Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

8. The reflective pronouns in the imperative of reflective verbs he intend to go to France ? 26. He intends to go to France in follow Rule 4 of Sect. XXVI., and Rules 3, 4 of Sect. XXVII., one month. 27. Is your sister to leave to-morrow morning ? and also $ 100 (2) (3).

28. She is to leave to-day if (s'il) it is fine weather. 29. Asseyons-nous; asseyez-vous, Let us sit down ; sit down.

What do people say of this? 30. Nothing is said about it Ne nous asseyons pas, Let us not sit down.

[Sect. XXXIV.].

SECTION XXXVI.-REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
À quoi vous appliquez-vous ? To what do you apply yourself?

1. The reflective pronoun is often used to express possession, Je m'occupe de mes affaires. I occupy myself with my afairs.

instead of the possessive adjective. In such cases the articlo Je m'adresse à mes amis. I apply to my friends.

takes the place of this adjective before the noun ($ 77 (9)]. Vous adressez-vous à votre père ? Do you apply to your father ? Vous chauffez-vous les pieds ? Do you warm your feet ? Je m'adresse à lui [$ 100 (4)]. I apply to him.

Je me chauffe les mains et les pieds, I warm my hands and feet. Comment se porte Monsieur votre How is your father? père ?

2. Se souvenir [2, ir ; see § 62], se rappeler [$ 49 (4)], corIl se porte passablement bien. He is tolerably well.

respond to the English verb to remember. Se rappeler takes a Pourquoi ne vous asseyez-vous pas? Why do you not sit down ?

direct object, that is, no preposition intervenes between the verb Je m'assieds quand je suis fatigué. I sit down when I am tired.

and its object, if the same be a noun or a pronoun. Je n'ai pas le temps de m'asseoir. I have no timo to sit down.

Vous rappelez-vous ces demoiselles? Do you remember those young ladies ?
Vous promenez-vous tous les jours ? Do you take a walk every day?
Je me promène en voiture au.

I do not remember them.
Je ne me les rappelle pas,
I take a ride to-day (in a carriage).
jourd'hui,

3. Custom seems, however, to sanction the use of the preposi-
Vosamis se promènent-ils à cheval? Do your friends take a ride to-day? tion de between tho verb se rappelor and an infinitive.
N'aimez-vous pas à marcher ? Do you not like walking ?
J'aime beaucoup aller à cheval. I like riding much.

Nous ne nous rappelons pas d'on We do not romombor having been Aimez-vous à vous promener? Do you like walking (for pleasure)?

avoir été privés (CONDILLAC), doprived of it. Asseyons-nons, s'il vous plait, Let us sit down, if you please.

4. Se souvenir takes the preposition de before a noun or proNe nous asseyons-nous pas ? Do we not sit down ?

noun, as well as before an infinitive. Ne nous asseyons pas, il est trop Let us not sit down, it is too late. tard.

Vous souvenez-vous de cette affaire? Do you remember that afair ? Combien ce drap de vend-il le How much is that cloth sold a yard ? Je ne m'en souviens pas,

I do not remember it. yard ?

Je me souviens de lui avoir écrit, I remember having written to him. Il se vend vingt-cinq francs le It is sold at twenty-five francs the 5. Se coucher corresponds to the English verbs to retire, to go metre. metre.

to bed. Comment cela s'appelle-t-il ? How is that called? What is the

Je me couche de bonne heure, I retire early.

name of that? Comment vous appelez- [$ 49 (4)] What is your name? How do you 6. Se lever ($ 49 (6)] means to rise, to get up. vous ?

call yourself?

Je me lève au point du jour, I rise at the break of day.
VOCABULARY.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Banquier, m., banker. | Magnifique, magnificent. Pied, m., foot.
Cheval, m., horse. Matin, m., morning. Port-er, to carry, wear.

Vous coupez-vous les ongles ? Do you cut your nails ?
Comment, hou. Mieux, better.

Quelquefois, sometimes.

Je me coupe les ongles et les I cut my nails and hair.

cheveux, Drap, m., cloth,

Obligé, -e, obliged. Quitt-er, 1, to leave. Fatigué, -e, weary, tired. | Part-ir, 2, to set out. Voiture, f., carriage.

Vous coupez-vous les doigts ? Do you cut your fingers ?

Je me coupe souvent les doigts, I often cut my fingers, when I mend EXERCISE 65.

quand je taille ma plume.

my pen, 1. Comment ce Monsieur s'appelle-t-il ? 2. Je ne sais com. Vous rappelez- [$ 49 (4)] vous les Do you remember the misfortunes of ment il s'appelle. 3. Cette dame ne s'appelle-t-elle pas L. ?

malheurs du frère de votre ani? your friend's brother ? 4. Non, Madame, elle s'appelle M. 5. Monsieur votre père se

Je me rappelle ses malheurs. I remomber his misfortunes.

Je me les rappelle distinctement. I recollect them distinctly. porte-t-il bien ce matin ? 6. Il se porte beaucoup mieux.

1.
7.

Je me rappelle de l'avoir vu. I remember having seen him. Fait-il bean temps aujourd'hui ? 8. Il fait un temps mag

Vous souvenez-vous de cela ?

Do you remember that ? nifique, n'allez-vous pas vous promener? 9. Nous n'avons ni Je ne m'en souviens pas du tout. I do not romember it all. cheval ni voiture. 10. Ne pouvez-vous marcher ? 11. Je suis À quelle heure vous couchez-vous ? At what hour do you retire ? trop fatigué pour marcher. 12. N'allez-vous pas à cheval tous Nous nous couchons tous les jours Wo go to bed every day at sunset. les matins ? 13. Je me promène tous les matins. 14. Com. au coucher du soleil. ment vous promenez-vous ? 15. Quelquefois à pied et quelque

Nous nous levons de meilleure heure We rise earlier than you—at sunrise. fois en voiture. 16. À qui vous adressez-vous quand vous

que vous-au lever du soleil.

Il se lève à cinq heures du matin, He rises at five o'clock in the morn. avez besoin d'argent ? 17. Je m'adresse à mon banquier? 18.

et il se couche à dix heures et ing, and goes to bed at half afier Ne voulez-vous pas vous asseoir ? 19. Nous vous sommes bien

demie du soir.

ton in the evening. obligés. 20. Ce drap se vend-il fort bien ? 21. Il se vend fort

VOCABULARY. cher. 22. Ne devez-vous pas aller à la campagne, s'il fait beau temps ? 23. Votre frère doit-il quitter la ville aujourd'hui ?

Associé, m., partner. De meilleure heure, Perruquier, m., hair.

earlier. Bois, m., wood.

dresser. 24. Il doit partir demain matin.

Boucher, m., butcher. Doigt, m., finger. Poêlo, m., stove.
EXERCISE 66.
Se brûl-er, 1, ref., to Fer, m., iron.

Pouce, m., thumb. 1. Does your sister walk every day? 2. She takes a walk

burn one's self. Feu, m., fire.

Promesse, f., promise. Charpentier, m., car. | Main, f., hand.

Se souvenir, to rememevery morning. 3. She likes riding on horseback and in a

penter.

S'occuper, 1, to occupy ber (see Venir, $ 62). carriage. 4. What is that little girl called ? 5. She is called

Se chauff-er, 1, ref., to one's self.

Travaill-er, 1, to work. L. 6. Is not that gentleman called L. ? 7. No, Sir, he is

warm one's self. Parfaitement, perfectly. I called G., and his cousin is called H. 8. How is your brother?

EXERCISE 67. 9. My brother is very well, but my sister is not well. 10. How are your two daughters ? 11. They are tolerably well to-day. 1. Le perruquier se coupe-t-il le pouce ? 2. Non, Monsieur, 12. Will you not sit down, gentlemen ? 13. We are much il se coupe les cheveux. 3. Le charpentier ne se coupe-t-il pas obliged to you. Madam. we have not time. 14. Does that book la main ? 4. Il ne se coupe pas la main, il coupe le bois. 5. sell well ? 15. It sells very well. 16. How is that silk sold Ne vous rappelez-vous pas cette dame? 6. Je me rappelle cetto in ell (l'aune) ? 17. It is sold at six francs ar 18. Is it fine dame et ces messieurs. 7. De quoi vous occupez-vous? 8. Feather to-day? 19. It is very fine weat

7 not take

Nous nous occupons de nos affaires. 9. Vous souvenez-vous des a walk? 20. I have no time to walk,

nes your

fusils qu'a votre père ? 10. Je ne m'en souviens point du tout. brother apply? 22. He applies te

Is his 11. Cette petite fille ne se brûle-t-elle pas ? 12. Elle ne se brother at home? 24. No, Sir, he i

i does

brûle pas, il n'y a pas de feu dans le poêle. 13. Pourquoi le

boucher ne se chauffe-t-il pas ? 14. Parcequ'il n'a pas froid. The English a or an before a meas

Ich by

15. Ces enfants se lèvent-ils de meilleure heure que moi ? 16. the article le or la, etc.

Ils se couchent de bonne heure, et ils se lèvent tous les matins à

[graphic]

da me

six heures. 17. Votre associé ne veut-il pas s'asseoir ? 18. 11 |

VOCABULARY. n'a pas le temps de s'asseoir. 19. Vous souvenez-vous de vos | Apprend-re, 4, ir., to Demeur-er, 1, to dwell. Quand, when. promesses ? 20. Je m'en souviens parfaitement. 21. Ne vous learn.

Entend-re, 4, to hear. Rec-evoir, 3, to receivi. chauffez-vous pas quand vous avez froid ? 22. Je ne me chauffe Banquier, m., banker. Ennuyer, 1, to tire. Rev-enir, 2, ir., to come presque jamais. 23. Ne se couche-t-on pas quand on a sommeil? Campagne, f., country. Langue, f., language. back. 24. On se couche quand on a sommeil, et on mange quand on a

Certainement, certainly. Malade, sick.

Récit, m., story. faim.

Client, m., client, cus. Mémoire, m., bill. Tort, m., wrong, injury.

tomer, EXERCISE 68.

| Préfér-er, 1, to prefer. | Tromp-er, 1, to deceive.

EXERCISE 69. 1. Do you rise early when you are well? 2. When I am well I rise every morning at five o'clock. 3. Do you remember your

1 1. Aimez-vous à demeurer à la campagne? 2. Je préfère la cousin L. 4. I remember him perfectly well. 5. Do you go

campagne à la ville. 3. Vous ennuyez-vous souvent à la camto bed early? 6. We go to bed at ten o'clock. 7. Does not

pagne ? 4. Quand je m'ennuie à la campagne, je reviens à la the tailor burn his fingers ? 8. He does not burn his fingers,

ville. 5. Reçoit-on des nouvelles du Général L. ? 6. On his iron is not warm. 9. Does the carpenter cut his thumb

n'entend pas parler de lui. 7. Vous trompez-vous quelquefois ? 10. He cuts neither his thumb nor his hand. 11. Why do you

8. Tout le monde se trompe quelquefois. 9. Le banquier not warm yourself? 12. I do not warm myself, because I am

trompe-t-il ses clients ? 10. Il ne trompe ni ses clients ni ses not cold. 13. Is it not very cold to-day? 14. It is not cold

amis, il ne trompe personne. 11. Ne vous trompez-vous pas to-day, it rains. 15. Does your hairdresser rise at sunrise ?

dans ce mémoire ? 12. Je ne me trompe pas. 13. Vous amusez16. The carpenter rises at sunrise and goes to bed at sunset.

vous à lire ou à écrire ? 14. Je m'amuse à apprendre l'allemand 17. Do you rise earlier than I? 18. We rise every morning at

et le français. 15. Avez-vous tort d'apprendre les langues ? the break of day. 19. Do you cut your hair often ? 20. I cut

16. J'ai raison de les apprendre. 17. Vous ennuyez-vous 809my hair and my nails every month. 21. Do you remember that

vent? 18. Je m'ennuie quand je n'ai rien à faire. 19. À quoi gentleman ? 22. I remember him very well. 23. I do not | vous amusez-vous quand vous êtes à la campagne ? 20. Nous remember him. 24. Do you cut your fingers when you mend a 10

nous promenons le matin, et nous travaillons le reste de la pen? 25. I cut my hand when I work. 26. Do you remember Jou

journée. what you learn? 27. I do not remember all that (tout ce que) I

EXERCISE 70. learn. 28. Do you know if your father is well? 29. He is very 1 1. Are you not mistaken? 2. I am not mistaken. 3. Is well to-day. 30. Is not your mother well? 31. She is not very not the banker mistaken ? 4. He is not mistaken, but his clerk well.

is certainly mistaken. 5. Does he not deceive you ? 6. He SECTION XXXVII.-USES OF SOME REFLECTIVE VERBS.

does not deceive me, he deceives nobody. 7. Are you not wrong

to deceive your father? 8. I do not intend to deceive him. 1. The verb tromper, conjugated actively, corresponds to the 9. Does not the merchant make a mistake? 10. He makes : English verb to deceive.

mistake in the bill which he writes. 11. Do you like the counIl trompe tout le monde, He deceives everybody.

try or the city? 12. I prefer the city; I soon become weary of 2. Conjugated reflectively, se tromper means to be mistaken ;

the country. 13. Does not that child weary you by his quesliterally, to deceive one's self.

tions ? 14. Does not that long story weary you? 15. It does

not weary me, it amuses me. 16. Do you amuse yourself when On se trompe bien souvent, One is often mistaken.

you are in the country ? 17. I amuse myself ; I learn French 3. Ennuyer ($ 49 (2)], used actively, means to weary the mind, and Italian. 18. Are you not weary of remaining at your to tease, to bore.

uncle's ? 19. I am never weary of remaining there. 20. Is Cet homme ennuie ses auditeurs, That man wearies his hearers.

your brother often mistaken ? 21. Everybody is sometimes Vous nous ennuyez par vos de. You tease or weary us by your ques

mistaken. 22. Does his conversation weary you? 23. On the mandes,

tions.

contrary, it amuses me. 24. Has anything been heard from 4. S'ennuyer has no exact equivalent in English.

your brother? 25. Nothing has been heard of him [Sect.

It sig. nifies generally to be, or to become mentally weary of any thing

XXXIV.). 26. Is your sister well ? 27. No, Sir, she is sick. or place; to be dull (weary). Nous nous ennuyons ici, We are weary of being here.

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. Vous ennuyez-vous à la campagne? Are you weary of being in the

THE MOLE. country?

Is this a well-known animal? A countryman will smile at the 5. Je m'ennuie means, in fact, I am mentally weary, I want question: he knows full well the mole-hills which obstruct his change, amusement, occupation, etc.

scythe in badly-kept meadows, and has often seen the dark culJe m'ennuie partout,

I find no amusement anywhere. prit gibbeted on the top of a cleft stick. But how many people 6. S'amuser answers to the English expressions to amuse one's

in London have seen a mole? There is no Registrar-General self, to take pleasure in, to spend one's time in, to find amusement

who will answer this question, and we therefore promise never

again to propose such a query. Is the mole clever or stupid? in, to enjoy one's self.

What do the majority of our readers say? Some declare that Nous nous amusons à la campagne? We enjoy ourselves in the country. "the little gentleman in velvet” is a decided genius, and his less Vous vous amusez à des bagatelles, You spend your time in trifles, enthusiastic friends claim for him a considerable degree of RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

respect.

The creature has the repute of being a most skilful engineer, On se trompe souvent soi-même en We often deceive ourselves while in which he is a self-taught and natural genius; yet so modest cherchant à tromper les autres. seeking to deceive others.

that his finest works are hidden from observation. He nerer Votre commis ne se trompe-t-il pas? Is not your clerk mistaken? Il se trompe bien rarement.

has any money, yet always wears a beautiful coat, for which no He is very rarely mistaken. Ne vous trompez-vous pas fré- Are you not froquently mistaken!

| thanks are due to any tailor in Great Britain. The mole is, quemment ?

though small, a great eater, hard work giving him a capital Tout le monde est sujet à se Every one is apt to be mistaken. appetite ; yet he generally contrives to provide very good dintromper.

ners at all seasons of the year. The teetotalers speak of himn Ce marchand trompe tout le monde. That merchant deceives everybody. with respect, though none of his children belong to the “Band Sa conversation nous ennuie. His conversation wearies us.

of Hope," nor has he ever worn the temperance medal. His Vous ennuyez vos amis par vos You weary your friends by your love for water-drinking amounts to a passion, but this is per plaintes.

complaints, Est-ce que je ne vous ennuie pas ? Do I not weary you?

haps not to be accounted among his eminent merits. He meddles Vous ennuyez-ous chez nous ? Are you weary of remaining with us ?

little with politics, yet politicians have made use of him, and he Je m'ennuie à la ville et je m'amuse I become weary of the city and find

once, at least, though withont intending it, shattered all the à la campagne.

amusement in the country.

schemes of a famous warrior and statesman. Some men very ni vous amusez-vous ? In what do you amuse yourself ?

much dislike him and all his family, but he bears them no malice, 228e à lire l'allemand. I amuse myself in reading German and asks only to be let alone. Some charge him with possessing

[merged small][ocr errors]

& fiery temper, and much pugnacity of spirit, but even these Nimrod. Readers will thus see that all the roads are connected people admit that he is a good husband and devoted father. with the central house, and form one combined system of animal

Such are some of the qualities ascribed to the mole, and we engineering. One “highway" runs straight from the fortress will now take the liberty of looking a little into his mode of life, to the extremity of the hunting ground, and in this the traps that we may see whether the truth has been told about him. are set by the experienced mole-catchers. Most of these But first, a word or two respecting his names, which are three galleries are just large enough to allow the animal to pass, and in Great Britain, mole, want, and mouldiewarp. The second of the speed with which he can gallop through such close tunnels these seems to have been derived from the old Danish wand, is amazing. Experiments were made on this point by a French and the third from two Saxon words signifying a “thrower up gentleman, named Le Court, who devoted many years to the of mould." Learned men, of course, call our little friend talpa, study of the mole's habits. He often frightened the creature and he is thus designated in natural history.

when feeding by sending the blast of a trumpet into its dining. Is the mole a true-born Briton ? We venture to answer room. Of course the horrified quadruped set off at full speed "Yes." There is a Cornish legend, telling how the first mole towards its citadel, and those who observed the experiments came into existence, and we must not venture entirely to pass declare that the pace was equal to the swift trot of a horse. over this wonderful history. The story must be well known to How could the speed be ascertained when the animal was some readers, but these may not object to a repetition, which hidden ? Le Court and his helpers, having ascertained the will bring the tradition to the knowledge of others. Be it then direction of the "highway,” inserted bits of straw into the long known to all, that many ages ago there lived in Cornwall a passage while the mole was out feeding, and at the top of each beautiful damsel named Gwenda. She was fair, as became a straw was a small paper flag. As the startled creature dashed Briton, tall, and gifted with a pair of blue eyes of the soft, along the gallery each straw was of course forced aside, and the loving, and poetic type. Every unmarried gentleman in Corn corresponding motions of the paper banners indicated the pace wall wished " to make her happy," of course. But Gwenda was of the little racer. so proud of her beauty that she scorned all advances, and for a The mole, we may well suppose, has a nursery, which he does long time loved her own sweet self only. But at last the hour not place in the citadel, but at a distance, where a special apartof her fate came; she fell in love with a famous knight, by ment is formed for the education of his five or six babies. When name Sir Aymeric. Will our readers believe the astounding the infants are able to run about there is plenty of playground, statement, that the gentleman did not return the love ? Perhaps the nest being usually at a spot where three or four roads cross. he was looking out for “a good match," and preferred a long Most readers will now admit the mole to be an engineer; but purse to beauty; perhaps he wanted a learned lady, who would they may ask, where are his tools ? He always goes about with study with him in winter evenings the poems of the bards and a patent pickaxe, a shovel, and a boring machine, so beautifully

the philosophy of the Druids; perhaps he wanted a musical made that the most famous engineers have never been able to , lady, who would sing soothing ballads to the knight when out of equal them. These tools are all combined in one piece, and the temper through indigestion, or worried with politics; perhaps- reader may see them whenever he takes up a mole. Look at but we give up guessing. The simple fact was, that the unwilling the two fore feet, how like hands they are ; see how they are Sir Aymeric did not return the love of Gwenda, She, however, turned sideways, so that as the earth is scooped out it is all determined to conquer his obdurate heart. Her sole trust was, flung behind, not to impede the animal's work in front. Notice, not in her sense, her education, or goodness, but in her beauty. in the next place, what an admirable miner's dress the mole A great feast was to be given on a certain day by the Prince of wears, and how suited it is to his work! As the passages Cornwall, at Tintagel, to which Gwenda, her mother, and Sir through which he moves are but just the size of his body, rapid Aymeric were invited.. The damsel procured the “most lovely" motion would be hindered if the earth stuck to the fur. But no dress which Comish taste could design, and, thus armed for heart soil can cling to a coat which has the softness and smoothness conquest, took a last look at her mirror before leaving for the of the finest velvet, combined with a peculiar surface, repelling feast. She uttered one exulting exclamation of certain triumph, the most adhesive mould. The mode in which the fur is. her mother heard, and "hoped” her beautiful daughter might suc. inserted in the skin is worthy of notice. Each hair grows from ceed. “I am sure to conquer," was the bold and self-confident the skin in such a direction that the fur will lie even and close, answer of the haughty lady. What followed? A piercing scream whether rubbed forwards or backwards, without irritating the was heard ; the startled mother looked round, and lo! Gwenda mole. But while the fur is thus soft and yielding, the skin had vanished. They “sought for her high and they sought for her itself is hard, and so tough that a very sharp knife is needed to low," but Gwenda was never seen again. All Cornwall was in a cut through it. A tender skin would have been liable to conpanic; other fair ladies might disappear in the same unaccount stant injury by friction against rough ground. See, then, how able manner; it was really a serious matter for mothers, dam- well the little creature is fitted for his work as an underground sels, and lovers. Was no clue ever discovered? One day, while engineer. A hand or foot adapted for boring, scooping, and the old gardener was at work, he picked up a richly jewelled shovelling back the earth; while the fur and skin are beautifully ring, which he knew had belonged to the long-lost Gwenda, and fitted for subterranean operations. which she had worn on the night of her disappearance. The Has the mole eyes? How do our readers answer the quesring was discovered close to a hillock from which the gardener tion? The ancient Greeks, Romans, and many moderns, have often saw a mole emerge, and then run up and down the garden replied by a “No." Let the reader examine for himself. He path with a strangely melancholy cry. A “wise woman” was will find two little, black, shining points deeply fixed in the head, called in; she watched for the appearance of the mole, and then and almost hidden by the fur. These are the eyes. But can the declarid, in mystic words, that Alice had been turned into that creature really see by these minute organs ? The same question very mole, as a punishment for her pride, by the mighty spirits occurred to Le Court, and he answered in the proper way by an of Fairy Land. Such was the origin of the first mole in Cornwall, experiment. Some moles were placed in disused water-pipes, open and this became the mother of all the moles in England. The at the end. If none of the observers stirred, the animals soon legend does not inform us where the first gentleman mole came made their escape, but if even a finger was put before the irom, and we must leave this matter in a teazing obscurity. opening, they instantly retreated. This seemed to prove the

Let us now consider the mole's works and ways. Has the existence of vision. How, then, could such a naturalist as reader ever seen one of this animal's castles ? If not, he knows Aristotle, deny the possession of sight to the animal ? The little of the creature's engineering skill. Its fortress resembles explanation is easy. There is a species of mole in the South of some of those ancient camps found in various parts of England, Europe which has the eyelids quite closed, and which is of course where a central stronghold is surrounded by two or three circles blind. The ancients were probably acquainted with this mole of earthwork. The innermost home of the mole may be called only, and many of the moderns çarelessly applied the observahis citadel ; round this runs the first circular gallery, bored tions of the old writers to all kinds of moles. Shakespeare throngh the earth by the active engineer. The central house is describes the animal as “blind," following the notions of his connected with this first gallery by three roads running from age. But what can a subterranean worker want eyes for ? the citadel. Round the first circle stretches a second, and to Perhaps one use may be to give notice to the animal of its this four or five roads run from the first gallery. From the approach to the surface, the first gleam of light warning the second circular work seven or eight tunnels extend far under mole back to deeper recesses. Sometimes, too, our undergrop ground, opening up a large hunting domain to the subterranean labourer does leave his dark caves for a moonlight hn*

object being to catch and eat as many fat snails as he can find. fights. How so? Surely his name would not make a good It is during these nightly rambles that the mole is sometimes party cry; he could never aid in blinding the eyes of voters, nor snapped up by a hungry owl, in want of a supper for herself and is he valuable enough for a bribe. Will the reader be kind ravenous family. The owl and owlets have, probably, little enough to imagine himself present at a dinner party of Jacobite cause for rejoicing ; a severe fit of indigestion must surely be gentlemen in the reign of Queen Anne? What toast is that their fate after swallowing the tough skin of the mole.

which excites such uproarious applause ? They all drink it; This animal is a great eater; in what food does he most every glass is emptied at the words, “Here's to the little gendelight? Earth-worms form the daintiest dinners of the hungry tleman in velvet.” What can be meant ? One of the party little fellow. But he is a bit of an epicure, objecting to eat the explains that “the little gentleman” refers to the mole which worms until they have been skinned. He is said to perform raised the hill against which the horse of William III. stumbled, this operation for himself in the neatest manner. Those who breaking the royal rider's collar-bone, and thus causing the death are acquainted with the structure of the earth-worm will not be of the king. The delighted Jacobites expressed their frantic surprised at the mole's objection to the skin. Even a hungry joy by thus toasting the unknown and unconscious mole. What man would object to a mutton chop with 120 bits of gristle in it. if the very animal which raised that hillock had been discovered ? The earth-worm has that number of gristly rings in its body, Surely he would have been feasted on the fattest earth-worms and the epicure mole is therefore quite justified in separating off silver plates while living, would have been embalmed when them with the skin. Of course it is very bad for the worm, but dead, and preserved as a precions mummy in a golden shrine then it is very good for the mole.

with rushlights burning round it day and night.

[graphic]

SECTIONAL VIEW OF A MOLE'S NEST AND THE SUBTERRANEAN GALLERIES AND TUNNELS SURROUNDING IT.

We have called this quadruped a teetotaler, for in respect to Here some may turn from politics to more prosy matters, by water, the little fellow may well be called “ a thirsty soul.” So asking whether the mole does not do a great deal of mischief. incessant is the desire to drink, that it actually constructs a The farmers certainly bring heavy charges against him, but series of tanks for collecting and holding water, unless a stream these accusations may be reduced to two-eating or injuring the or pond be near.

roots of crops, and disfiguring the meadows by the numerous A mole has what may be called " a bit of a temper,” and will “hills ” which the busy animal throws up. This last result fight most desperate battles with its own kind. Especially does would be in reality a benefit if the agriculturist would level the this occur when one happens to bore into the gallery of another. hillocks, and thus distribute a surface-dressing of rich soil over The two pugnacions engineers meet; there is no room for pass. his land. The reader will see how small are the evils produced ing ; perhaps neither will go back; all the dignity of mole nature by the mole. forbids that; and there is nothing left but“ a set to." This is A war of extermination has, however, long been waged against no joking matter to either of the warriors, for the mole's bite is our active engineer. In this contest mole-catchers are the fieldlike that of a bull-dog, as any reader may test for himself marshals, the artillery consisting of cleverly devised traps, which whenever he catches one of our black little friends alive.

only moles of first-rate talent are able to avoid. Great has been Our mole has the character of being an affectionate husband; the slaughter of the quadrupeds; one “catcher" summed up in truth, many of his most furious battles are fought in defence his own slain at 40,000 moles, and even their enthusiastio hisof wife and babies. He will often die rather than desert his torian, Le Court, captured 6,000 in five months. The mole has, spouse. The lady mole is sometimes caught in traps, and the we think, made a good fight for life, or not a single one of his devoted husband has been known to perish rather than aban. race would be now alive. He seems still determined to keep up don her. What a nice text this would be for a sermon addressed the "battle of life," and has not given the slightest hint of to certain bipeds!

surrender, or even of emigration. We cannot help honouring Politicians have sometimes used the mole in their partisan such pluck, and wish him all the success he deserves.

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.–XI.

describe a square that shall be equal in superficial area to the

squares described on these lines. First draw two straight lines PROBLEM XXVIII.-To draw a triangle of which the base, the of indefinite length. Po: Rs. intersecting each other at right sum of its remaining sides, and one of the angles at the base are angles in the point c. On C P and cs set off CD, CE, each given.

equal to A, and on CR, CQ set off C F C G, each equal to B. Let the straight line A represent the length of the base of the Complete the squares CDH E, C F KG, by Problem XVIII. required triangle, B the sum of its remaining sides, and the angle (page 255) and join G E. Upon G E construct the square G EL M, c one of the angles at its base. Draw any straight line, x y, of also by Problem XVIII. The square G E L M is equal in superindefinite length, and at any point, D, in it, make the angle ficial area to the squares C D H E, CF KG, described on the given

Y D E equal to the given straight lines A and B respectively.
B angle c. Then set off! Now at first sight it is difficult for any one who is endea.
-A DF equal to A along DY, | vouring by self-tuition to acquire a knowledge of practical geo-

and DG equal to B metry, whether for an agreeable change from other pursuits and
along D E, and join G F. / a useful mental exercise,
At the point F in the or to aid him in the pur-
straight line G F make suance of his calling-
the angle G F equal and there are many call-
to the angle D G F, pro ings, such as those of
ducing Fu, if neces. the carpenter, mason, gar-

sary, until it meets the dener, wheelwright, etc.,
Fig. 38.

side D G of the triangle | in which a knowledge of

D G F in the point n. geometry is indispensable, The triangle H FD is the triangle required, for its base, DF, if he who chooses any one is equal to the given straight line A, one of its angles FDH of them as the avocation is equal to the given angle c, and the length of its remaining / by which he must earn his sides, D H, F, taken together, is equal to B, for since the angle daily bread wishes to rise IF G is equal to the angle H GF, I F is equal to u G, and among his fellows, and DG, or D 1+1 G, was made equal to B.

so deservedly command The position of the point u in the straight line D G may also

the point H in the straight line D G may also the reward of his inbe found by bisecting F G in K, and drawing K L perpendicular dustry and intelligence to G, and cutting D G in H.

it may, we say, seem PROBLEM XXIX.-To draw a triangle having its angles equal at first difficult to

Fig. 40. to the angles of a given triangle and its perimeter, or the sum of its perceive that the large three sides, equal to a given straight line.

square GELM is exactly equal in superficial area to the two Let the straight line A B represent the length of the perimeter, smaller squares C DHE, CF KG, taken together. We will, or sum of the three sides of the required triangle, and C D E the therefore, first give him the means of proving to his satisfacgiven triangle to whose angles the angles of the required triangle tion, by the aid of his compasses and parallel ruler, that it is must be equal. At the extremity A of the straight line A B make so, and then endeavour, as in former cases, to deduce from a the angle BAF equal to the angle B D C of the triangle C D E, consideration of Fig. 40 several geometrical facts that may be and at its extremity B, make the angle A B G equal to the angle gleaned from this problem, without the necessity of treating CED. Bisect the angles BA F, A B G by the straight lines A H, them in separate problems. B K, and let these straight lines be produced far enough to inter. And first, for proof positive from ocular demonstration that sect in the point L. From the point L draw L M parallel to AF, the area of the large square Q ELM is equal to the joint area of meeting A B in M, and LN parallel to B G, meeting A B in n. the smaller squares C F KG, CDH E. An inspection of the The triangle L M N thus formed is the triangle required, for it is annexed figure, which is drawn on rather a smaller scale than manifest that its angles at L, M, and x, are equal to the angles at Fig. 40, but in precisely the same proportions, will show the C, D, and of the triangle C D E, for the angle LM N, by Theorem truth of the assertion. The two larger squares are divided into 2 (page 156), is equal to the angle B A F, which was made equal their component parts in the following manner. Through o to the angle D E, and the angle L Nm, by the same Theorem, is draw CT parallel to GM Or E L, meeting E G in T, in order to equal to the angle A B G, which was made equal to the angle CED; fix the point T. Then through r draw T U parallel to C E, and and if there be two triangles each one of which has two angles Tv parallel to C G. Along T U set off to equal to 0 g, and

which are equal to through o draw x parallel to T V or C G, meeting L M in x, and
two angles of the through v draw v w, parallel to T U or C E, meeting o x in w.
other, the remaining Next, for the necessary division of the square CDH E, through
angle of the one c draw C 2, parallel to E G, and produce L E, to meet the straight
must be equal to the line D H in the point y. If this
remaining angle of figure be drawn on a piece of
the other, since the paper, and the squares C F KG,
three angles of CDH E be cut out and divided, and
every triangle, whe- the pieces put together on the i
ther great or small, square G EL X, so that the pieces

are together equal to numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, in the
Fig. 39.

180 degrees; and as smaller squares, be placed on the

in the triangle L MN divisions similarly numbered in there are two angles L M N, L N M, equal to the angles C D E, the large square, it will be found C E D of the triangle C D E, the remaining angle min of the that the area of the large square triangle L M N must be equal to the remaining angle D C E of is exactly equal to the joint area the triangle C D E. Now the side M L is equal to ma, be- of the smaller squares. carse the angle ML A is equal to the angle M A L, M L A being It will be noticed that the equal to L AF or H A F, because they are alternate angles, and straight lines P Q, R 8 in Fig. 40 HA F being by the construction equal to M A H. For the were drawn at right angles to each same reason the side N L of the triangle L M N is equal to N B. other, and that the straight lines

Fig. 41. Therefore the perimeter of the triangle L MN, or the sum of its CG, CE, that were set off along sides L M M N, NL, is equal to the given straight line A B. ca, c s are at right angles to each other necessarily. This is the

PROBLEM XXX.-To describe a square that shall be equal in point in the construction on which the solution of the problem superficial area to the sum of the squares described on two given depends, whatever may be the length of A and B, and to effect it stroaight lines.

we have only to draw a line equal to A, and at right angles to Let A and B be the two given straight lines; it is required to one end make a line equal to B, and join the extremities of the

VOL. 1

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »