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must be made subservient to the lights, that is, they must be Votre mère s'est-elle bien portée ? Has your mother been well! worked about the lights in such a way as to relieve them, and / Vos seurs se sont-elles assises ? Did your sisters sit down! throw out their forms clearly. The first practical example we

Cette marchandise s'est-elle bien Did that merchandise sell well ? will give is Fig. 98, and relates to the drawing of the trunk and

vendne? branches. As we have already given the principles which are to

Vos enfants ce sont-ils appliqués à Did your children apply to study?

l'étude ? guide the pupil in first arranging the trunk and branches, and

and n s'y sont appliqués.
n

They applied to it. afterwards drawing them, we will proceed to the foliage ; and Nous nous sommes donné de la We gave (to) ourselves much trouble. here we advise him to practise many times the examples from peine [$ 135 (1)]. Fig. 88 to Fig. 97. The first four are merely masses of foliage, Quel temps a-t-il fait ce matin ? What weather was it this morning! and it will require a considerable amount of repetition to secure N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps ? Was it not fine weather ? a free and flowing manner of accomplishing this first difficulty in

Quel malheur vous est-il arrivé ? What misfortune has happened to drawing foliage. Each example must be done, not by continued

you? lines, but by broken touches, the only way to arrive at that light

Vous est-il arrivé quelque chose ? Has anything happened to you ?

Il ne m'est rien arrivé. appearance peculiarly characteristic of foliage. The pencil may

Nothing has happened to me. be allowed to press a little heavier on the under parts on the

VOCABULARY. opposite side to the light, and it must be held almost perpendi- Acier, m., steel. S'ennuy-er, 1, peculiar Plume, f., pen. cularly, because in that position the pencil can be guided S'adress-er, 1, reflec- [$ 49), to grono weary. Se port-er, 1, ref., to be upwards, downwards, or to the right and left with equal ease tive, to apply. Erreur, f., error.

or do. and freedom; a tolerably soft pencil, say a B, will be the most

S'aperc-evoir, 3, ref., to Grêl-er, 1, pec., to haul. Se tromp-er, 1, ref., to suitable. To relieve the lights straight lines may be drawn at

perceive.

Hollandais, -e, Dutch. I be mistaken.

S'asse-oir, 3, ir., ref., to Neig-er, i, pec., to Se serv-ir, 2, ir., rel., to
Figs. 92, 94, and afterwards the manner of Fig. 96

sit doron.
enou.

use. may be employed for the parts of the tree in shadow; but before Bea

Beaucoup, adv., much. Peine, f., trouble. Se vend-re, 4, ref., to attempting Fig. 96 let Fig. 97 be mastered, as the former is Canif, m., penknife. Plu, from pleuvoir, sell. but a combination of the latter. Fig. 98 is the same tree as

rained. Fig. 99; one represents the branches as in winter, the other

EXERCISE 83. when covered with foliage, as in summer; and we advise the papil to make his drawing of the branches first from Fig. 98, and

1. À qui vos sæurs se sont-elles adressées ? 2. Elles se sont then arrange the foliage from the other example. We again

adressées à moi. 3. Ne se sont-elles pas trompées (Sect. repeat, all this will require a great deal of patient perseverance,

XXXVII. 1]. 4. Elles se sont trompées. 5. Vous êtes-vous for no one can expect to overcome the difficulties withont |

aperçu de votre erreur. 6. Je ne m'en suis pas aperça. 7. making many failures; but we particularly recommend the pupil

anil Vous êtes-vous ennuyés à la campagne ? 8. Nous nous y to execute slowly and carefully the first trials, and not on any

sommes ennuyés (Sect. XXXVII. 4]. 9. Ces demoiselles de account to attempt a sleight-of-hand kind of treatment, from a

sont-elles ennuyées chez vous ? 10. Elles s'y sont ennuyées. supposition that a rapid movement of the pencil is necessary to

11. De quoi vous êtes-vous servie pour écrire, Mademoiselle: accomplish the task.

[Sect. XXXVIII. 2.) 12. Je me suis servie d'une plume d'or. 13. Ces écolières ne so sont-elles pas servies de plumes d'acier ?

14. Elles se sont servies de plumes d'argent. 15. La HollanLESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXV.

daise s'est-elle assise? 16. Elle ne s'est point assise. 17. Lui

est-il arrivé un malheur? 18. Il ne lui est rien arrivé, elle ne SECTION XLIV.-USES OF REFLECTIVE AND UNIPERSONAL

se porte pas bien, 19. Ne s'est-elle pas donné ($ 135 (1)] de la VERBS (Sect. XXXV.).

peine pour rien ? 20. Cette soie ne s'est-elle pas bien vendue ? 1. THE reflective or pronominal verb always takes être as its 21. Elle s'est très-bien vendue. 22. N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps auxiliary [S 46).

toute la journée ? 23. Non, Monsieur, il a plu, il a neige et il a Votre cousin s'est promené,

Your cousin has taken a talk, grêlé. 24. N'est-il rien arrivé aux deux dames que nous avons Nos amis se sont flattés,

Our friends have flattered themselves. vucs ce matin ? 25. Non, Madame, il ne leur est rien arrivé. 2. Although the past participle of a reflective verb be conju.

EXERCISE 84. gated with être, it agrees with its direct regimen when that

1. Has it rained to-day? 2. It has not rained, but it has regimen precedes it, and is invariable when the regimen follows hoito

hailed and snowed. 3. Has anything happened to your little it. The student should be careful to see if the reflective pronoun

boy ? 4. Nothing has happened to him, but he is sick to-day. be a direct or an indirect regimen ($ 135].

5. Did your sister sit down at your house? 6. She did not sit Vous vous êtes flattées, Mesde- You have flattered yourselves, young down, she was sick. 7. Did that cloth sell well ? 8. It sold moiselles,

ladies.

very well, we have sold it all. 9. Did you perceive your error? Elles se sont donné la main, They have given (to) each other the

10. We perceived it. 11. Were not your sisters mistaken in hand.

this affair? 12. They were not mistaken. 13. Were not your It will be easily perceived that vous in the first sentence is a

cousins weary of being in the country? 14. They were weary direct regimen, and that the word se in the second represents

of being at my brother's. 15. What have you used to write an indirect object.

your exercises ? 16. I used a gold pen, and my brother used a 3. Verbs essentially unipersonal, i.e., verbs which cannot be

silver pen. 17. Have you used my penknife ? 18. I have used conjugated otherwise, take avoir as an auxiliary.

it. 19. What has happened to you ? 20. Nothing has happened Il a plu, il a neigé, il a gell, It rained, it snowed, it frose, to me. 21. Has your mother been well? 22. She has not been

4. Verbs occasionally unipersonal take être as an auxiliary. well. 23. Did your brothers apply to their studies at school? Il lui est arrivé un malheur,

24. They applied to their studies, and have finished their lessons.

25. What weather was it this morning ? 26. It was very fina 5. Faire [4, ir.] used unipersonally, and y avoir, to be there,

weather. 27. Has your sister taken much trouble in this affair? take the auxiliary avoir.

28. She has taken much trouble for nothing. 29. Did the A-t-il fait beau temps le mois passé? Was it fine weather last month ?

Dutch ladies walk? 30. They walked this morning. 31. How Y a-t-il eu beaucoup de monde ? Were there many people there?

far did they walk ? 32. They walked as far as your brother's. 6. The past participle of a unipersonal verb is always invari. 33. Have you given each other the hand? 34. We shook hands. able ($ 135 (6)].

35. Those ladies flattered themselves very much. Les pluies qu'il y a eu cet été, The rains which we have had this

summer. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXIII. Les Italiennes se sont-elles pro- Did the Italian ladies walk ?

THE MEASURES OF WEIGHT. menées ? Oui, Monsieur, elles se sont pro. Yes, Sir, they have taken a walk.

12. The smallest weight in use is called a grain, and by Act of

Parliament is defined in the following manner:-A vessel, of menées. Nous nous sommes aperçus de We perceived that, or we took notice which the capacity is a cubic inch, when filled with distilled ccla.

water at a temperature of 620 (Fahrenheit's thermometer), has

of that,

tune has happened to him.

Troy.

17.

nim

its weight increased by 252.458 grains. Of the grains thus | above, many denominations still used in trade, which are derived determined, 7,000 are a pound Avoirdupois, and 5,760 a pound from the names of the casks themselves.

For instance, in measuring wine-
TROY WEIGHT.

314 gallons

make 1 hogshead. 13. The derivation of the word Troy is doubtful. One theory

42 gallons

1 tierce. is that it comes from the town Troyes, in France, because the

2 hogsheads

1 pipe, or butt. pound Troy is said to have been first used there. Another

2 pipas

1 tun. derivation is " Troynovant,” the prehistoric name of London; a Also for spiritsthird derives it from trois (three), because it is the money weight,

10 gallons

make 1 anker. and that money and money weight have each three denominations

18 gallons

1 runlet. --penny, shilling, pound; pennyweight, ounce, pound. Troy

2 tierces (84 gallons), 1 puncheon. weight is used in weighing gold, silver, precious stones, etc.,

And in measuring ale or beerand also in scientific investigations. The fineness of gold-that is, the ratio of the weight of pure gold in any given mass to the

9 gallous

make 1 firkin.

2 firkins weight of the whole-is generally estimated by the number of

1 kilderkin, 2 kilderkins

1 barrel, carats (about 31 grains) of pure gold contained in 24 carats of the given substance. Standard gold—that is, the gold of our And in dry measure we have also coinage-is “ 22 carats fine." This means that out of 24 carats

2 quarts

mako 1 pottle. of sovereign gold 22 are pare gold. Sometimes this is also

2 bushels

1 strike. expressed by saying that standard gold is fine, this being the

strikes

1 coomb. ratio of the pare to the alloyed metal. Diamonds and other

2 coombs

1 quarter. precious stones are weighed by carats.

5 quarters

1 load. The following are the different denominations in Troy weight:

2 loads

1 last. 24 grains (24 grs.) make 1 pennyweight written 1 dwt.

MONEY.-COINAGE. 90 pennyweights , 1 ounce » 1 oz.

MONEY OF ACCOUNTS. 12 ounces » 1 pound » 1 lb., or Ib.

4 farthings make 1 penny written id.
APOTHECARIES WEIGHT.

12 pence
1 shilling

ls. 14. The weights used by apothecaries are aliquot parts of the

20 shillings , 1 pound „ £1. pound Troy, and are as follow :

A farthing is indicated either as a fractional part of a penny 20 grains (grs.) make 1 scruple, written 1 ?,

---thus, id.-or by the letter "q"_thus, 1q.
3 scruples
1 dram , 13.

The symbols £, s, d, q, are the initials of the Latin words
8 drams
, 1 ounce
13.

Libra, solidus, denarius, quadrans. 12 ounces » 1 pound

11b.

• These are the subdivisions of money in which accounts are APOTHECARIES FLUID MEASURE.

always kept. Besides these, however, we have several coins 1 minim written mi.

representing other subdivisions, which are used to facilitate 60 minims make 1 Auid dram

t3j.

traffic. From this they are called current coins. The following 8 drams „ 1 fluid ounce

izj.

is a list of our 20 ounces , 1 pint (octavus)

Oj.

CURRENT COINS. 8 pints , 1 gallon (congius) „ cong. j.

(A Farthing. This is calculated for pure water. Hence (in avoirdupois

Copper A Halfpenny. Feight),

A Penny.
A pint of pure water

Threepenny piece.
Weighs a pound and a quarter."

Fourpenny piece.

Sixpence.
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.T

Silver Shilling. 15. The pound avoirdupois contains 7,000 grains, and a cubic

2-shilling piece, or Florin. foot of distilled water, 62° Fahrenheit, weighs 62.321 pounds

2)-sbilling piece, or Half-crown. avoirdupois very nearly.

5-shilling piece, or Crown.

(Half-Sovereign. The following are the subdivisions :

Gold Sovereign (the pound piece, equivalent 16 drams make 1 ounce written 1 oz.

l to 20 shillings). 16 oz. , 1 pound

, 1 lb. 9 lbs. 1 quarter

1 qr.

It has already been explained, under the head of Troy weight 4 qrs. (112 pounds) „ kundredweight - 1 cwt. |(Art. 13), that standard gold (that is, the gold of the coinage) is 20 cwt. , 1 ton

» 1 ton.

, or 22 carats fine. Out of a pound Troy are coined 4633 soveA stone is the name given to the weight of 14 pounds. reigns, so that, by dividing this by 12, we find the price of A sack of coals is 2 cwt.

standard gold per ounce to be £3 17s. 10 d., no charge being A ton of shipping is 42 cubic feet.

made at the Mint for coining gold. A load of rough timber is 40 cubic feet.

Standard silver is fine, and out of a pound Troy 66 shillings A load of squared timber is 50 cubic feet.

are coined; so that the Mint price of standard silver is 5s. 6d. IMPERIAL LIQUID AND DRY MEASURE.

an ounce. The market price of silver bullion is less than this16. The gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches, and contains generally about 5s. 1 d. an ounce. The advantage which the 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at a temperature of 620 Mint thus gains is called seignorage. Fahrenheit.

In the new bronze coinage 48 pence are coined out of a pound 4 gills make 1 pint written 1 pt.

| avoirdupois. The bronze consists of 95 parts copper, 4 tin, and 2 pints , l quart

1 qt.

1 zinc. 4 quarts , l gallon , l gal.

The standard of our coinage is gold. By this is meant that For measuring dry goods, such as grain, fruit, etc., we have, any amount of gold coin can be legally paid in liquidation of a further, the following denominations :

debt, the creditor being obliged to take it. This is expressed 2 gallons make 1 peck written 1 pk.

by saying that gold to an unlimited amount is the only legal 4 pecks (8 gallons) , 1 bushel , 1 bu.

tender. No one is obliged to take more than 40s. worth of 8 bushels , 1 quarter , 1 qr.

silver, or more than 12d. worth of copper. In measuring liquids, the gallon is the largest measure recog

Other coins besides the above were formerly in use. The nised by legal enactment. There are, however, besides the

guinea (21s.), the half-guinea, the 7-shilling piece, the noble

(6s. 8d.), mark (13s. 4d.), the pistole (16s. 10d.), moidore (27s.). In scientific calculations and measurements, a decimal system is

ANGULAR MEASURE. most generally now used, as being much more convenient.

# The weight used for weighing heavy goods, goods of weight 18. The circumference of a circle being divided into 360 equal (avoir du poids).

| parts, straight lines drawn to the centre will divide the four right angles at the centre into 360 equal angles. Each of mind, forming pusillanimous, small in mind, applied particularly these subdivisions, therefore, is equal to the 90th part of a right to a want of spirit or courage. angle. It is called a degree, and written thus-1°. A degree Putri, of Latin origin (putris, rotten, E.R. putrid), enters into is divided into 60 minutes, one of which is written thus-1'; the composition of a class of words, namely, putrefy (Latin, facio, each minute into 60 seconds, one of which is written 1" (vide I make), putrefaction, putrescent, putrescence, etc. Art. 3, “Division of Time," page 366). The arcs of the circle

“ It is such light as putrefaction breeds which subtend at the centre an angle of 1o, 1', 1" respectively,

In fly-blown flesh, whereon the maggot feeds, are also called a degree, a minute, and a second respectively.

Shines in the dark, but ushered into day, To know their actual magnitude, we must know the size of the

The stench remains, the lustre dies away."-Cowper. circle (see Note on page 367.

Quadr, quadra, of Latin origin (quatuor, four), is found in MISCELLANEOUS TABLE.

quadrangle, four-angled; quadruped (Latin, pes, a foot), four. 19. 12 units are called 1 dozen (doz.).

footed ; quadruple (Latin, plica, a fold), fourfold; also quater, 12 dozens

1 gross.

as in quaternion (quaternio, the number four), etc.
20 units
1 score.

" Aire and ye elements, the eldest birth
24 sheets of paper
1 quire.

Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run,
20 quires
1 ream.

Perpetual circle, multiform; and mix
2 reams
1 bundle.

And nourish all things." -Milton, " Paradise Lost." 5 bundles

1 bale.

The four elements of the ancients were fire, air, earth, and water. A sheet folded in two leives forms a folio. four quarto (4to).

" I have chosen to write my poem (annus mirabilis) in quatrains or eight octavo (svo).

stanzas of four in alternate rhyme, because I have ever judged them twelve

duodecimo (12mo). more noble and of greater dignity both for the sound and number than eighteen

eighteen-mo (18mo). any other verse in use amongst us."-Dryden. thirty-six thirty-six-mo (36mo). Quinque (quint), Latin, five, occurs in quinquennial (Latin,

annus, a year), happening every five years; in quintessence (Latin,

essentia, essence); and in quintuple, fivefold. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XIII.

"Aristoteles of Stagira hath put down for principles these three, to DERIVATIONS: PREFIXES (continued).

wit, a certain forme called entelechia, matter, (and) privation : for eloPreter, of Latin origin (præter, against), is found in preter. / ments four; and for a fifth, quintessence, the heavenly body which is natural, contrary to nature.

immutable."--Holland, " Plutarch." Pro, of Latin origin, fore, forward, as in produce (Latin, duco, Re (red), of Latin origin, primarily signifies back, backward I lead), to bring forward. Pro appears in proceed (Latin, cedo, (and has nothing to do with ere, nor does it mean before, as I go), in procreate (Latin, creo, I beget), in proffer (Latin, fero, Richardson states), as return, to turn back; hence opposition, as I bear), in prolopsis, an anticipation, etc.

resist, to stand against; also repetition, as revive, to live again; “ We have evinced (proved) that the generality of mankind have reform, to make again. constantly had a certain prolepsis or anticipation in their minds Re, denoting back:concerning the actual existence of a God."--Cudworth, “Intellectual "To desire there were no God, were plainly to unwish their own System.”

being, which must needs be annihilated in the subtraction of that Pro becomes in French pour, which again becomes pur, as in essence which substantially supported them, and restrains them from purport (Latin, porto, I carry), signification. Purchase is given regression into nothing."--Browna, " Vulgar Errors." by Richardson as from a fancied French word, namely, pour. Re, denoting opposition :chasser ; and purchase, he says, means to chase, and so to obtain. Such derivations are enough to bring etymology into disgrace.

“To this sweet royce a dainty musique fitted

Its well-tuned strings, and to her notes consorted; Purchase is from a low Latin word, perchauchare (per-calcare),

And while with skilful voice the song she dittied, which meant to tread over, and to mark out, the limits of a piece

The babbling echo had her words retorted." --Spenser. of land, the necessary preliminary to the purchase of it. See

Re, denoting repetition, as in rehearse, recapitulate, remore, Ducange on the word, who gives the noun purchacia (purchase), as something acquired. Purchacia is common in old legal docu

etc. :

“The land of silence and of death ments, and is the origin of the obsolete French word pourchasser

Attends my next remove."-Watts. (perchauchare), which has nothing whatever to do with chasser, to chase or hunt. Pourchas, in old French, signifies labour, and

Re sometimes merely strengthens the word, as in receive, recepsuggests the derivation which involves labour as the price paid

tion (Latin, capio, I take), and recommend (Latin, mando, from in the acquisition of land, etc. This idea of purchase, as founded

manus, a hand; and do, I give). on labour, is in unison with the meaning of purchase. Whence

Rect, of Latin origin (rectus, straight), appears in rectify (Latin, it signifies a point for a lever to act upon, or the power which

facio, I make), to make straight; in rectangular (Latin, angulus, hence ensues, as in these words:

a corner), right-angled ; rectilinear (Latin, linea, a line), straight

lined ; and rectitude, uprightness. "A politician, to do great things, looks for a power, which our

Retro, Latin, backward, as in retrogradation (Latin, gradior, I workmen call a purchase; and if he finds that power in politics as in

walk), going backward. It is found, also, in retroactive (Latin, mechanics, he cannot be at a loss to apply it." --Burke.

ago, I do, act), acting in a backward direction. Proto, of Greek origin (TPWTOs, pro'-tos, first), occurs in proto. |

"A bill of pains and penalties was introduced, a retroactive statute, martyr (martyr, a witness), the first witness or martyr: applied to

to punish the offences which did not exist at the time they were comto Stephen, in Church history.

mitted."-Gibbon, " Memoirs."
“With Hampden, firm assertor of her laws,
And protomartyr in the glorious cause."-Boyse.

Se, of Latin origin, the base of sine, without, denotes separa

tion, apart from, without; as, seclude (Latin, claudo, I shut), Also in prototype. We have already had antitype and archetype: to shut out : secede (Latin, I go, vield), to withdraw from ; seduca here we have prototype, which means the first or original form (Latin, duco, I lead), to lead from duty. or model. Pseudo, of Greek origin (veuðos, su'-dos, a falsehood), signifies

"From the fine gold I separate the allay, what is not genuine, false; as, pseudo-prophet, a false prophet.

And show how hasty writers sometimes stray."

Dryden, “ Art of Poetry." "Out of a more tenacious cling to worldly respects, he stands up for all the rest to justify a long usurpation and convicted pseudepiscopacy

1 Sept, of Latin origin (septem, seven), appears in septennial (Greek, CTIOKOTOP, a bishop) of prelates."--Milton.

(annus), occurring every seven years; and in septentrion, the

seven stars, the Great Bear, Charles's Wain, the north. Pusill, of Latin origin, comes from pusillus (little) or pupillus (E.R. pupil), the diminutive form of pusus or pupus, a boy (pupa,

“Thou art as opposite to every good a girl), which is the source of our word puppet, in the French

As the antipodes are unto us,

Or as the South to the Septentrion." poupée, a baby, a doll. Pusill is found in union with animus,

Shakespeare, “Hen. VI." (3rd pt.)

Sex (Latin, six) is found in sexangular, six-angled; sexennial, cannot catch the rainbow. The rainbow is going away. It fades. every six years; sextuple, sixfold; sexagenary, threescore, etc.

It is quite gone. I hear the cuckoo. It is August. Let us go into

the corn-fields. Is the corn ripe? This is a grain of corn. This " These are the seragenary fair ones, who, whether they were hand

is an ear of corn. This stalk makes straw. Now the corn must be some or not in the last century, ought at least in this to reduce themselves to a decency of dress suitable to their years." -Chesterfield,

tied up in sheaves. " Common Sense."

2. Write a theme on each of the following subjects :EXERCISES.

1. Moses found by Pharaoh's daughter. | 3. The Discovery of America. 1. Parso the following sentences :

2. The Norman Conquest.

| 4. The Death of Prince Albert. April is come. The birds sing. The trees are in blossom. The flowers are coming out. The sun shines. Now it rains. It rains

3. Write and carefully correct an account of the last sermon, and the sun shines. There is a rainbow. Oh, what fine colours! I speech, or lecture you heard.

[blocks in formation]

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXV. | distinguishing feature of a lady's hand; while roundness is, The capital letters in the present series of copy-slips, which generally speaking, the chief characteristio of men's handhare been inserted to enable the self-teacher to acquire a writing; and having proceeded thus far in acquiring a sound knowledge of the shape and mode of formation of each, will knowledge of the formation of the large and small letters of the serve as models for every variety of handwriting-for large-writing alphabet from our copy-slips and instructions, we would hand as well as small-hand, and each of the intermediate sizes. recommend all self-teachers, in practising writing, to direct their It is necessary, however, for us to remind our readers that in attention more particularly to those copies which present the using the letters that are affixed to our Copy-slips in angular characteristic features of the writing of the sex to which they writing, as in Copy-slip No. 95, as capitals for copies in hands belong; that is to say, that men and boys should copy our copy. in which the strokes are rounded at the top and bottom, as in slips in round and commercial hand in preference to those in Copy-slips Nos. 94, 96, 97, and 98, care must be taken to angular hand, while girls and women should pay more attention substitute a well-rounded curve for the angles or points that to copies in the latter hand than to those in the former. form so conspicuous a feature in angular hand; and, rice versa, In drawing towards the conclusion of our present series of in using the round-hand capitals for angular hand, the writer copies and instructions in the formation of letters, we cannot must substitute points for the rounded curves.

urge too strongly on our learners the necessity of unremitti As we have said before, angularity is for the most part the practice if they wish to write a clear and legible hand wi

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