is, from top to bottom; you will thus see the identity in form of the adjective
1. The field is fruitful. 2. Are the fields fruitful ? 3. Wars are
not fruitful. 4. Fields are cultivated. 5. You honour (worship) the Then learn it from the left hand not with the corresponding noun.
gods. 6. The gods are honoured by Tully (Tullius). 7. The horse to the right; thrs, amplus, ampla, amplum; learning the
and the mare are guided by the man. 8. Boars run swiftly. 9. Do singular first, and then the plural. Finally, learn the case.
goats run swiftly? 10. Flies are (there are flies) in the beautiful endings in the same two ways; thus:--.
garden. 11. Thou intrustest the horse to the field. 12. Good scholars 3. G.
are honoured. 13. O my son, temples are intrusted to the gods and D. AC. V. AB.
goddesses. 14. O Antony, the gods and goddesses are worshipped 13, i, o, um, 0, 0, " us, a, um, etc.
in temples. 15. O good God! thou art worshipped in the fruitful You cannot bestow too much pains in making yourself per- fields. 16. Good men are honoured by their sons and their Lectly familiar with each declension, each example, each form, / daughters. u you go forward. There is a good Latin maxim which says, *. festina lente," literally, hasten slowly, or as the English pro KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-VI. verb says, “slow, but sure.” In grammatical studies the
EXERCISE 15.-LATIN-ENGLISH. obzerrance of the proverb is very serviceable.
1. The frog croaks. 2. The frog is often (sæpe) the prey of the The adjective liber, free, is declined like the noun puer. The stork. 3. A stork injures a frog ; or, the stork injures the frog. 4. aljective pulcher, fair or beautiful, is declined like the noun The stork devours the frog. 5. O frog, thou croakest. 6. The water ager. Liber in the feminine gender is libera, and libera is is disturbed by the frog. 7. Plants (or the plants) flourish. 8. The declined like mensa. In the neuter gender, it is liberum, earth is clothed with an abundance of plants. 9. Storms injure and liberum is declined like bellum. I will give you the forms
(nocent) plants. 10. The earth produces plants. 11. O plants, how in full of both liber, libera, liberum, and pulcher, pulchra,
beautifully you adorn the earth! 12. The earth is clothed with
1. Plantæ florent. 2. Procella nocet plantæ. 3. Plantæ nocentur EXAMPLE.--Liber, free.
procella. 4. Ranæ devorantur a ciooniâ. 5. Terra gignit plantas. Singular,
Plural. X. liber
7. O plantæ, quam pulchre gignimini libera
6. Plantæ gignuntur terrâ. liběrum liberi liběræ libera
terrâ ! 8. Copiam aquæ laudo. 9. Procella movet aquas. 10. Aquæ C. libri libera liberi
libtrorum liberarum liberorum
procellâ moventur. D. libiro libéra liběro
liberis libi ris liberis de. Hirum liberam liběrum liberos liběras libě ra
EXERCISE 17.-LATIN-ENGLISH. V. libér libéra liběrum libi ri libre libera
1. I have a beautiful lark. 2. Hast thou (estne tibi) a beautiful Ako libero libéra liběro
Liberis libéris liberis
lark ? 3. My lark is beautiful. 4. Is my lark beautiful ? 5. Is not EXAMPLE.Pulcher, fair.
thy lark beautiful ? 6. Thy pigeon is very beautiful. 7. I have a
geod maid-servant. 8. My maid-servant is beautiful. 9. Julia is Singular.
sacred (augusta). 10. Sacred Julia is beautiful. 11. Is not sacred N. pulcher pulchra pulchrum pulchri pulchræ pulchra
Julia beautiful ? 12. The lark of my maid-servant is beautiful. G. pulcbri pulchre pulchri pulchrorum pulchrarum pulchrorum
13. Thy table is not square. 14. The island is great.
1. Est mihi columba. 2. Est tibi bona puella. 3. Estne tibi bona pulchris.
puella ? 4. Non est mihi bona puella. 5. Alauda tua est pulchra. 088.-The ch is pronounced like k, thus, pulker, pulkra,
6. Nonne magna est insula? 7. Magna non est insula. 8. Est ne pulkrum, etc.
tibi bona ancilla ? 9. Non est mihi bona ancilla. 10. Puellæ alauda Form, according to the models just given-
1. I have a deserter of Jugurtha. 2. Thou hast a bad deserter. Ternida bona, a good ecoman. Scriba bonus, a good writer,
| 3. I praise a good poet. 4. A good poet is praised. 5. The mare is Liber puer, a free boy. Vir magnus, a great man.
praised by the charioteer. 6. The sailors sail to the island. 7. Good
sailors praise their country. 8. The eagle is often praised by poets. Filius, a son, makes in the vocative singular fili, and meus 9. Husbandmen greatly delight in plants. 10. Thou errest, O sailor! m the vocative singular makes mi, as, O mi fili! O my son ! ! 11. Do you not err, O charioteers ? 12. I have the sadness of good ont filia, a daughter, makes in the vocative singular filia and poets. 13. I greatly love the shades of the groves. 14. The husband. meum in the neuter makes meum, as, O mea filia! O my
, men ride through the wood. dawghter! O meum officium! O my duty!
EXERCISE 20.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Proper names ending in ius have i in the vocative singular, 1. Estne tibi perfuga? 2. Malus estne perfuga ? 3. Boni poeta as, Tallins, 0 Tulli; Virgilius, O Virgili; Mercurius, O Mercúri; laudantur. 4. Poetas bonos laudo. 5. Boni agricole patriam laudant. Antonius, O Antoni.
6. Bonorum poetarum patria laudatur. 7. Per sylvam equitat pirata. Deus, God, has in the vocative singular deus ; in the plural 8. Ad insulnm navigat nauta. 9. Bona est equa aurigæ boni,
Is mit end, all filled with
ese chain of three
TS fue sindir 1 he ittile fish called the loach, *** Transparentemente imp o rta elemento de Barro
e ins antires obtained by the searcher a " " " " BY MADE your ***skap. Det samme sort any tightand s ee itrie Jogis e r he ting site, the air-bladder seems mubory you are there in t h e
opere Produkty pfang
2 * annet er minister to the ear: and in the herring Integrity to mee
t with point teigtit 20 sia interne af ets rocesses to be applied to other pro * 3+ #end
wake ind tiss in die ster pastrier of ish-istinguished from the fore* ** William Mku, dveh Budapesty mom i st na sod
ng mes ve ramen meter of the skeleton, this being 300, sony. But
on the fact that elastic cartilage is not Info pre 4 , Mi apy and uses and th
cannt, bot, ami 305 90 pood . conductor of sound, as
$ se given to bring the ear in closer
ter, whence the sounds come. The
whose labyrinth is closely STEPounded by gristle, and in sharks
kwa hay quan. Han*** m she the city, al mins to the top of the head, and NA W IMA MNY A the Boy #Hill ever say ayer a pasya Awet n ie bere closed by the skin. In the ray, 8 canal runs " F ITN Te Wynn
*** yangte : of the two semiren emals to 3 similar orince.
m bea Both Giftephentering in the hiti th , you have A A A
Acoge canais sze of case filed, not with air, but with nimerat forhoftily like you if u null, word ;* p. in ne mesna hat, of the shark being filed with what is called perilympus til letting the mir milti hyvin tyytrina 4*, Wut ja treh tonnal faid, and that of the my with endolymph, or with thepihall I he topfteihin while it Jiyo it the water tre faid.
ihmibol will h a en Missitud j4 w Bryanty Perubong o much has been conjectured, and so little is really known, W hip while w Hall Imbaliny Wyn mir bei foulard the about the organ of hearing in the invertebrate classes, that,
htle they firefrils he try out fur last badertes they must im wcarcely advisable to enter upon the subject in a poput Mamin with the theme, while the demobila vulve in front of the publication. The great diversity of sounds produced by Insects Alimminentiste levou um homem orff the time fron the menth | wyme of which, like the cicada (which makes the Italian coppies lly hulillage the tits populare Wayu, mud for yw he mainet tha aurata ring perpetually with its loud, grating cry), have very elaborate u Ila wilay wipine Inw, I look wie water while its own contrivances for the prodaction of noises, makes it almost certa lity in therapie M** three men tho muriva, Now we that this large order of the jointed animals have the sense In the NHA Thin ****y mint Immunoplied with air, and hearing. On the other hand, the almost universal mutenes Full H o hn werdende luin ll, lue the fountaihian tubo, or | tho mollusca might have led us to suppose that the orgie