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little more than fourteen months. Many rivers were discovered, of so barren and desolate a character as had been imagined from among which was the Mackenzie, on whose banks some good the discovery of the great central desert by Captain Sturt in coal-fields were found, and several tracts of country were 1844. crossed consisting of rich arable land, admirably adapted for To Burke and his companions belong the honour of having agricultural purposes. His subsequent expeditions, however, been the first to make their way from south to north, across the were not attended with the same good fortune. In 1847 he set trackless centre of the Australian continent; but three out of out on a journey across the Australian continent from Sydney | the four were doomed to purchase the distinction they had so to Swan River, which he was compelled to abandon by events gallantly won, at the cost of their lives. Having feasted their over which he had no control, after reaching as far as the downs | eyes with the sight of the blue waters of the Gulf of Carpenof the Upper Mackenzie and Peak River. Nothing daunted by taria, the adventurers, worn and weakened by the privations the unsuccessful result of his attempt to traverse Australia, he they had endured, and the fatigues and hardships they had started once more on his great undertaking about the beginning undergone in their journey northwards, turned to retrace their of 1848, from Moreton Bay, only to meet with fresh failure and steps. Gray died soon after commencing the march homedeath. From that time nothing has been heard either of the wards; but the three survivors struggled on till, in April, they

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leader of the expedition or his companions, and althongh a few reached Cooper's Creek, a stream that crosses the boundary line traces of their route after quitting the west bank of the Con- between South Australia and New South Wales, towards its damine River and Fitzroy Downs have been found, nothing northern limit, where, the year before, Burke had left a few men definite respecting their fate and what led to the failure of the in charge of a store of provisions. By some sad fatality, the expedition has ever been discovered.

man who had been placed at the head of the little party left to The principal journeys of discovery in Australia since the guard the depôt, weary of awaiting the return of the travellers, disappearance of Dr. Leichardt have been the expeditions of and thinking that they had all perished, had left the spot only Mr. Augustus C. Gregory, in West, North-West, and North Aus. a few hours before Burke and his companions reached it. tralia in 1856 and 1858, in which many important discoveries Knowing that it would be utterly useless to try to overtake were effected, and the perilous march of Richard O'Hara Burke, them, Burke and his friends directed their steps towards Mount and his companions Gray, King, and Wills, across the continent Hopeless, a short range on the west side of Lake Blanch, where from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1860-61. The they found some settlers who had “squatted" in that locality in exploring party started from Melbourne on August 10, 1860, as wretched a condition as themselves, without clothes and and reached the Gulf of Carpentaria, near the embouchure of without food, endeavouring to prolong existence by searching in the Cloncurry River, on February 11, 1861, having passed the marshes and swamps for a plant called nardou, which they for miles and miles through a fertile and well-watered country, knew was frequently eaten by the natives when nothing better thus proving that the whole of the interior, at all events, is not could be had. Again disappointed of procuring aid, and un. able to advance any further, Burke and Wills soon died of

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. exhaustion, and King himself was at the point of death, when Connaissez-vous le monsieur qui Do you know the gentleman who he was discovered by a party of the natives, who treated him parle à notre cousin ?

speaks to our cousin ? with the utmost kindness, and, when he was sufficiently re- Je connais celui qui lui parle. I know him who speaks to him, covered, brought him on his way towards Melbourne, which he Comprenez-vous ce que je vous dis? Do you understand what I say to you? reached in safety towards the close of the year, having met with

Qui vous a parlé de cette affaire ? Who has spoken to you of this affair? an expedition which had been sent out to see if any traces

L'Anglais dont vous parlez est ici. The Englishman of whom you speaks

is here. could be discovered of the missing travellers.

L'Espagnol dont la seur est ici. The Spaniard whose sister is here, In other parts of Oceania, little of any importance besides

Que faites-vous ce matin?

What do you do this morning! surveys of the coast and different parts of the waters of the

Que dites-vous à notre ami ? What do you say to our friend! Pacific has been effected of late years, nor have any further Nous faisons ce que vous nous dites. We do that which you say to us, discoveries been made with regard to the outlying lands of the Pour qui faites-vous cet habit ? For whom do you make this coat ? Antarctic continent that is supposed to encircle the South Pole, De quoi parlez-vous à votre frère ? Of what do you speak to your brother? girdled by volcanic ranges that seem to forbid all access to

Nous faisons ce que nous pouvons. We do what we can. whatever may lie beyond, although it may be mentioned that a

Nous parlons de ce dont vous parlez. We speak of that of which you speak. theory has been broached to the effect that within the belt of

VOCABULARY. burning mountains that line its gloomy ice-bound shores, it is Arriv-er, 1, to arrive. | Habillement, m., dress, Nom. m.. possible there may be a country in which human life may be Avec, arith.


Plaisir, m., pleasure. sustained, and in which may be found productions suitable to Coffre, m., trunk. Hollandais, -e, Dutch. Presque, almost. its soil and clime, that are amply sufficient for man's require Command-er, 1, to order.! Linge, m., linen. Rien, nothing.

Monsieur, m., gentl

Ecossais, -e, Scotch, ments.

Soulier, m., shoe. Enfant, m., child.


| Vrai, -e, true.


1. Qui connaissez-vous ? 2. Nous connaissons les Hollandais SECTION XXX.-RELATIVE PRONOUNS [838].

dont vous nous parlez. 3. Quelles leçons apprenez-vous ? 4. 1. Qui, used as nominative, may relate to persons or to

Nous apprenons les leçons que vous nous recommandez. 5. Ce things.

que je vous dis est-il vrai. 6. Ce que vous nous dites est vrai.

7. De qui nous parlez-vous ? 8. Nous vous parlons des Ecossais Les fleurs qui sont dans votre The flowers which are in your

qui viennent d'arriver. 9. Savez-vous qui vient d'arriver ? 10. jardin,


Je sais que le monsieur que votre frère connaît vient d'arriver. 2. Qui, used as the object of a verb, can only be said of per 11. Vos seurs que font-elles ? 12. Elles ne font presque rien, sons. It is used interrogatively with or without a preposition.

elles n'ont presque rien à faire. 13. Que mettez-vous dans votre

coffre ? 14. Nous y mettons ce que nous avons, nos habillements Qui votre frère voit-il ? Whom does your brother see?

et notre linge. 15. N'y mettez-vous pas vos souliers ? 16. De qui parlez-vous ce matin? Of whom do you speake this morning!

Nous y mettons les souliers dont nous avons besoin. 17. De 3. Que may be said of persons or things. It can never be

quoi avez-vous besoin ? 18. Nous avons besoin de ce que nous understood, and must be repeated before every verb (Sect.

avong. 19. Cet enfant sait-il ce qu'il fait ? 20. Il sait ce qu'il XVIII. 1].

fait et ce qu'il dit. 21. Ne voulez-vous pas le leur dire ? 22.

Avec beaucoup de plaisir. 23. Faites-vous ce que le marchand Les personnes que nous voyons, The persons whom we see.

vous commande ? 24. Nous faisons ce qu'il nous dit. 25. Il Les langues que nous apprenons, The languages which we learn, parle de ce dont vous parlez. 4. Ce que is employed for that which, or its equivalent what.

EXERCISE 56. Ce que vous apprenez est utile, That which you learn is useful.

1. Have you what (ce dont) you want? 2. We have what we Trouvez-vous ce que vous cherchez? Do you find what you seek ?

want. 3. Is the gentleman whom you know here ? 4. The

lady of whom you speak is here. 5. Is she just arrived ? 5. Que answers to the English pronoun what, used absolutely (Sect. XXV. 2)? 6. She is just arrived. 7. Do you know that before a verb.

gentleman ? 8. I know the gentleman who is speaking with

your father. 9. Do you know his name? 10. I do not know Que pensez-vous de cela ? What do you think of that?

his name, but I know where he lives (demeure). 11. What do 6. Quoi, when not used as an exclamation, is generally pre

you do every morning ? 12. We do almost nothing ; we have ceded by a preposition, and relates only to things.

very little to do. 13. Does the tailor make your clothes f 14.

He makes my clothes, my brother's, and my cousin's. 15. Do De quoi voulez-vous parler ? Of what do you wish to speak ? you know what you say? 16. I know what I say, and what I A quoi pensez-vous ? Of what do you think?

do. 17. Do you know the Scotchman of whom your brother 7. Lequel, m., laquelle, f., lesquels, m. pl., lesquelles, f. pl.,

speaks ? 18. I know him well. 19. What does he put into his

trunk ? which, or which one (Sect. XVII. 6), or which ones, relate to per

20. He puts his clothes. 21. Is that which you say sons or things. They may be preceded by a preposition.

true ? 22. What I say is true. 23. Do you understand that

which I say to you ? 24. I understand all that you say. 25. Loquel avez-vous apporté ?

Which one have you brought ? Of whom does your brother speak? 26. He speaks of the Duquel parlez-vous ? Of which one do you speak ?

gentleman whose sister is here. 27. Is your brother wrong to 8. Dont, of which, or of whom, whose, may relate to persons or

do what he does ? 28. He cannot be wrong to do it. 29. things, in the masculine or feminine, singular or plural. It can

What are you doing? 30. I am doing that which you do. 31. never be used absolutely, and must always be preceded by an

Where do you put my books ? 32. Into (dans) your brother's antecedent. It is preferable to de qui or duquel, etc.

trunk. 33. Is your brother here? 34. He is not here. 35

He is at my brother's, or at my father's.
Les fleurs dont vous me parlez, The flowers of which you speak to me.
Les demoiselles dont votre sour The young ladies of whom your

SECTION XXXI.-IDIOMATIC USES OF METTRE, ETC. vous parle, sister speaks to you,

1. The verb mettre is used in the same sense as the English

to put on, in speaking of garments. Mettre le couvert means 9. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS.

BS. to lay the cloth, or set the table. DI-RE, 4, to say. FAI-RE, 4, to make, to do. METT-RE, 4, to put. Quel chapeau mettez-vous ? What hat do you put on! * I say, do say, or Je fais, I make or do, I Je mets, I put, do put, votre frère met son habit noir. Your brother puts on his black coat. am making or doing.' or am putting.

Le domestique va mettre le couvert, The servant is going to lay the cloth.
Tu fais.

Tu mets.
Il fait.
Il met.

2. Ôter means to take off, to take away, to take out.
Nous faisons.
Nous mettons.

Mon domestique ôte son chapeau, My servant takes off his hat.
Vous faites.
Vous mettez.
Otez ce livre de la table,

Take away that book from the table.
Ils font.
Ns mettent.
N'a-t-on pas ôté le diner?

Have they not taken aray the dinner!

3. The verb faire is used before another verb, in the sense of away the things every day. 11. Do you intend to have a coat to have, to cause.

made P 12. I intend to have a coat made. 13. I am going to Votre frère fait-il bâtir une maison? Does your brother have a houso built ?

have a coat and a vest made. 14. Does your brother have his Il en fait bâtir plus d'une, He has more than one built.

boots mended ? 15. He has them mended. 16. What does

your son mean? 17. I do not know what he means. 18. Is 4. It may be used in the same sense before its own infinitive.

he angry with me or with my brother ? 19. He is neither angry Je fais faire un habit de drap ? I have a cloth coat made.

with you nor with your brother. 20. Is he afraid to spoil his Vous faites faire des souliers de You have leather shoes made. coat? 21. He is not afraid to spoil it. 22. Does the diaggist cuir,

want money? 23. He does not want money. 24. Has your 5. Vouloir [Sect. XXVII, 6] followed by dire is used in the

sister taken my book from the table ? 25. She has not taken it gense of to mean.

away. 26. Why do you take off your shoes ? 27. I take them

off because they hurt me. 28. Do you intend to have a house Que voulez-vous dire ? What do you mean?

built ? 29. I intend to have one built. 30. Does the tailor Votre sonr que veut-elle dire? What does your sister mean?

spoil your coat? 31. He does not spoil it. 32. Who spoils RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

your clothes ? 33. No person spoils them. 34. What hat do Ne mettez-vous pas vos habits ? Do you not put on your clothes ?

your wear ? 35. I wear a black hat. J'ai peur de les gåter.

I am afraid of spoiling them. Ne portez-vous jamais votre habit Do you never wear your black coat ? noir ?

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-X. Je le mets tous les Samedis. I put it on every Saturday. Pourquoi n'ôtez-vous pas votre Why do you not take off your cloak ? We must now direct the attention of the pupil to shading and manteau ?

foliage; but before commencing, let us earnestly advise him to J'ai trop froid, j'ai peur de l'éter. I am too cold, I am afraid to take it go over the previous lessons again, so that he may be well pre


pared to follow us in a course of instruction that will require all Faites-vous raccommoder vos sou. Do you have your shoes mended ?

the knowledge he can possibly obtain, and a considerable amount liers ? Je fais raccommoder mes habits. I have my clothes mended.

of practice in using the pencil, to give him power, confidence,

and freedom of execution, combined with truth of representaJe fais faire une paire de bottes. I have a pair of boots made. Je fais creuser un puits. I have a well dug.

tion. We have already warned him against sketching before he can Votre frère que veut-il dire ? What does your brother mean?

draw well; the danger of falling into a slovenly manner is now Que veut dire cela ? What does that mean?

before him. He must be careful and slow at first in that which Cela ne veut rien dire. That means nothing.

he is about to undertake, for when shading and foliage are introÖtez-vous vos souliers et vos bas ? Do you take off your shoes and stock. | duced, he must bear in mind that in proportion to the care, per


severance, and patience he bestows upon his work, will be the Je n'ote ni les uns ni les autres. I take off neither these nor those.

beauty and effectiveness of the result; while, on the other hand, Le diner est prêt; le domestique Dinner is ready; the servant is going

carelessness of execution will degenerate into coarseness and va mettre le couvert.

to lay the cloth. Voulez-vous ôter le couvert ? Will you take away the things from

scribble. He will, in the one case, prove himself to be a clever the table ?

and satisfactory draughtsman, or, in the other, one totally inJe vais mettre le couvert. I am going to lay the cloth.

capable of producing anything worthy of admiration, or fit to be Je vais éter le couvert. I am going to take away the things. | employed for any useful purpose.

The following observations relating to shadows will be found VOCABULARY.

important, as containing principles that influence their treatment Apothicaire, m., drug. Gên-er, i, to squeeze, Prêt, -e, ready. under very common and frequent circumstances ; they may be gist,

cramp, hurt.

Raccommod-er, 1, to classed as positive or decided shadows, and half tints. Decided Après, after. Gilet, m., waistcoat. mend.

shadows may be divided into broad shadows and cast shadows. Cave, f., cellar. Grand, -e, large, very. Remett-re,4, to replace,

Broad shadows are the shadows upon the object. In Fig. 72, a is Creus-er, 1, to dig. Mantean, m., cloak. to put on again. Dimanche, m., Sunday. Midi, noon, midday. Tout-à-l'heure, imme

the broad shadow. Cast shadows are those which are caused Diner, m., dinner. Noir, -e, black.


by the object, and are thrown upon the ground, or upon some Fiché, -e, sorry, angry. Pantoufle, f., slipper. Uniforme, m., uniform. I other object. In Fig. 72, b is the cast shadow. As a general rule, Gát-er, 1, to spoil. Pourquoi, why.

Velours, m., velvet. for their difference of tone or depth, the cast shadow is darker

than the broad shadow, simply because the cast shadow being in EXERCISE 57.

most cases thrown upon a more extensive surface (the ground, 1. Le Général N. met-il son uniforme ? 2. Il ne le met point. for instance), there is then round about the cast shadow a sur3. Pourquoi ne portez-vous point votre manteau noir ? 4. J'ai face receiving the rays of light which refracts them, or throws Pear de le gâter. 5. Mettez-vous vos souliers de satin tous les them back again, with less power upon the side of the object matins? 6. Je ne les mets que les Dimanches. 7. Il est midi; in broad shadow; this lowers its tone. When it occurs that no le domestique met-il le couvert ? 8. Il ne le met pas encore; il cause for refraction is present, then the broad and cast shadows va le mettre tout-à-l'heure. 9. Le dîner n'est-il pas prêt? 10. are equal in tone. In Fig. 72 the rays of light coming from the Le domestique Ote-t-il le couvert? 11. Il ne l'ôte pas encore, direction of f fall upon the ground at g 9 g, and are thrown back il n'a pas le temps de l'Oter. 12. Otez-vous votre habit quand again with less power upon a, causing the broad shadow a to be vous avez chaud ? '13. Je l'ôte quand j'ai trop chaud, 14. lighter than the cast shadow b, which cannot receive the refracted Faites-vous faire un habit de drap? 15. Je fais faire un habit rays from g g g, being the same surface or plane upon which the de drap et un gilet de satin noir. 16. Ne faites-vous point light falls. Again, the highest light and darkest shadow are raccommoder vos pantoufles de velours ? 17. Ne faites-vous generally together ; this will be considered more fully in its pas crenser une cave? 18. Je fais creuser une grande cave. place presently, when we take up the subject of half tint. 19. L'apothicaire que veut-il dire ? 20. Il veut dire qu'il a The pupil's first essay will be a very simple way of making a besoin d'argent. 21. Savez-vous ce que cela veut dire ? 22. Cela flat tone, before he attempts crossing lines; this simple method he veut dire que votre frère est fâché contre vous. 23. Avez-vous will soon understand, and afterwards find to be an easy introducenvie de mettre votre manteau ? 24. J'ai l'intention de le tion to the crossing or cross-hatching system. When the surface mettre, car j'ai grand froid. 25. Je vais l'ôter, car j'ai chaud. of the shadow is large, fill it up with close perpendicular lines of EXERCISE 58.

unequal lengths, not permitting the ends to lap over one another,

or terminate on the same level; but if the surface is small, draw 1. Do you take off your coat? 2. I do not take off my coat, continuous lines to the full extent of the shadow, at the same I put it on. 3. Do you take off your cloak when you are cold ? time observing the tone must be regulated by the strength or 4. When I am cold, I put it on. 5. Does your little boy take pressure used in the execution. Draw the square, Fig. 71, in off his shoes and stockings ($ 21. 4]? 6. He takes them off, which is shown the method when a broad surface is to be covered but he is going to put them on again. 7. Does that little girl by a flat tint of broken lines, as explained above. Fig. 72 is lay the cloth? 8. She lays the cloth every day at noon. 9. given to represent the continuous lines, commencing carefully Does she take away the things after dinner ? 10. She takes and evenly from one side of the shadow, and terminating exactly

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at the other side ; observe the tone, and consequently the our admiration is excited by the correctness and beauty of the amount of pressure required for the cast shadow.

form which the line alone determines : now this feeling must be There is a very useful little instrument for shading, called a carried on, when introducing the shadows and the infinite num. stump, it is made either of leather or paper, rolled up to about ber of minor tones, by preserving all that the line intended to the length and thickness of the finger, and pointed at each end. give, whilst our attention is engrossed upon the shadows. In When used, black chalk or lead is ground to a powder, the point Fig. 73 there are several points of importance which must not of the stump is dipped into it, and then rubbed over the part to be passed over : the pupil will notice that the wall to the left be shaded until an even tint is produced. We merely mention has the upper edges of each stone left untouched, because these the stump here and explain its use, but at present we will put edges, as they “round off" to the horizontal surface, meeting the it aside, and keep to the line method until the pupil has tho mortar, catch the light more forcibly than the faces of the stones roughly mastered it; afterwards we will draw his attention to which are in a perpendicular position. In old stone walls of the use of the stump, as capable of producing a ground for shar ruins these effects are continually to be seen, and must not be dows to be lined over afterwards. The great art of shading a disregarded. The depth or intensity of shadows may not only drawing well is to make use of the shadows, half tints, and be increased or diminished according to the pressure of the pencil

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minor (or lighter) tones, as a means of distinguishing the form employed, but also by the distance the lines are drawn apartof the object, whether as to its general effect, or to the most closer together when depth is required, and wider when the minute and delicate details. We know that, in nature, objects shadows are to be lighter. The lines which produce the cast are not represented to us by lines drawn about their edges; they shadow of the wall on the horizontal surface of the steps must be are distinguishable from each other only by light and shade and drawn towards the vanishing point of the steps, and the edge of colour : therefore, as it is necessary in the first instance to deter. the shadow is determined by the following rule :-Let A (Fig. 74) mine by an outline the boundary or form of the object, with all be the wall causing the shadow on the steps; let the dotted lines its various changes of surface, so we must as we proceed with a b c d e f, etc., represent the inclination of the sun's rays (at the picture, by adding light, and shade, and colour, gradually an angle with the horizon, but parallel with the picture plane). lose the drawn line in the work, so as to avoid harshness, and | As the end of the wall rises perpendicularly from the end of the that appearance which would strike us as if it had been cut out step at k, therefore the shadow of the upper edge a will be at b, with a penknife. Of course we cannot altogether do without and the shadow of a c will be bg, directed towards the vanishing the line of the form, nor is it desirable that we should; and since point of the wall; and because the sun's rays are parallel with our intention is to give as intelligible a representation of the the picture plane, and the wall at right angles with the picture object as we can, lines may be judiciously left without offending plane, therefore its shadow will be the same, and consequently the eye by any unseemly harshness of expression. A line only both the edge of the wall and its shadow have the same vanishdetermines the boundary of an object, that is, it gives the form ; ing point, which in this case is the ps (point of sight). Thus it and in simple outline only, where no light and shade are added, I will be seen that the edge of the shadow on the front of the

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