Εικόνες σελίδας

No loud laugh broke upon the silent air,

From the phantoms of the night,
To tell the wanderers man was nestling there.

Dreaming horror, pale affright,

Thoughts which rack the slumbering breast,
The dead leaves strew the forest walk,

Fears which haunt the realm of rest,
And withered are the pale wild flowers;

And the wounded mind's remorse,
The frost hangs blackening on the stalk,

And the tempter's secret fórce.
The dew-drops fall in frozen showers :-

Hide us 'neath Thy mercy's shade.
Gone are the spring's green sprouting bowers.

From the stars of heaven, and the flowers of earth;
Goue summer's rich and mantling vines;
And autumn, with her yellow hours,

From the pageant of power, and the voice of mirth;

From the mist of the morn on the mountain's brow;
On hill and plain no longer shines.

From childhood's song, and affection's vow;
What is human life, but a waking dream,-a long reverie-in which

From all save that o'er which sóul * bears sway, He walk as “in a vain show, and disquiet ourselves for naught?"

There breathes but one record,-"passing away!" In childhood we are surrounded by a dim, unconscious present, in which all palpable realities seem for ever to elude our grasp ; in youth,

When the summer exhibits the whole force of active nature, and we are but gazing into the far future of that life for which we are

hich we are shines in full beauty and splendour ; when the succeeding season offers

its "purple stores and golden grain," or displays its blended and consciously preparing; in manhood, we are lost in ceaseless activity and enterprise, and already looking forward to a season of quiet and softened tints; when the winter puts on its sullen aspect, and brings repose, in which we are to find ourselves, and listen to a voice within ;

stillness and repose, affording a respite from the labours which have and in old age, we are dwelling on the shadows of the past,* and gilding

occupied the preceding months, inviting us to reflection, and compen. them with the eyanescent glow which emanates from the setting sun

sating for the want of attractions abroad, by fireside delights and of life.

home-felt jóys; in all this interchange and variety, we find reason to

acknowledge the wise and benevolent care of the God of seasons. Rule 4 and Note 1.-"Simple commencing series."

In that solemn hour, when exhausted nature can no longer sustain The old and the young are alike exposed to the shafts of Death. itself; when the light of the eye is waxing dim; when the pulse of life

The healthy, the temperate, and the virtuous, enjoy the true relish is becoming low and faint; when the breath labours, and the tongue of pleasure.

falters; when the shadow of death is falling on all outward things, and Birth, rank, wealth, léarning, are advantages of slight value, if un

darkness is beginning to gather over the faces of the loved ones who accompanied by personal worth.

are weeping by his bédside, a ray of immortal hope is beaming from

his features : it is a Christian who is expiring. Gentleness, patience, kindness, candour, and courtesy, form the elements of every truly amiable character.

Note 2.-"Repeated and heightening rising inflection.” Sympathy, disinterestedness, magnanimity, generosity, liberality, and I ask, will you in silence permit this invasion of your rights, at sell-forgetfulness, are qualities which universally secure the esteem and once wánton, mischievous, uncalled for, and unnecessary ? Will you admiration of mankind.

patiently tolerate the annihilation of all freedom,-the appointment of

a supreme dictátor, who may, at his will, suspend all your rights, líber“ Compound Commencing Series.”

ties, and privileges ? Will you, without a murmur of dissent, submit In a rich soil, and under a soft climate, the weeds of luxury will to a tyranny which nearly equals that of the Russian áutocrat, and is spring up amid the flowers of art.

second to that of Bónaparte ? * All the wise instructions of the lawgiver, all the doctrines of the

“ Repeated and increasing falling inflection.”+ sage, all the ennobling strains of the poet, had perished in the ear, like Was it the winter's stórm, beating upon the houseless heads of women s dream related, if letters had not preserved them.

and children ; was it hard labour and spare mèals; was it disease; The dimensions and distances of the planets, the causes of their was it the tomahawk; was it the deep malady of a blighted hòpe, a revolutions, the path of comets, and the ebbing and flowing of tides,

ruined enterprise, and a broken heart ;-was it sóme, or all of these are now understood and explained.

united, that hurried this forsaken company to their melancholy fate ? The mighty pyramid, half buried in the sands of Africa, has nothing

Yes, after he has destroyed my belief in the superintending provito bring down and report to us, but the power of kings, and the

dence of God,-after he has taught me that the prospect of an here

but the baseless fabric of a vision,-after he has bred and servitude of the people. Ii asked for its moral object, its admonition,

nourished in me a contempt for that sacred volume which alone throws its sentiment, its instruction to mankind, or any high end in its erec light over this benighted world,-after having argued me out of my tion, it is silent;--silent as the millions which lie in the dust at its faith by his sophistries, or laughed me out of it by his ridicule,-after base, and in the catacombs which surround it.

having thus wrung from my soul every dròp of consolation, and dried Yes, - let me be free ; I let me go and come at my own will; let up my very spirit within me;- yes, after having accomplished this in me do business, and make journeys, without a vexatious police or the season of my health and my prosperity, the sceptic would come insolent soldiery to watch my steps; let me think, and do, and speak to me while I mourn, and treat me like a drivelling idiot, whom he what I please, subject to no limit but that which is set by the common may sport with, because he has ruined me, and to whom, in the Weal; subject to no law but that which conscience binds upon me; plenitude of his compassion—too late and too unavailing-he may talk and I will bless my country, and love its most rugged rocks, and its of truths in which he himself does not believe, and which he has most barren soil.

long exhorted me, and bas at last persuaded me, to cast away as

the dreams and delusions of human folly. Exception 3.4" Poetic and pathetic series."

Wheresoe'er thy lot command,
Brother, pilgrim, stranger,

God is ever pear at hand,

Golden shield from danger.

The gymnastic exercises to which we have hitherto directed
Rocks of granite, gates of brass,

our attention have been chiefly those in which poles, bars, and Alps to heaven sóaring,

similar wooden contrivances have formed the apparatus. We Bow, to let the wishes pass Of a soul imploring.

now come to another series, in which the use of ropes forms a principal feature; and these will be found to be as greatly diver

sified as the class before described, ranging from the simplest Falling slide of contrast to the preceding clause.

exercises on the hanging rope to those on the trapeze, etc. † All the emphatic series, even in suppositive and conditional

TIIE HANGING ROPE. Expression, being, like enumeration, cumulative in effect, and corresponding, therefore, to climax in style, are properly read with a pre

By the hanging rope is meant one suspended either from the ung downward slide in the "suspensive” or slight form, which ceiling of an apartment, or from a cross-beam between two belongs to incomplete but energetic expression, and avoids, accordingly, the low inflection of cadence at a period.

* The inflection of any clause always lies on the emphatic word; Emphasis, and length of clanse, may substitute the “moderate" and, if that word is a polysyllable, on the accented syllable chiefly, falling slide for the slight “suspensive" one. But the tone, in such although not always exclusively. cases, will still be perfectly free from the descent of a cadence, which † This inflection both begins higher, and ends lower, every time it belongs only to the period,

| is repeated.


upright supports, without any other appendage. This con- nastic training and amusement. To those who are not fami. trivanco, simple as it is, will afford an amusing as well liar with it, its nature will be made clear by our illustration as highly beneficial help to the young gymnast, if he be (Fig. 24). An upright post, some twenty feet in height, is firmly rightly instructed in its use. The first thing to be attended to fixed in the ground, and usually supported by solid wooden is, that the rope a good stout one, capable of being easily buttresses at the foot. That part of the post which is buried grasped in the hands--should be very firmly fixed in its position. in the earth should be charred, by which means rotting is in It will not do to risk the chance of a heavy fall to the ground, great measure prevented. To the top of the post is affixed a at a time when, to the strain caused by the

revolving iron disc, which works round freely weight of the body, may be added that de

upon a pivot; and to this disc four or five rived from rapid motion. If the learner be

ropes are attached, as shown in the engraving. practising in private, and is not an adept in

At the end of each rope is a ring, or in some such matters, it is well to consult an expe

cases a small bar of wood, which the gymnast rienced carpenter, in the first place, as to the

grasps with both hands. strength of the beam to which the rope is to

The exercises with the ropes attached to be attached, and next as to the best manner

this apparatus partake of the nature of the of securing it. A strong iron hook will some

swing and the leap, described in the earlier times fuffice, but it is better to have the

portion of this paper. They may mostly be rope affixed to a swivel, by which abrasion

performed either forwards, sidewards, or of the rope, and its consequent insecurity, aro

backwards; that is, with the face to the prevented.

- upright pole, or with the shoulder towards Several exercises may be performed on the Fig. 23.-THE HANGING ROPE. it, or with the back turned to it, 29 in hanging rope. The gymnast may begin by

the illustration. They are practised, as will practising (1) the swing, grasping tho rope two or three feet be seen, with the rope at the fullest angle to which it is from its extremity, and swinging backwards and forwards with capable of being extended; and how to keep the rope at this greater or loss velocity; at first with the legs almost perpen- angle is the first difficulty to the learner. If he allow the rope dicular, next bont by raising the knees upward, and lastly to return too much towards the perpendicular, he will find stretched forward in the horizontal position, as depicted in our himself scraping the ground, in a manner which will quicken, Illustration (Fig. 23). This is a capital exercise for the develop- although it may not improve, his sensations. To avoid this he ment of the muscles of the body, without subjecting it to any should keep the weight of the body as far as possible in the wwins #train.

same line as the direction of the rope, bearing away, with as 2. The learner may now attempt the leap, which is performed much force as he can spare, from the upright post in the centre. eurily enough in open ground, but is unsuited to an apartment, | Stretching the rope out to the angle, and with his shoulder at unless it be a very spacious one. Take

first towards the post, he commences by the rope as far back from the perpendi

taking a forward swing which describes an eulax as its length will allow, keeping

arc of about one-fourth of the circumferyour face towards it, and holding it with

ence of the circle, touching the ground with arms extended above your head; then

his feet when this distance is completed, throw yourself forward with a spring,

and thon continuing the movement as beand, as you reach the full limit to which

fore until the circle is completed; or be the length of the rope will carry you,

may go completely round in two such relinquish your grasp, and alight easily

evolutions. This leap, or stride, is the upon your feet. Or, instead of simply

movement from which the apparatus coming to the ground in this manner,

takes its name. When he has become you may have a bench or stand placed

accustomed to the use of the rope in near the spot at which you would so

this manner, and has acquired the descend, and clear this mark by the

knack of keeping the rope extended, he forward impulse the body has acquired

may describe the circle in one continuous at the moment in which the rope leaves

movement; and he may afterwards per. your hands. Turning a summersault

form the flying leap by going round and from the rope is sometimes practised,

round the pole as many times successively but this feat is dangerous, and we do not

as his powers and skill will allow. He think it necessary to enlarge upon it.

may then perform the same movements 3. Climbing the rope is not so easy as

by starting with his face towards the it might appear to the uninitiated. Com

pole; or he may swing round it with his mence by making a firm grasp, with the

body bearing in the opposite direction, as left hand a foot or so higher than the

shown in Fig. 24. right; then make a spring up the rope,

The apparatus of the Giant's Stride while you change the position of the

will allow two or more persons to prachands, bringing the right now in the as.

tise the foregoing movements at the same cendant. Cross the heels over the rope,

time; but it is necessary in this case that and hold it as tightly as you can by this

they should possess some acquaintance means, to assist the purchase which the

with the proper use of the ropes, in order hands have acquired. Inflate the lungs

that they may avoid coming into collision before making each successive effort, by

with each other. which means you will rise with greater

Instead of touching the ground with facility.

Fig. 24.-The Giant's STRIDE.

both feet in the series of strides or leaps We have now said enough of the hang

which we have just described, the gyming rope, and will pass on to a contrivance which is very nast may sometimes vary the exercise by performing the similar in character, although more complicated in construc- | hopping movement. He then starts from one leg-either the tion. This is by some called the Round Swing, but is more right or the left, but practising from each alternately-and generally known under the title of

comes to the ground on the same foot as he progresses round

the circle. THE GIANT'S STRIDE.

Another variation of these gymnastic exercises is to take This favourito apparatus may be seen in every publio gym. a rope in each hand, and walk or run round the circle, 20 nasium, and s probably familiar to most of our readers, who and then leaving the ground altogether, and performing the

* it, even if they have not practised upon it, swinging stride as before. The gymnast may either face the

4 or in any public park where a space is pole during these movements, or perform them with his back

ays be the case-to the purpose of gym- towards it.

will you please give
directions that in future
successful candidates
in the lange Competitions


him thus far on his way, the rest remains entirely with himself;

the best and only thing indeed that we can do to aid him in the OFFICIAL HANDWRITING.-I.

acquirement of a distinctive and characteristic form of hand. In our early lessons in Penmanship-after giving the necessary writing being to place before him models, consisting of various preliminary instructions for regulating the position of the hand, styles of writing, that have been approved by persons who are arm, and body when engaged in writing, and the proper modo competent judges of what is desirable in handwriting calcuof holding the pen-we furnished the learner with ample details kated for the government office, the solicitor's desk, or the mer. respecting the formation of the small letters of the writing chant's counting-house. alphabet, and brought him forward on his way, step by step, As many of our readers are doubtless desirous of entering the until he was able to write words and sentences involving the in- | Civil Service, and are anxious to know what style of writing troduction of capital letters and figures. The copy-slips set will be deemed satisfactory by the examiners appointed to test before him, as examples for practice and illustrations of all that the qualifications of candidates, we bring under their notice, in was advanced in

the present lesson, our lessons, were

two specimens of such a nature

of official handthat he was per

writing which force compelled to

have met with the copy them slowly

approval of Her and deliberately,

Majesty's Civil in order to become

Service Commisacquainted with

sioners, “and of the forms of the

which we have letters and their

their kind perrelative propor

mission to give tions, and to give

the accompanying cach ap-stroke and

fac-similes. We down - stroke its

append an extract proper thickness,

from the report inclination, and

itself, from which, curvature, which

aided by a careful he could not havo


companying spetempted to exeCOMMISSIONERS.—NO. 1.

cimens of handcate his task with

writing, our the rapidity with which writing of an ordinary kind is written. readers will be able to form a clear idea of what is required of

In order to write legibly, the first and most essential step is candidates for the Civil Service, as far as writing is concerned. to acquire the habit of forming the letters of the writing alpha- “ In our former reports,” say the Commissioners, “we have bet correctly; copying each letter, whether singly or in combi observed upon the importance which we attach to good hand. nation with others, with the utmost care, and writing it slowly writing, as one of the most useful accomplishments which a clerk So as to gain sufficient time to note the shape of every part of it can possess, and one which any young man has it in his power and its direction before imitating it with the pen or pencil. This to acquire. We believe that the effect of our examinations has degree of proficiency in writing, the only safe and sure basis and been, upon the whole, to improve the general style of writing for foundation of a clear and legible hand, we may fairly suppose official purposes. There is, however, room for much further all to have attained, who have been endeavouring to teach them.' improvement. In consequence, probably, of the insufficient selves how to

attention paid write by means

to the subject of the instruc

in schools, the tions given in

quantity of bad our previous

handwriting lessons. Har.

which comes ing got thus

before us is far, it will now

still very be necessary

great; and we for them to

are therefore endeavour to

unable,without write rapidly as

causing inconwell as clearly,

venience to the taking care,

public departhowever, that

ments, by delay they do not

in supplying sacrifice legibi.

vacancies, to lity and plain


a standard in the pen to COMMISSIONERS.—NO. 2.

this respect as move over the

we should depaper with too

sire. It is great a degree of quickness. And here it is necessary for us to almost superfluous to state that we do not demand or desire that say, that although we have done as much as is possible to give the writing should be of any particular style, provided that it each learner the clearest instructions for making the letters of possesses the main characteristic of legibility. What we require, the writing alphabet, the ultimate formation of his handwriting, as candidates are invariably informed, is 'the clear formation of or, in other words, the adoption and acquirement of certain dis- the letters of the alphabet.” tinctive peculiarities that will eventually give a special charac. Speaking of the accompanying specimens of official writing, ter to his writing as he gradually becomes less and less of a which are fac-similes of documents written in one of the publio mere copyist, imitating in every detail the set shape, inclination, offices, the Commissioners further say, “Representing, as they and curvature of the letters set before him, must rest entirely do, the ordinary current work of the writers, they are not given with himself. His handwriting must be based, it is true, on the as free from faults; but we think that they will show that instructions we have given, and the more closely he adheres to essential quality of distinctness may be obtained withor them, the more legible his writing will be. But having helped sacrifice of other desirable elements of a good official har


Jam directed by the Civil
Service Commissioners to acknowledge
the receipt of your letter of the
2.5 the instant




ponent parts—that is, by the inversion of crasis or by dissola

tion-you obtain the two words entire ; SO TOUTOS becomes to VOWELS, CONSONANTS, PUNCTUATION, ETC.

ETOS ; also Tayaba becomes ta ayata. THE Greek alphabet, consisting of four-and-twenty letters, is The Greeks paid great attention to euphony, or pleasing made up of seven vowels and seventeen consonants. The vowels sound. Consequently they studied to prevent two vowels from are a, e (n), -, o (w), v. According to their quantity, long or coming into immediate succession, so as to cause an hiatus or short, they may be divided thus :

stoppage of the flow of the sound-such a stoppage as would

take place, if instead of saying an hiatus (Latin, a gaping), we VOWELS.

were to say a hiatus. To avoid this unpleasant suspension of Short,


the breath, we, in English, convert a into an. In the same 17,w. å, ,, .

way, and for the same purpose, the Greeks employed an y at By "doubtful" is meant, that the vowels so termed are some the endtimes short and sometimes long : which they are, in any case, is 1. Of the dative plural in oi, and adverbs of place ending in learnt by usage, particularly by the usage of the poets.

01: as, Tao LV €€€a ; ý IIatalad u vreuovia. By a union of vowels we produce

2. Of the third person singular and plural ending in ou, as THE DIPHTHONGS.

TUATOVO LV Eue ; Tidno i ev TP TPaten; also with eoti, 13

€OTIV euot. al, av. El, ev. Ol, nu. vi, ov.

3. Of the third person singular in e, as ETUATEY ELE. Besides these there are the improper diphthongs, formed by 4. Of the numerals, as eikoci avāpes; but not always; therea, n, or w, and the iota subscriptum, or written under, as ą, n, w. fore we find also εικοσι ανδρες. Both the proper and the improper diphthongs are long, or, in

Regard to euphony also led the Greeks to drop the o in the other words, receive the stress of the voice in pronunciation. When two vowels commonly pronounced as one sound (a

a l adverb outws before a word beginning with a consonant: thus,

ουτως εποιησεν; bnt ουτω ποιεω. diphthong) are pronounced separately, a diærēsis (separation)

Thus the preposition er, as in ek TS eipnirns, becomes e is produced, which is denoted by two dots set over the second

before a vowel, as et eipnins. vowel; as, ei, oi, ai. The consonants are divided, first according to the organs

The same practice obtains in the negative ouk (not, no), as

OVK aloxpos, ov kanos ; also, ovx hôvs. In the last example the chiefly employed in pronouncing them. Thus, in uttering some,

aspirate in növs requires the aspirated form of K, that is x, immewe use the palate or upper part of the throat; these are termed

| diately before it, for in Greek only letters of the same kind go gutturals (Latin, guttur, a throat). Others are designated Jabials, being such as come mostly from the lips (Latin, labium,

together, that is, a soft sound with a soft sound, a hard with a a lip). Others, again, bear the name of linguals, from Latin,

hard, and an aspirated sound with an aspirated sound. But of lingua, a tongue.

this matter I shall have more to say by-and-by.

The points employed in punctuating Greek are few; by the CONSONANTS.

original writers points were not at all used. The comma, the Gutturals. Labials.


period, and the note of exclamation are employed as in English. K, Y, X , B, O, H. T, 8, 0, , v, p, o. What with us is called the semicolon is used in Greek as a note Another division arises according to the different manner in of interrogation; and the colon is one dot placed at the top of which the organs of speech act in their formation. Thus we

the word, thusobtain

Colon · Ei eneEas. The i cli-vowels or liquids, A, H, v, p; the sibilant or hissing

Period . Tartes ws Wuolynoey. soun', '; the mutes, T, K, T, B, 7, 8, 9, X, 0.

Interrogation ; TIS Tauta enroinde ; I Lose nine mutes are also divided into three gutturals, three le cias, and three linguals. In this division regard is had to

PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION IN THE VERB. the organs of speech. If, however, we give attention to the

Before I proceed to treat of nouns I must say a few words predominant sound, then we classify these nine mutes thus respecting the verb, inasmuch as without some knowledge of the 1, those of the k sound ; 2, those of the t sound ; and, 3, those

| verb you will be unable to form sentences, as I intend you

verb: of the p sound. Once more, they may be considered according

should from your earliest acquaintance with Greek grammar. to the force or hardness of the utterance, and be separated into

Parts of the verb ervai, to be, are inuisposable. I here put three soft, three hard (or middle), and three aspirated. The

down such as you will want, together with the corresponding whole is presented in this tabular view of

English, or what is commonly called “the meaning."

Soft. Hard. Aspirated.

elui, I am.

els or el, thou art. 100., be thou. Gutturals K,

COTI, he, she, or it is. nv, he, she, or it was. EOTW, let him be.

X, K sound.
Linguals T

0, T sound.

ELOI, they are. noav, they were. Cote, be ye. Labials ,

0, P sound.

Observe that enti and eto become eotiy and elow before a From a union of the mutes with the sibilant o there are pro. word beginning with a vowel. duced these

Observe also that the Greek eori is the Latin est, and the DOUBLE CONSONANTS.

English is.

In the Greek language verbs have three voices, whereas in (ps Psi) formed of mo, Bo, po.

Latin and in English verbs have only two. If in English I say ( Ksi)

KO yo, xo.
Š (Z

I strike, I express myself in what is called “the active voice;"
Zeta) ,

but if I say I am struck, I express myself in what is termed Sometimes a vowel at the end of a word or syllable, standing “the passive voice.” These two voices exist in Greek thusbefore another vowel which begins a word or syllable, is elided

Active. or struck out, when we produce what is termed elision (Latin e,

TUTTW, I strike. out of, and lædo, I dash). Instead of the elided vowel, an apos.

TUTTOuai, I am struck. trophe' is put. Elision takes place in all the prepositions ex. Here you observe that the passive is made by adding to the cept rep and apo. When prepositions are compounded with root tunt the suffix ouai, instead of the letter w, by which the verbs that begin with a vowel, the apostrophe is not used; thus, first person singular of the active is formed. ar' oikov is the elided form of ato OIKOU, and are epoy is the The Greeks have a third voice. In the present tense tu elided form of ato-eoepov.

voice is not distinguished in form from the passive; being the When, however, the two vowels thus coming the one before same word TUTToua. In signification, however, the third voice the other, are melted or blended together, so as to form one differs from the active and the passive. This third voice, under long syllable or diphthong, what is grammatically called crasis the name of the middle voice, denotes a reflex action, that is, (Greek, a mixing) takes place. Thus TO ETOS by crasis or krasis action which turns back on the agent or actor, as TUTTOUGH, becomes TOUROS. By resolving the double vowel into its com- beat myself.

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Commit thoroughly to memory this table of Boulevw, I 20. Kalws exel aydpelws uaxeolau. 21. El Oiwkņ, un peuye. 22. advise, which contains such parts of the verb as you are likely | Avopeias uaxov. 23. E. BiaKevovoi, yeyovtar. 24. El aanbevels, to want in learning to form the nouns, the adjectives, etc. TT LOTEUN. 25. Aet ap.OTEUETE. 26. Metpuws coole kau TiVe kal


Present Active.

Present Passive.

1. I am true. 2. Thou art true. 3. He is true. 4. We are S. 1. Boveu-w, I advise. Boulev-ouai, I am advised.

true. 5. You are true. 6. They are true. 7. If I speak the 2. Bovaev-els, thou advisest. Bouleu-n, or et, thou art advised.

truth, I am believed. 8. Do not fight. 9. They fight. 10. 3. Boulev-el, he advises. Boulev-etai, he is advised.

Follow ye. 11. Thou followest. 12. Ye follow. 13. He plays. P. 1. Bova ev-opev, we advise. Bova ev-ouela, we are advised.

14. They fly. 15. If they flee, they are pursued. 16. I am ad2. Boulev-€T€, you advise. Boulev-ec0€, you are advised.

mired. 17. They are admired. 18. If they are idle, they are 3. Boulev-ovo (v), they ad- Bovdev-ovtai, they are advised.

not admired. 19. It is well to fight bravely. 20. Eat and vise.

drink moderately. 21. They do not hasten. 22. If thou flatIMPERATIVE MOOD.

terest, thou art not admired. 23. He writes well. 24. They 1. Boulev-e, advise thou. Bovlev-ov, be thou advised. write badly. 25. It is well to be always the best. 26. You live 2. Bouleu-ete, advise ye. Boulev-ec0€, be ye advised. moderately. 27. They eat too much.

I will now give you some directions as to these exercises. INFINITIVE MOOD.

First, then, you must repeat each word in the vocabulary until Boulev-elv, to advise. Boulev-eolai, to be advised. you have impressed it indelibly upon your memory. Then pro

ceed, with the aid thus gained, to translate the Greek sentences The middle signification is sometimes best rendered by

into English, and put the English words into their corresponding another word ; thus, instead of saying, I advise myself, we may

Greek words, paying due regard to the model or pattern given say, I consult, or I take advice.

you here and in other cases. In translating from the one lanObserve how these several changes in the terminations are

guage into the other, you may derive aid from consulting the produced. The stem, or permanent form of the word, is Bovaev.

Greek and the English as given in the exercises ; that is, if you To Bovdev, the endings, w, els, el, ouev, ete, ovos, are added,

are translating from Greek into English, consult the exercise according to the person and number you may wish to form.

given in English, finding the example most like the one you Thus, to form the infinitive active, corresponding with our

have to translate ; and if you are translating from English into English to advise, you add ely to Boulev, and so produce

Greek, then in the same way consult the exercise given in Bouleu-ely. If you wish to put into Greek our advise thou, you

Greek. Be not in haste to advance, but be very careful to do add to Boulev, and so produce Boulev-e, the second person

everything thoroughly ; make every first step sure before you singular of the imperative mood. You proceed in the saine way

attempt to take a second step. Bear in mind the Latin prowith any other verb. In order to make the matter clear, I put

verb “ festina lenté," hasten slowly; in English, “slow and the endings here apart from any verb :

steady wins the race." Do not be content with writing an exerPERSON - ENDING S.

cise once, write it again and again ; and when you think you INDICATIVE MOOD.

have made it quite correct, then commit it to memory. Present Active English Sign. Present Passive.

The Greek is a language in which compounds are readily and

copiously formed. The Greek may, in consequence, be acquired Sing. 1. w


with comparative ease, provided the student is trained in the 2. ELS thou , or el.

formation of the compounds. The necessary instructions I shall he et al.

endeavour to impart. With this view I shall supply lists of Plur. 1. Ouev


words etymologically connected with those which are given in
2. ETE

the vocabulary. A knowledge of one word will thus become to 3. Ovo

the learner a knowledge of several. Let us take, as an instance, IMPERATIVE MOOD.

the verb Bouleuw, the present tense of which stands above. Sing. E thou

Βουλευω, I advise, comes from βουλη, αdυce Or counsel; βουλη

ou. Plur. Plur. &TE


leads to Bouleia, the dignity or office of a counsellor; thence we

derive Bovlelov, a council-house; Bovdevua, a determination ; INFINITIVE MOOD.

Boveutns, a counsellor ; Boulevyopew, to speak in a council; beeolar.

sides other terms. These words are again modified in meaning,

as well as multiplied by means of prepositions; e.g., in combiVOCABULARY.

nation with ouv, with, Bouin forms another set of terms, as Ayar, too much. Egl.w, I eat, consumo, Mn (with imperative, ouußovrevua, a resolution ; ovulovlevous, the communication of Aes, always (English EXw, I have; exel, Latin ne), not, do a resolution ; ouußovdeutns, a joint counsellor ; oupßovlevw, I aye). with an adverb, it not.

give counsel ; ovußovros, a senator. It would be easy to extend Andevu, I am true, is ; as eu exel, it Ogupopar, I complain, this list. But without going further, here are eleven words conI speak the truth is well.


nected in origin, form, and meaning with one word. When, Avopetus, bravely. 'Hdews, sweetly,plea- Ou(before consonants, then, you know that one, you have a key to all the rest. With Apotevw, I am the santly.

ουκ Or ουχ before a few roots, you thus see, you would soon become master of a best, I excel. Oavuacw, I admire. vowels), not, no. copious vocabulary; and as the roots of the language are not Blotevw, I live. Kai, and.

Taidevw, I educate. numerous, the acquisition of it, when rightly studied, is by no Bakeuw, I am idle, Kakws, badly, ill. Macw, I play.

means a very difficult task. luxurions. Kalws, well, beauti Nivw, I drink.

N.B.-—The roots will be printed in capitals. Let the Etymo. Ipapu, I write. fully.

MOTEUW, I believe. logical Vocabulary, no less than the above Vocabulary for the Atekee, I pursue, Korakevw, I flatter. EnEVÓW, I hasten, Exercises, be thoroughly committed to memory. etrive. Maxouar(with dative) strive after.


I fight (middle bevyw, I flee (Latin Erouar, I follow voice).


AAHOHE, true. | APIXTOX, best. APLOTOKPateia, go(middle voice). Metp.ws,moderately. Veyw, I blame.

Aandevw, I am true. APIOTEUW, I am best vernment of the | Aandeta, truth. or first.

best, aristocracy. EXERCISE 1.

Aandevois, truthful. Aploto uns, of the BIOZ, life. 1. Aet arndeve. 2. Xaipete. 3. Erov. 4. Mn odupeole. 5. ness.

best nature. Blotevw, I live. 'Hoews BLOT EVO. 6. Karws raidevouan. 7. Kanws ypapers. 8. Aandivoloyia, truth. AplotouaYTis, the BLOOooos, life-saving. E! Kakws ypapeis, Veyn. 9. ETTEVÕEL. 10. Avopeias Maxetai. speaking.

best soothsayer. BLOTEIA, the art of 11. Et kohaKEVETE, OVK aanbeveTE. 12. El KoMAKEVEIS, OU TOTEUN. | Aandlvos, true, ge- AploTOOVOS, an ex- life. 13. Peryoney. 14. E. Devyouev, diwkouela. 15. Kakws devy€T€. nuine.

cellent labourer. Bloolopla, a destruc16. E. BRAKEUTE, yeyerde. 17. Ei avopeiws Maxeobe, davuaceobe. AinBonavtis, & true APIOTOTEXons, an ex- tion of life. 18. Ei kolaKEVOVOLV, Ouk aanbevovoiv. 19. Ou kalws exel Devyelv. / Boothsayer. I cellent artist. Blow, I am alive.

3. EL


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