Εικόνες σελίδας
[ocr errors]





[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

a fleet; messis, a crop of com; clavis, a key ; navis, a ship. The 6. The hinge is moved. 7. The becomingness of order delights ablative singular has for the most part i (perhaps from ie) in- mothers. 8. There is a great dust of the ashes. 9. Peacocks are on stead of e in parisyllabics with the vowel-stem in i. In im. the shore. 10. We have not songs. 11. There is a wound in (his) parisyllabics with consonantal stems, e is the usual ablative

breast. 12. The light of the region is great. 13. He has a great termination, but i is sometimes found, derived from the usage

name. 14. Pledges are not praised. in the vowel-stems.

EXERCISE 28.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Nouns which make the ablative singular in i, make the 1. Timesne carbonem? 2. Cur puerum ferit mater? 3. Decus

which non est illis. 4. Vulnus est tibi. 5. Tuis patribus sunt vulnera, G. in the ablative singular end in i, in the nominative, accusative. | Vulnera terrent matres. 7. In regione florent poemata. 8. Tibi est and vocative plural end in ia.

nomen magnum. 9. Mihi non est pignus. 10. Ilis est occasio. 11. Adjectives of the third declension, in general, follow the

Viro magna est occasio. declension laws of the nouns, only that in the ablative singular they prefer i Adjectives of the third declension are of two

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-IX. sorts : first, those that have three terminations, as, alăcer, m., | The aim of all instruction in drawing onght to be, first, to alăcris, f., alăcre, n., lively, active; second, those that have two

convey in as clear and simple a manner as possible the best terminations, as the comparative, vilior, m. and f., vilius, n. I means of judging of the relative proportions of objects, not only meaner ; under this second class may stand such as ferox, fierce, with regard to their individual component parts, but also with which in the nominative singular is m., f., and n. (accusative, reference to the proportions these objects bear to one another; ferocem), but in the plural has for the neuter a separate form in and, secondly, to place before the pupil the most ready methods ia, as ferocia.

of representing these objects, subject as they are to an endless DECLENSION OF AN ADJECTIVE OF THREE TERMINATIONS. variety both of form and position. How is it that when EXAMPLE.-Acer, acris, acre, sharp, acute, pungent, energetic.

standing upon the side of a hill, and looking over a large extent Singular.

of country, if we raise the hand and hold it parallel to our eyes

Plural. Case. x.

at arm's length, it will cover or prevent our seeing probably Cases. » V. acer. acris. acre. N. acres. acres. acria.

many miles of landscape, including houses and villages? G. acris. acris, acris. G. acríum. acrtum. acrsum. Or, if we select a closer object--for instance, the house on the D. acri.

acri. D. acribus. acribus. acribus. opposite side of the street-and place the hand as before, we Ac, acrem. acrem. acre. Ac. acres. acres. acria. find the result to be the same? Simply because as objects V. acer. acris. acre." V. acres. acres. acres. retire, or are further from the eye, thay occupy less space upon Ab. acri. acri. acri. Ab, acribas. acribus, acribus.

the vision than when nearer. Hero, then, we have practical DECLENSION OF AN ADJECTIVE OF TWO TERMINATIONS. evidence that to represent these objects correctly we must EXAMPLE.-Suavis, m. and f.; suave, n., sweet.

inquire for some means which will enable us to accomplish our Singular,


task, and satisfy our minds that we have given these objects Cases. X, and F.

x, and F.

their right proportions as they retire, and that each object, and suavis. suave.

N. suaves. suavia, each part of an object, occupies its proper space upon the paper suavis. suavis,

sua vium, suavium. as it does in the eye; in short, giving them their true scale of D. suavi. suavi.

suavibus, suavibus. representation according to their distances from ourselves and suavem. suave. Ac. suaves. suavia,

from one another. The science of perspective enables us to V. suavis. suave.

suaves. suavia.

accomplish this end, and although we do not attempt, in these Ab. suavi. suavi. suavibus. suavibus.

lessons upon free-hand drawing, to go very deeply into geomeOTHER FORMS OF ADJECTIVES OF TWO TERMINATIONS. trical perspective, yet we find it absolutely necessary to make EXAMPLES.—Major, m. and f.; majus, n., greater; audax, m., some use of it in order to render our explanations clearer ; for f. and n. (audacem in acc.); audácia, n. plural, bold.

by the assistance of rules, difficulties are lessened, especially Singular.


when we can classify many objects and the circumstances in Cases. XP , X



which they are placed under the same principles. N. major. major. majus, majores. majores. majora. We said in a previous lesson that there were rules in perspecG. majoris. majoris. majoris. majorum. majorum. majorum. tive for regulating the retiring horizontal distances of objects, D. majori. majori. majori. majoribus, majoribus, majoribus. as well as their heights; and we now propose to give such of Ac. majorem. majorem. majus. majores. majores. majora.

these rules as are absolutely necessary for the pupil's guidance V. major. major. majus. majores. majores. majora. Ab. majore, majore. majore.

in free-hand drawing. We must first remind the pupil of what majoribus. majoribus, majoribus.

has been already said respecting the theory of planes or surfaces. Audax, m. and f.; audacia, n., bold.

A horizontal plane is a plane parallel with the earth; a perpenSingular.


dicular plane is one perpendicular to the earth. The top of a Cases. M. and F.

Cases. M. and F.


table and the ceiling of a room are horizontal planes; the walls audax. audax. N. audaces. audacia.

of the room are perpendicular planes. These are visible planes. audacis. audacis.

audacium, audacium.
audaci. audaci.

We are sometimes, in practical perspective, compelled to use

audacibus. audacibus, Ac. audacem. audax. Ac. audaces. audacia.

imaginary planes. These more properly belong to the practice audax. audax.

audaces. audacia.

of geometrical perspective. It will be very necessary for the audaci. audaci.

audacibus. audacibus. pupil, if he wishes thoroughly to understand the principles of

drawing objects at a given distance from him, especially KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN --VIII.

buildings, to go very attentively through future lessons on geoEXERCISE 25.–LATIN-ENGLISH.

metrical perspective, given in the pages of the POPULAR

EDUCATOR, for this reason: no one ought to be satisfied with 1. I have great grief. 2. Hast thou not great grief? 3. Mothers

| the result of his work, even if it be correct, unless he knows have great griefs. 4. The colour of the cushion is beautiful. 5. Is the colour of the cushion beautiful?

the whole of the why and the wherefore which have brought out

6. He has is under a deadly error. 7. Why has father is under) deadly errors ? 8. I have a

the result. It is, unfortunately, a very common practice in brother. 9. Brothers have great griefs. 10. Lightning frightens

some books of instruction upon drawing, when the subject is a animals. 11. Does not lightning frighten mothers ? 12. Lightning building, to mark a copy with letters--a, b, c, d, etc.--and carry trightens sparrows.

the instructions no further, but merely tell the pupil to draw EXERCISE 26.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

from a to b, and from c to d, and to observe that d is a littlo 1. Est mihi calcar. 2. Estne tibi anser ? 3. Illis sunt anscres.

higher or a little lower than c, as the case may be, without any 4. Estne tibi agger? 5. Fulguris odor in pulvinari est. 0. Vectigalia mention whatever as to why d should be higher or lower. Now non diligo. 7. Molesti sunt rumores. 8. Pulvinar est ne illis ? 9. in this, and all similar cases, a little knowledge of perspective Non est illis anser. 10. Tibi sunt pater, frater, et mater? 11. Illis would make the practice simpler and the result certain. The sunt dolores, 12. Tibi est magnum pulvinar.

pupil may make an exact imitation of his drawn copy, but that EXERCISE 27.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

is not enough; he must be able to do the same from the object; 1. I fear charcoal. 2. The boy strikes the peacocks. 3. The regions and how is this to be done correctly by such a system as that are beautiful. 4. Thou hast an opportunity. 5. We move the ashes. / which only enables a pupil, parrot-like, to reproduce a copy ard

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

nothing more? But we hope that very few of our readers will | panying barns, stables, strawyards, etc. etc.—that we must like to stop there. To draw from nature and the real thing, we first make a measured plan of the whole, and go through trust, is the ambition of every one who makes up his mind to go the drawing geometrically, before we can hope to make a through these lessons, that he may make the art of drawing truthful picture. It would be as ridiculous to suppose that a useful and valuable auxiliary to his occupation as a means when we write a letter or an essay, we ought to repeat all of expressing himself, as well as a pleasing recreation for leisure the rules of syntax, so that the grammatical construction of the hours. Another reason why we recommend the pupil to study sentences may be correct. Every educated man knows that the our lessons in geometrical perspective is, as we have said before, right words flow naturally into their places in proper agree. when treating upon drawing a simple outline from the flat (a ment and sequence. The phrases harmonise without any effort term used by draughtsmen when copying from a drawing), that on his part, simply because he knows the rules, and experience the practice of geometrical perspective assists the eye to under. makes them easy to apply.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

stand and calculate more readily the proportions of retiring lines. We will now give a geometric method of representing two and planes. As a practical illustration of this principle, we walls meeting at an angle, as an illustration of what we have meet with it repeatedly in the readiness with which an expe- stated. Let two lines, ab, ac (Fig. 65), forming an angle of rienced carpenter will tell you the length of a board without 90 degrees, represent the plan of two walls meeting at the point taking the trouble to measure it. His eye is so accustomeda, of which b a forms an angle of 40 degrees with the picture to the foot-rule, and the space a repeated number of measure- plane. PP is the picture plane, ul the line of sight, BP baso ments will cover, that to him it is no difficulty to say within of the picture, sp the station point, and vol and v p2 are a very close approximation how long the board is. It is the the vanishing points for the corresponding numbered lines of repeated practice of geometrical perspective that enables a the plan. First draw the picture plane, and then the line o a, draughtsman to decide upon the proportional length of a line placing it at an angle of 40 degrees with the PP; then from a or plane as it retires, and to draw either correctly on his paper. draw a c at an angle of 90 degrees—that is, a right angle-with If we did not consider it in this way with regard to free-hand ab; this will be the plan of the walls as they are placed before drawing, it would be of very little use in the practice of drawing our vision. Then mark sp to represent the supposed distance from nature. It would be absurd to expect, when we are seated we are from the angle of the walls. Find the vanishing points before a subject--say a picturesque farmhouse, with the accom. for the two lines of the plane. We have already given the rulo for finding the vanishing point (see page 137): VP 2 is the extremities of each wall come closer together on the plane of vanishing point of a c, and v Pl is the vanishing point of ab; representation—that is, the picture plane—and therefore we do FR and vr are visual rays—that is, they are imaginary direct not see the whole extent of the wall as we should do if we stood lines—passing from the extremities of the object through the PP parallel to it. We will carry out the subject, and show the walls to the eye. These lines will indicate where the points a, b, as they would naturally appear. To do this we must make a and c would be depicted on the picture plane-viz., at e, f, and g. | fresh diagram, because, to prevent confusion, we do not wish to

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

These visual rays must always be drawn from the extremities | add any more lines to that already given. We recommend the of lines, or any especial point which is to be represented in pupil to repeat the perspective view of the plan in Fig. 65, as the picture, in the direction of the station point, or eye, but given in Fig. 66. In this figure pc and PC 2 represent the stopping at the picture plane (see Fig. 65); afterwards, from points of contact of the line a c—that is, supposing the line were e, f, and g, they are drawn perpendicularly. For the reason why brought to the picture-in other words, to touch it. Then, in they are drawn perpendicularly, we refer the pupil to future this case, it would be represented in the picture its natural size, lessons on geometrical perspective. Then produce or draw out therefore we call the perpendicular line drawn from PC to PC 2 one of the lines of the plan, say a c, to meet the picture plane. the line of contact, marked Lc. Upon this line we always measure The point of meeting is called the point of contact, PC. Draw and set off heights of objects. Suppose, then, the height of the wall & perpendicular line from the pc to the base of the picture. to be marked at r, draw a line from r to v P2: sto t will be the We will call that PC2, meaning the point of contact brought top of the wall ac; draw a line from s to vpl; sm will be the down. Join the Pc2 to v P 2, and somewhere on this last line top of the wall ab. Now if we wish to draw the courses of the will be the picture of the object a c represented in the plan. | bricks, we must set them off also upon the line of contact as we This is determined by the visual rays being perpendicularly did to represent the top of the walls, and draw them to their drawn to a? and c?, therefore between a’ and ca is the picture respective vanishing points; also, the perpendicular joints of of the line a c; so, for the other line a b, draw a line from a? to the bricks must be marked in the plan, and brought down by VP1, and the visual rays, as before, brought down, will deter- | visual rays in the same way as the ends of the walls were mine the perspective length of ab-viz., 62. Perhaps some found. We have represented a few of the bricks, leaving the


Teader may ask why we do not draw the line from PC 2 to vp1, pupil to complete the drawing; the plan of the door is shown at instead of v P 2. Our answer is, because pc is the point of no, its height at p. (We will observe, by way of parenthesis, contact for ac and not ab; if a b had been produced to the that all heights of objects are marked or set off on the line of PP for a point of contact, then it would have been right to contact ; all horizontal lengths and breadths are shown in the draw a line from PC 2 in the direction of v pl.

ground-plan, and brought down by visual rays.) We will give All that we have now done in this perspective diagram is, one other method of showing the horizontal perspective length of that we have shown the horizontal retiring length of the base a line or plane, and then leave the pupil to think over and pracof the wall each way—viz., aa ca on one side, and a? bo on tise all that we have been trying to teach him. Let a b (Fig. 67) the other. To have drawn these lines equal to the length represent the length of a line to be shown in perspective at of the walls themselves—that is, those of the plan-would have a given angle with our position or with the picture plane. Let been a very great mistake, because as they retire the further Ps represent the point of sight, so the station point, h l the kumu l sine or kungit of these, BP base of picture. Let the period, and as many ciphers as there are figures in the non

tre the vint where the line commences, and from which terring part. it retiroa ; w singify the matter, let Ps also be the VP. 25. It will be seen from the above detailed explanation of the

The pupil u persetuber that all retiring línea vanishing at the method by which the equivalent vulgar fraction may be deterprint A rigut, are lunes going off at a right angle with our , mined, that an analogous method would apply to any circulating position, or with the picture plans. We advige him to turn decimal whatsoever. to pay 72, and read the perspective rules and axioms again.). Hence we get the following Make the distan, freza P* D equal to PS SP. Draw a line Rule for reducing a Circulating Decimal to a Vulgar Fraction, from * to P*, and on E P make the distance ao 1,2 equal to the Subtract the number formed by the figures of the non-recurgivena loob; draw a line from 12 to D, which will cut off the ring part from the number formed by the figures taken to the

Ce qc; ac ix then the perspective length of ab. The end of the first period, and set down this difference as a numeLagth of these retiring sides of planes are determined by the rator. Take as many nines as there are figures in the period,

aina rule. Let it be required to draw a series of retiring and, annexing to them as many ciphers as there are figures in w are wahr (Fig. 6%). On the base of the picture B P, beginning the non-recurring part, set down the number so formed as a at a, wat Af any required number of divisions to represent the denomirator. length of the side of each olah; from these points, a, b, c, etc., 26. We have proved the rule in the case of a mixed circulatdruw lines to P. Find the distance point, D, as in the last ing decimal. The case of a pure circulating decimal is included care; draw lines from b, c, d, etc., to D, cutting a Ps in ghi. , in it; for in a pure circulating decimal there is no non-recurring Erum g, h, i draw line parallel to the base of the picture, which part, and therefore nothing to be subtracted, and the denominawill complete the wuaris required; for as ab of the first square tor will consist wholly of nines, their number being equal to the w parallel with our ponition, and tonching the picture plane, number of figures in the period. its true, length is therefore shem, whilst ag is its retiring or

Thus 67 = %, 053 = 1 perspective length. Having now whown, we promised, how the retiring

27. For the sake of clearness, however, we will perform the horizntal distances of objects may be faithfully represented process for a pure circulating decimal. Take •67, for instance. on prapuer, we will give some examples as subjects for exercises.

Let, as before, j = .676767 ....; Pig, 08 14 an example of a retiring row of posts, their distances

Then, 100 f = 67-676767 ....., being furposely shown by the geometric method of the last two and therefore subtracting, as in the previous case, problems. It is almont needless to direct the attention of the

99 f = 67, pupil to the diminishing retiring spaces between the posts ;

Or, f = 1; however, he will woo, as we have previously endeavoured to and it is evident, from the way in which they arise, that the make clear to him, that thone retiring distances can be satis. number of nines in the denominator is equal to the number of Taustorily proved. Fig. 70 is given as an exercise, including figures in the period. many of the principles we have before explained—viz., angular 28. Of course, if there is an integral part in the original perupeetivo, horizontal retiring lines, inclined lines of the roofs, decimal, that will remain unaltered, and the required answer and horizontal retiring distances, all of which the pupil, we will be a mixed number, which may be reduced to an improper trunt, will now be able to arrange for himself, and to find his fraction if necessary. vanishing pointa.


Taking the decimal part separately, .1415 = 1435.0"4 = ** LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XVII.

Hence 3.1415 = 34394 = 340 expressed as an improper fraction. DECIMALS (continued).

Or it may be expressed as an improper fraction at once :

3:1415 = 295211 = 24. To reduce a given Circulating Decimal to a Vulgar Fraction.

The truth of this latter method may be established exactly in Tako the decimal 34567.

the same way as the two cases we have already explained. Denoto the true value of the equivalent fraction by f. Then | 29. The learner is recommended at first, in reducing circulat

34567567567 ....., the period 567 being supposed con- ing decimals to vulgar fractions, to perform the operation in the tinuod ad infinitum.

way we have indicated in the examples already given-i.e., by Il wo multiply / by 100000, and also tho decimal by 100000, multiplying by the requisite powers of 10, subtracting, etc. He tho rosults will still bo oqual.

will thus better appreciate the truth of the rule which he will Honce 100000 / - 34567-567567567 .....

afterwards employ. It is evident that the equivalent fractions

found by the rule will often not be in their lowest terms. Tho decimal plnoo boing moved fivo places to the right, and the period 567 being still continuod ad infinitum on the right of the

EXERCISE 35. dooimal point ou before.

Reduce to their equivalent vulgar fractions the following

decimals :-Similarly, 100 / 31.567567567 .....

5. -2319. 9. 275238. I 18. •052100. Now the difference of 100000 S and 100 f-i.c., 99900 f-must

2. 03. 1 6. •42623. | 10. 21.000008. 14, 181-032116. be equal to the difference of the decimals to which they are rospectively oqual. Now this difforenco is 34567 – 34, because

3. •032. 7. •3:1416. 11. 52-314159. | 15. 0000510. the infinito rocurrenco of the period •567 on the right of the

4. 523. 8. 357.003129. 12. 3.010103. 16. 612:12527. clocimal point is the samo in onch docimal, and therefore vanishes 30. Approximation. Decimals correct to a given number of whon the subtraction is performed.

places, etc. Henco 99000 / - 34567 - 34;

We have already remarked, that if we take only a limited and S, the fraction required, = 3 - 8:38

number of the figures of a decimal, we approach nearer and nearer

to the true result as we continue to take in more figures. Now obnorve onrefully how ench part of this fraction has | We give an example, taken from De Morgan's “ Arithmetic," arlson. The numerator is obtained by writing down the figures which shows this clearly. of the declmnl as far as the end of the first period without the

} = 142857 a circulating decimal decimal point, and then mubtracting from the number so obtained the figures which one before the period, or, as we may call it, decimal, we have

Now taking successively one, two, three, etc., figures of the the non recurring part. The denominator 99900 arises from subtracting 100 ( 10 rained to the anmo power as the number

it is less than by which is less than a of figures r

e curring part) from 100000 (i.c., 10 raised to the there are figures in the non-recurring part


, rodas and

» Toon 55

ក្ខត heconnelly produce a number 99900,

» * » Todos

Tooba many ninon as there are figures in


» etc.

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

'We thus see that the difference between the decimal and the 4. Subtract the greater from the less in the following sets of true value of the fraction continually diminishes. In the case of decimals :eterininating declinal this difference becomes zero when we have taken all the figures in. In the case of a circulating decimal,

1.85.62 – 13.76432. 4. 46.123 – 41-3. 17. 1419.6 – 1200.9 it never actually becomes zero, but we can make it as small as 2. 476-32 - 84•7697. 5.801.6 – 400-75. 8. •634852 – 02i. We please by taking a sufficient number of decimal places.

3. 3.8564 – '0382. 16. 4•7824 - •81. 19.8482.421 -- 6031•035. 31. When a result is required correct only to a certain num

5. Multiply together the following decimals :ber of decimal places, it is better, as we have already explained (Art. 14), to find one figure more of the result than is actually 1. 37:23 * .26. 4. 24.6 x 15.2. 1 7. 3.973 x 8. required, so as to ascertain whether this figure is greater or less 2. • 23 * 6. 5. 48.23 x 16.13. 8. 49640:54 * 90503. than 5. If it is greater, we increase the figure in the last place which is required in the result by 1.

3. •245 x 7.3. 16. 8574•3 8715. 9. 7.72 x 297. The following is an example of a decimal continually approxi. 6. Work the following examples in division of recurring mated to in this way, by taking successive figures, and increas- decimals :ing, where necessary, the last figure by unity

1. 319.28007112 + 1 5. 750730.518 ! 8. 24•08i = .386. Let 4-89169 be the decimal. The successive approximations would be5, 4:9, 4:89, 4.892, 48917, 4.89169.



9. •36 = -25. Here 5 is nearer to the true value than 4 would be.

2. 18-56 = .3. 6. 54 = '15. 10. 928-4375 = 26.87. 4.9


3. •6 = 123. 7. 10:5i69533 = 11. 4376-32 • •0352. 4.892

4.891 , 4-8917


4. 2.299 = 297. 4297. 12. 15.379 = 7•28703. 32. Operations in which circulating decimals occur are better conducted by reducing the circulating decimals to their equivalent vulgar fractions, if absolute accuracy is required. If an LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-IX. approximate result is desired true to a certain number of decimal

DERIVATION : PREFIXES (continued). places, then, in additions and subtractions, it will be sufficient to take in two or three figures of the period beyond the number BEFORE proceeding further with these prefixes, we may now of places required, and then add or subtract. For instance, in expose a common error. It is generally thought that words adding .4567 to 3124689 correctly to 9 decimal places, we

have several disconnected significations. Several significations should write the decimals as follows:

many words have, but these significations are all allied one with

another, and they are allied one with another in such a way *45675675675 •31246894689

that a genealogical connection runs through them all. I mean

that the second ensues from the first, and conducts to the third. •769225703

The meanings of words flow from a common source, like the In all cases, however, where circulating decimals are involved waters of a brook. That common source, or parent-signification, as multipliers or divisors, it will be best to reduce them to their is, in all cases, one that denotes some object of sense, for objects equivalent vulgar fractions before performing the multiplications of sense were named before other objects. Our first duty, then, is or divisions, and then afterwards to reduce the resulting frac- to ascertain the primary meaning of a word. From that meantions to decimals.

ing the other meanings flow, as by natural derivation. Those EXERCISE 36.

secondary or derivative significations, then, can scarcely be 1. Write down the decimals containing respectively one, two, termed meanings; they are not so much meanings as modificathree, four, five, and six decimal places which are the nearest tions of the primary import of the root. Certainly they are not approximation to the decimals 67819473, .203781947.

independent significations. Thus viewed, words have not two or 2. Find the value correctly to seven decimal places of the more senses, but in the several cases the one sense is varied and following expressions :

modified. Even in instances in which opposite meanings are 1. 201ż7 + 89-3897 + •003701. 4.7.28705 – •378 + 10°34567.

connected with the same word, the filiation may be traced, as

both Jacob and Esau sprang from the same stock. I will take 2. 15-379 + 2.13159 + 18 + 70-2178 5. 85.6 = 7.5.

an example in the word prevent. Prevent means both to guide + 5*34567.

24 + 5:123 – 2-315.

and to hinder, to lead to, and to debar from. The opposition &. 27-4153 - 3.876439.

81 – 2-39 + 3-28.

is sufficiently decided. Yet these two opposed meanings are

only modifications of the root-sense of the word. First I will EXERCISE 37.

| exhibit the diversity, and then explain it. 1. Reduce the following decimals to valgar fractions :

Prevent, signifying to guide, aid forward :1. •3. 6. 72. 11. •16.

16. •583.

" Prevent us, O Lord, by thy grace."-"Book of Common Prayer." 7. .09. 12. •8567923. 17. 0227.

"- Love celestial, whose prevenient aid 3. i8. 8. .045. 13. •138. 18. •4745.

Forbids approaching ill.”—Mallet. 4. 123. 9. •142857. 14. •53. 19. •5925.

Prevent, signifying to hinder, obstruct:5. 297. 10. •076923. | 15. •5025. I 20. .008497133.

“Where our prevention ends, danger begins.”—Carou. 2. Change the following sets of decimals to similar and con.

“Which, though it be a natural preventive to some evils, yet without terminous periods :

either stop or moderation, must needs exhaust his spirits."--Reliq.

Wottonianæ. 1. 6-811, 3-28, and .083.

3. •27, 3, and 015.

"Physick is either curative or preventive; preventive we call that 2. 46-102, 5, 26, 73.423, 487, and 12.5. | 4. 4•321, 6-4253, and '6. which preventeth sickness in the healthy."-Brown, “Vulgar Errors,3. Add together the following sets of decimals :

"Prevent us, O Lord, by thy grace," means "aid us forward." 1. 24•132 + 2-23 + 85-24 + 67.6.

“ Preventive of sickness," signifies that which causes sickness

not to come. There is the contrariety. Now for the explana. 2. 328-126 + 81-23 + 5.624 + 61:6.

tion. Prevent is made up of two Latin words, namely-præ, 3. 31-62 + 7-821 + 8-392 + 027.

before, and venio, I come or go. Now, you may go before a 4. 462-34 + 60-92 + 71•164 + .35.

person for two opposite purposes. You may go before him in

order to guide, aid, and conduct him onward ; or you may go 5. 9-25 + 34 + 6.435 + .45 + 45-24.

before him to bar up his way, to hold him back, to prevent his 6. 9-811 + 1:5 + 57-26 + 0.83 + 124.09.

advance. And as either of these two purposes is prominent in 7. 3-6 + 78.3476 + 735-3 + 375 + 27 + 187.4.

the mind of the speaker, so the word is used by him to signify 8. 5391-357 + 72.39 + 187-21 + 4.2965 + 217.9403 + 49178 + og to guide or to hinder. The proper meaning, then, of prevent is,

to come before: hence, 1, to guide, or, as a natural consequence, 58-30048.

2, to aid; or again, 1, to obstruct, and, as a natural consequence, 9. '162 + 154-09 + 2-93 + 97•23 + 3.769230 + 99•083 + 1.5 + •314. 2, to stop, etc. And how the moral and spiritual imports come

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »