Εικόνες σελίδας



Ils sont quelque part.

They are somewhere.

Ils ne sont nulle part.

They are nowhere.


Est-ce que je demeure chez vous ? Do I live at your house ?
Anh-ploah or plwah

Do I eat too much?

Est-ce que je mange trop ?




Absent, -e, absent.
Temps or Tems

Concert, m., concert. | Noir, -e, black.
Adresse, f., address. Couper, 1, to cut. Perruquier, m., hair.
Banque, f., bank. Cuir, m., leather.


Banquier, m., banker. Depuis, since.

Point, not.
Beeanh (one syll.)


Billet, m., note. Ecole, f., school. Poste, f., post-office. Cependant Spanh-danh


Bois, m., wood. Ecolier, m., scholar. Rouge, rod.

To charm.

Chapeau, m., hat. Eglise, f., church, Village, m., village. Encore Anh-kor.


Chapelier, m., hatter. | Marché, m., markot. Vert, -e, green,

Appointed place.



1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier. Surprendre Sur-pranhdr

To surprise.

3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque? 4. Vous allez à la banque SECTION XXIV.-INTERROGATIVE FORM OF PRESENT

et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois ? 6. Vous INDICATIVE.

ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porte un 1. In the first person singular of the present of the indicative

Cuapeau vert ? 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, vous en

portez un noir. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque part? 10. Il of almost all those French verbs which in that person have only

va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne va-t-il pas chez le one syllable, the common interrogative form (Sect. XXII. 9] is not allowed. To render the verb interrogative, the expression

perruquier ? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. Ne portez-vous point

des bottes de cuir rouge ? 14. J'en porte de cuir noir. 15. est-ce que is prefixed to the affirmative form ($ 98 (5) (6)].

N'allez-vous pas chez le banquier? 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui; Est-ce que je vends du drap? Do I sell cloth ?

il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vient-il à la banque ce matin ? Est-ce que je joue souvent ? Do I play often?

18. I a l'intention d'y venir, s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envie 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to have; d'aller au concert ? 20. Il a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a étre, to be; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able; devoir, to owe;

pas de billet. 21. Demeurez-vous dans ce village? 22. Oui, savoir, to know, etc., may, however, be conjugated interroga

Monsieur, j'y demeure. 23. Envoyez-vous ce billet à la poste ? tively according to the general rules.

24. Je l'envoie à son adresse.
Ai-je vos mouchoirs ?
Have I your handkerchiefs ?

Combien vous dois-je ?
How much do I owe you ?

1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a handsome 3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and sometimes

green hat. 3. Does the banker go to the hairdresser's this preferable, when the first person singular of the present of the

morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he intend indicative of a verb has several syllables ($ 98 (6)].

to go to the bank this morning ? 6. He does not intend to go

there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to the postEst-ce que je vous envoie des livres? Do I send you books ?

office? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet written (écrites). Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak ?

9. Do I send you a note ? 10. You send me a ticket, but I have 4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does your brother go to the persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated in school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) to-day, and remains at terrogatively :-Qu'est-ce que vous lisez ? may be said, instead

home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there ? 14. You do not go of, Que lisez-vous ? What do you read ?

anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to your

brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent 5. INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF | since yesterday. 18. Does your brother live in this village ?

ALLER, to go. I ENVOYER, to send. 1 VENIR, to come. | 19. He does not [Sect. XXIII. 12], he lives at my nephew's. Est-ce que je vais ? do Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens ? 20. Are you wrong to go to school ? 21. No, Sir, I am right to

I go, or am I going ? I send, or am I sending? do I come, or am I go to church and to school. 22. Do you wish to come to my
Envoies-tu ?

Viens-tu ? [coming? house ? 23. I like to go to your house, and to your brother's.
Va-t-il ?
Envoie-t-il ?

Vient-il ?

24. When are you coming to our house ? 25. To-morrow, if I Allons-nous ? Envoyons-nous ?

Venons-nous ?

have time. 26. Does the banker like to come here? 27. He Allez-vous ? Envoyez-vous ?

Venez-vous ?

likes to come to your house. 28. Is the hairdresser coming ? Vont-ils? Envoient-ils ?

Viennent-ils ?

29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are you sending to the 6. The article le, preceded by the preposition à, is contracted scholar? 31. I am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. into an before a noun masculine commencing with a consonant, Where is he? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the school in the or an h aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun (S 13 (8)]. | village ? 35. It is there. Allez-vous au bal ou au marché ? Do you go to the ball or to the market? 7. À l'eglise means at or to church; à l'école, at or to school.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-VII. Nous allons à l'église et à l'école, We go to church and to school.

SECTION XI.--REPRESENTATIVES FOR LEAVES IN 8. Quelque part means somewhere, anywhere ; nullo part,


LEAVES, properly so called, only exist on plants which bear Votre deveu où est-il ? Where is your nephew ?

flowers. The reader may test this by his own experience. Did Il est quelque part, He is somewhere.

he ever see a leaf on a mushroom, or a moss, or any other n n'est pulle part, He is nowhere.

cryptogamic plant? Probably he may say, “Yes, I have seen RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

them on ferns, and these are cryptogamic plants." Well, we Est-ce que je vais à l'école ? Do I go to school ?

have already stated that the leaf-like expansions on ferns are Vous allez à l'église anjourd'hui. You go to church to-day.

not leaves, but fronds, and we have explained the distinction Est-ce que je commence mon tra- Do I begin my work ?

between a leaf and a frond. It only remains to be said, in vail ?

connection with this subject, that the little stem to which these Est-ce que je parle Anglais ? Do I speak English ?

fronds are attached, and which corresponds to a petiole in a real Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon Do I send this book to my brother ?

leaf, is denominated a stipes, from the Latin stipes, the trunk of frère ? Allez-vous au marché demain ? Do you go to market to-morrow ?

a tree. In the next page is a representation of one of the treeJ'y vais après-demain. I go there the day after to-morrow ?

ferns of tropical climates, the trunk of which is denominated a Envoyez-vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school ? cauder, from the Latin caudex, a stem. Je les envoie chez le professeur, I send them to the professor's. Je les y envoie cette après-midi, I send them thore this afternoon. * The i of si is elided before il, ils, but in no other case. This is the Tos habits où sont-ils ? Where are your olothes ?

| only instance of the elision of i.

In past ages Shese treties must have been smags the look at and agreeste to sell the botanist is obliged frequently most numerous of vegetatie Podnans Cani we need hardly to destros tiers before he can make himself acquainted with the SET, is wal IWI De B D mare te the remains of peculatia de aber tractee; that is to say, he is obliged to vegetabit substans, stimmg besed od cest pressure the ce petar Tarees cesses from their attachments ; this eart that they have changes to the one in west operatie is termed sesection Presently, then, we shall have Tiresent find that are

the chasge of gasity, yet to diasect a forex sed lears is various parts. As a preliminary m many cakes the

n e the resensie has sot de to this

e n tide bosete, it be necessary that the learner gone alteration. So I pes s ec 14,

2 ted with bosd make himse sorated with some general terms em. Botant car soucis a the bas i s from

any spec. pored in this deperties of Botany. men of con under stare has been formed

First of all the the meme in which flowers are arranged Although Sandis see the skices fc lestes is ferus sad poe sy plest sized she is forescence of that plant. By sever sher agar piete. setertheless these crois tre this ter botts Distand sot merely the flower itself, but mint she m ers sis : be tine ganz) cozziesty of various appesieges so the fore; in short, the term inflorescence

tagamr pinta te m osque matere of these seguss, so has a very de estice Tegetetue we sender desse to state scach oderning

SECTIOS IV.-XASSE IN WHICH FLOWERS ARE then I serie de papers te these, ich so may tribes

ATTACHED. flowerme piste EULSE O Botide

The sttachment of Soces to the parent stem usually takes

place through the interestice de a little branch-like appendage, SBTO L.-OS THE BIT303-CTIVE OEGANS OF

to which the ters geduncie, ce oecasionally pedicel, is applied. PASTS TEE FLOWER AND ITS APPENDAGES.

Tbe resda I. tbedre receber that a peduncle or pedicel Eerm Tra t is necessary o r g the Estritive stands to a sore the sade relation as a petiole to a leaf. It

is also called the primary axis of in Sorescence, and the flower-stalks

which spring from it are called would be us, indeed to describe

the soundary, tertiary, etc., axes. 1 It wisi is meert baiser,

These pedicels or flower-stalks are

arranged on various plants in dif. designed the acco é rege

ferent ways, and thus give rise to various terms indicative of the nature of inflorescence. The word padende is derived from the low Latin patunculus, a little foot, while painel is derived from the Latin

peenies, which has the same mean. m e d The resse. them, ice

ing. Both words are diminutives damnating fovers the seçedes

of the Latin pes, a foot.

The inflorescence, or mode of fost To Este tios ist that soves

Bovering, is said to be definite or e tine reçeodactive partices of s

terminal when the primary axis is pilset is very easy. To deace

terminated by a flower. When the etaste borere. she elaborate Desas

original stem goes on growing in 67 was the sectices of reprodas

a straight line, giving off as it pro

ceeds little flower-shoots or seconddeed she isos afecting the lo

sry ares of various degrees on törstas s alsed vegetables

either side, but does not terminate

in a flower, then the term indefinite that m y the terms explored

is donescence is applied; the prothis department of Botazy sze

priety of which term will be obborrowed fre tibe este storbes of

vious. The term axillary is somesimal sostomy sed peysiolog;

times given to this condition of sad withoes some peelis laor

inflorescence. If the reader glance ledge these sciences it would be

for an instant at Fig. 60 in the

opposite page, he will be at Dea de competend the strescies & regetable reprodactions ! Do loss to comprebend what is meant by indefinite or

We therefore she sot sitempt to del rith these intricacies, nelany inforescence. The reader will here please to obbes sia content ourselres by saying that a piants most pro serve the little lesi-site things from the azillæ (or junctions isbes, cert e ridentiy-sorering ce pedogassons plants with the primary srs) of which the flower-peduncles spring possess sexes, sad these seres are smily the suse plant, in in this example Such lesi-like sppendages are frequently the same fore of the past eessions. bowever, the two to be seen attached to the peduncles of many flowers. They

tes se a res forers wat sometimes on different are siled traces from the Latin bructes, a thin plate of metal, pists. We , eretrepoceis 37. that the greater and sithonh thcir usual appearance is green like a leaf, yet they

aber of seves d icti remiamasi Bes; bat oous-' sometimes undergo rery strange modifications. Thus, the pinesien s some piste te rendesen m indeste Bowers apple, which are sooreed long ago to be no fruit, is, in reality, esc sa to zet: si corsica . Si te geeiienen mono- nothing more than an arbiage of fleshy bracts, and the scale polise the forces de is e Ses at the flowers of the firone is nothing more than hard leathery bracts. In e she stieWer sie is ses resset osts of forens proportion ss besets are developed nearer to & flower, so does co que pisat fan a s it's be a s from two their natural green colour gire place to the colour of the Gesel pais. 2015 mei nas si Bucos pronounced sover itself. Deessionally the lower actually springs from c os' signing te brine. sive riseswe saypose, being the upper suriace of a beset, as in the case of the linden

be a sh . mi se facers ss ders in the same. Fig. 61). Waa.

b e the missing the govers of one plant. Sometimes besets unite at the base of each group of flowers, site Semiass e avess & another, then such pients and on the same pisne, ss for example, we find it in the sał to be a

T e set the son of whics carrot. This association of brsets gives rise to what botanists

· term the

ha Latin werd, which is derived from volvo, SEL EL-AVATORICAL TANISATION OF A FLOWER.

to wrap e ml, and wheà means anything that serves to wrap Planing sojecte de contentie sa fures are beautiful to l'aver the classigatiwa indefinite inflorescence are compre.

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este tres se beste se let look sweetly out from yon

Best Bome' what's besished, bot set free from daily . .


i me sings I lostbe? Tried and convicted traitor". :

2 2 W sus his? Who'll prove it, at his peril, on my head ? . . . 2 .

' -I thank you for 't. It breaks my chain! I held .

: 12 e side erinne till this hour-but DOTZ Sword's my own. .

I usuals merciful. For this all thanks He dares not touch
er of Catiline. “Traitor!" I go — but I return. This —
S. Bere I devote your senate! I've had

e had


rengs to stir a fever the biood of age. . . This day is the birth of sorrows. i s a site The spe could at once command a long-stretching rista, seemingly . .. Let us be close and shut up at both extremities by the coalescing cliffs. .. .

:. It seemed like Laocoon struggling ineffectually the hideous coils . **um of the monster Python.

In those mournful months, when vegetables and animals are N i

l s Ware, shake coerced by cold, man is tributary to the howline storm and .. .

u ris en of the the sulle sky; and is, in the pathetic phrase of Johnson. A "slave to


I would call upon all the true sons of humanity to cooperate with Ja

v ier N elliken is kertas the laws of man and the justice of Heaven in abolishing this “cursed h y pay here in the WAN each of the

nie & Roweet the radiary Come, faith, and people these deserts! Come and reanimate these aber 1.

Warty is before regions of forgetfulness. i

n Wup for the rest. The I am a professed lucubrator; and who so well qualified to delineate he Wrobel Ik '* ere, as in the the sable hours, as we love i v enda mer (Fig.'

“A meagre, muse-rid mope, adjust and thin ?" He forsook, therefore, the bustling tents of his father, the pleasant

“south country" and the "well Labai-roi ;" he went out and penthe " Yene i

l i sively meditated at the eventide (see Genesis xxiv. 62). m i kis.

* a h

st or The Grecian and Roman philosophers firmly believed that “the w ww . : . UWhatho ffowers are dead of midnight is the noon of thought." w a Hal here

the area' Young observes, with much energy, that "an undevout astronomer 11. 4 . the one httle bundles is an is mad." AB peloshi on puoles terolu lygth and an Young Blount his armour did unlace, and, gazing on his ghastly

face, said-"By Saint George, he's gone! that spear-wound has our master sped; and see the deep cut on his head! Good night to

Marmion!"-" Unnurtured Blount ! thy brawling cease ; he opes his laculukuuta

in the dovednetele kwa

eyes," said Eustace, "peace !” i dalluit. While the real into

A celebrated modern writer says, " Take care of the minutes, and we are look the mallow waari n ( 841 fu the groundsel

• In this lesson, as well as in some of the preceding lessons, there mum thu povel tutte is a

are several sentences of poetry, which are not divided into poetical el tulkupale ale mutulous

lines. The object of printing these lines without regard to this ambu l an which the

division, was to prevent the student from falling into that “sing song" belanh Minh Minhel on sell in

utteranee, into which he is too apt to fall in reading verse. It de la Heliul, trequently romains to be observed here, that abbreviations and contractions, A little futwal unbel of such as occur in poetical sentences in this lesson and others, which

appear in the form of prose, are not allowable in prose itselt.

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the hours will take care of themselves." This is an admirable! It was a cave, a huge recess, that keeps till June December's snow; remark, and might be very seasonably recollected when we be

recipice in fro t, a silent tarn I below. be " weary in well-doing," from the thought of having much to do.

C-e-o-u-s, I've seen the moon gild the mountain's brow; I've watched the

C-1-0-0-s, mnist o'er the river stealing ; but ne'er did I feel in my breast, till now,


are pronounced like shås. so deep, so calm, and so holy a feeling ; 'tis soft as the thrill which

T-1.0.u-s, memory throws athwart the soul in the hour of repose.

Blest be the day I 'scaped the wrangling crew from Pyrrho's maze See where the rector's ** splendid mansion stands, embossèd deep and Epicurus' sty; and held high converse with the godlike few, who in new enclosed lands,-lands wrested from the indigent and poor, to th' enraptured heart, and ear, and eye, teach beauty, virtue, truth, because, forsooth, he holds the village cure.it and love, and melody.

When the young blood danced jocund through his veins, 'tis said Bat thou, who Heaven's just vengeance dar'st defy, this deed, with his sacred stole It received some stains. fruitless tears, shalt soon deplore.

Their wants are promised Bridewell, $S or the stocks. O Winter! ruler of the inverted year! thy scatter'd hair with slectlike ashes fill'd, thy breath congeald upon thy lips, thy cheeks fring'd with a beard made white with other snows than those of age, thy

MECHANICS.–VI. forehead wrapt in clouds, a leafless branch thy sceptre, and thy throne a sliding car, indebted to no wheels, but urg'd by storms along its

FINDING CENTRES OF GRAVITY. slipp'ry way, I love thee, all uplovely as thou seem'st, and dreaded as

| In the last lesson it was shown that every mass of matter has a thou art! For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar

centre of gravity, but we did not inquire how such centres are with this inscription, "TO THE UXKNOWN GOD." Whom therefore ye

found in bodies of known shapes. To that part of our subject ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

we now proceed.

As a general rule, the problem requires high mathematics for XIV. THE ASTERISK, OBELISK, DOUBLE OBELISK, SECTION,

its solution; but there are some cases in which the centre can be PARALLEL, PARAGRAPH, INDEX, CARET, BREVE, AND

discovered without much difficulty. I take, first, the practical BRACE.

method by suspension, which gives it exactly whenever the body The student should take particular notice of the following is of a uniform thickness, such as a deal board, or card, or piece marks, so that he may call them by name, and discover their of paper. The two opposite faces should be equal and alike, use in the following examples :-

the edges being either perpendicular or square to them, or

running off at the same slope. In all such cases it is evident * An Asterisk, or Star.

TA Paragraph. + An Obelisk, or Dagger.

that the centre of gravity is within the substance of the board

SA Section. I A Double Obelisk.

A Parallel.

half-way across between the faces. If, therefore, we can find

the point on either face under which it lies, by boring straight 78. The Asterisk, Obelisk, Double Obelisk, Paragraph, Section, in half-way at that point, the required centre is reached. Parallels, and sometimes figures or letters, are used to show that But how find the outside point? Let the board be of any there is a note at the bottom of the page. When many notes occur irregular shape, as at a (Fig. 27), and bore two holes through it on a page, these marks are sometimes doubled.

perpendicularly at any two points, near its edge, o and Q. Put 79. The Paragraph was formerly used to show the beginning | a straight iron rod now through o, and on the rod, by a small of a new subject in a chapter.

ring, hang a plumb-line, o A, close to the board. Put rod, line, 80. The Section is generally used to sub-divide chapters into and board now across two supports, so arranged that the rod lesser parts.

may be horizontal. The board having settled to rest, the centre 81. The Index or Hand points to something which of gravity will, as I showed in last lesson, be somewhere behind requires particular attention.

the plumb-line. Chalk now, or mark with a pencil, the course, 82. The Breve - is placed over a letter to show that it has O A, of this line on the board. Perform the same operation with a short sound; as, Hělěna.

the hole e, pencilling in like manner the line Q B. What now 83. The Brace ma is used to unite several lines of poetry; have we? Two lines, behind both which the centre of gravity or, in prose, to connect a number of words with one common term. lies; whence we infer that their intersection, , is the point

84. The Caret 1 is never used in printed books; but in required. writing it shows that something has accidentally been left But the method in part applies to bodies which have not out; as,

parallel faces like boards, or are not cut perpendicularly, or at recited

the same slope across at their edges ; but in such cases the George has his lesson.

sought centre is not midway across. All that is necessary is

that there should be one flat face on it, as in that represented OBS.—When several asterisks or stars are placed together,

at b (Fig. 27). You can still determine the point g, behind they represent an ellipsis.

which the centre of gravity lies, by boring two passages at o Examples.'

| and q, perpendicularly to the face, into its substance, suspending Many persons pronounce the word Helēna* incorrectly. They call

and marking the lines o A, Q B, as before. The centre of it Helena ; and the words acceptable, rec'ognise, Epicure'an, and Europe'an, are sometimes incorrectly called acceptable, recogʻnise,

gravity will still be behind the point G; but where, or how far Epicu'rean, and Euro'pean.

in, is another question, the answer to which depends on the The leprosy, therefore, of Naäman shall cleave unto thee.

shape of the body. . ... • And he went out from his presence a lèper as white as

If the board which above first occupied our attention be supDOW.

posed to become very thin-to be cardboard, or even paper-the The Cougart is the largest animal of the cat kind, found in North body becomes almost all surface, and the point G and the centre America : and has occasionally received the name of the American

of gravity nearly coincide. Practically, they become identical; lion, from the similarity of its proportions and colour to those of the

and the operation is sometimes spoken of as “the finding of the bion of the old world.

centre of gravity of an area or surface.In strictness, a surface The keeper of the elephant gave him a gallon of arrack, I which rendered the animal very furious.

cannot have a centre of gravity, for (see Lesson I. on Geometry) I fell upon my knees on the bank, with my two servants, and the

it has no thickness, and therefore can have no weight, no force, dragoman of the monástěry.

no centre of force. But, for all that, the inquiry is useful. The history of Joseph is exceedingly interesting and full of We may agree, for mechanical purposes, that a surface should instruction,

have such a centre; and the best course for that purpose is to

give it a thickness the smallest we can conceive, namely, that of * This with the St. before it, is the name of a small island situated

one particle or atom. Imagine, then, a triangle, or polygon, or on the west of Africa, noted for the exile of Napoleon I.

circle, one atom thick; and let us agree that, when we find its † Pronounced Coo-gar. The name given to this animal by the Americans generally is painter, evidently a corruption of panther.

Tarn is a small lake, high up in the mountains. Arrack is a very strong spirituous liquor.

** A clergyman. Ś Dragoman means an interpreter.

+ Cure. -The office of a clergyman. 1 The whole history of Joseph will be found in the Bible; from the 11 Stole.-A long robe worn by the clergy of England. 7th chapter to the end of the book of Genesis.

$$ Bridevell.--A house of correction.

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