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specimens of wild plants and pre

jects behind them: this rule may serve them in water; or, what is

be applied to all objects, regardbetter when practicable, take

less of their size or form. The them up bodily with the roots

strength of the shadows must be and plant them in pots. From

allowed to be an important consithese, separate and careful stu

deration. Our pupils will rememdies may be made, which will

ber the observation, that near the prove to be an excellent prepara

highest lights are the darkest tion for more extensive practice

shadows; so, for example, should when drawing them collectively

the light fall strongly upon the in their natural state, as seen on

leaves of a plant, the shadows the common, under the hedges,

beneath them will bear the same or in shady lanes. We cannot

proportion of depth, and those here refrain from expressing re

leaves which receive less light gret that we are limited in these

will have less strength in their lessons to form only, since so

shadows. Whilst we recommend much is gained by colour in the

our pupils to make close copies general effect of ground plants.

of plants separately, in order to If we reflect for a moment upon

obtain a knowledge of their conthe infinite variety of growth they

struction and character, we are exhibit upon the flowers whose

not advising them to make bobrilliant colours, blue, red-and

tanical studies, but art studies ; yellow, and sparkling white

this procedure will be all that is crop up from amongst greens of

necessary to obtain a practical acevery hoe, we must confess that

quaintance with their forms, and we should be very glad, were it

will enable our students to reprepossible, if we could take up

sent them with greater skill and the palette as well as the pencil,

freedom, which is of such great and by introducing our pupils

importance when grouping plants to these additional charms, give

in a landscape. The work then them another sengation besides

will be in the end pleasing and that which is produced by form

Fig. 106. satisfactory, because it is truthonly; but, even if this were prac

ful; otherwise, when less attenticable, we must withstand the

tion is paid to particular details, temptation to turn aside from the path we are pursuing, which and a slovenly manner is employed, it is sure to terminate in leads to a point where form and colour meet and help to perfect confusion and failure. Mr. Burnet, in his work on Landscape each other by their union; for if we must maintain that form Painting, says, "To begin with the foreground, as being that without colour is less satisfactory, it is, nevertheless, expressive; part of the landscape nearest the eye, it is necessary, therefore, bat colour

that it should without form,

receive all however beau

those qualities tiful the ar.

conducive to rangement

its situationmay be, con

such as detail, Teys no mean

breadth, and ing, and pre

largeness of sents nothing

parts." In whereby to

contrast to characterise it.

this, the same In the prac

writer says, tice of draw.

“In the early ing foreground

stages of the herbage,

art, the minuwriter on art

tiæ of indivi. observes" that

dual plants the edges of

and flowers вeтeral

carried more advanc.

to the highest ing leaves

pitch of must be made

absurdity; sharp and de

not only is the cisire against

whole ground the ground,

of these picwhilst those

tures inlaid that retire

with endless may have less

specimens of opposition ;

botanic scruthis will assist

pulosity, but

the interventive," and they

ing spaces are will acquire &

filled with more receding

reptiles and character by

insects, as if slightly toning

the lives of down or blend

the artists ingthe remoter

Fig. 107. had been of parts with the

antediluground or ob

vian leng

[graphic]

the

their perspec

Je

-is

rec -us
received

sang

Tu

-as

.is

donn

Vous

sais

-ites

-ûtes

carried

ored

lost.

Ils

un

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXVIII. soldat? 24. Je ne lui ai rien donné. 25. Pendant son séjour à

B., nous lui donnâmes tout ce qu'il voulut. SECTION L.—THE PAST DEFINITE [$ 120]. 1. THE past definite may be called the narrative or historical

EXERCISE 96. tense of the French. It is used to express an action entirely 1. What did you receive last week ? 2. We received fifty past, definite and complete in itself. The time must be specified, francs from your friend, and twenty-five from your brother. 3. and every portion of it must be elapsed. Some time at least Did you take your son to church with you yesterday ? 4. I should have occurred since the action took place.

did not take him there (y). 5. What did you lose last year? Mon frère partit hier pour Paris, My brother left yesterday for Paris.

6. We lost our money, our clothes, and our horses. 7. Have 2. The student will bear in mind that the past indefinite you looked (cherchés) for them? 8. I looked for them, but did

not find them. 9. Did they speak of your brother yesterday? [Sect. XL.] may be used for the past definite. The past definite, 10. They spoke of him and of you. 11. What did the physician however, may never be used for the indefinite. In conversation the indefinite is often preferred to the definite, as the latter give you ? 12. He gave me nothing. 13. At what hour did

your sister rise yesterday? 14. She rose at five o'clock. 15. would at times appear too formal ($ 121 (3)]. 3. The past definite may generally be rendered in English by six. 17. Has your cousin sold all his property? 18. He has

Did you rise early this morning? 16. We rose at half-past the simple form of the imperfect, or by the same tense conju- not sold it, he has given it to his eldest sister. 19. Has the gated with did. The past definite can never be rendered in traveller related his adventures to you? 20. He related them English by the participle present of the verb preceded by was.

to me. 21. Did that man try (cherché) to speak to your father? J'allai à l'église hier matin, I went or did go to church yesterday 22. He tried to speak to him. 23. Did the professor speak of

morning.

your brother during his stay at your house ? 24. He spoke of 4. TERMINATIONS OF THE PAST DEFINITE OF THE FOUR him. 25. Has your friend worn his new coat? 26. He has CONJUGATIONS. [See Sect. XXII., and $ 60.]

not worn it yet. 27. Have you thanked your brother ? 28. I chant -ai fin

rend

have thanked him. 29. What have you given to your eldest

-is. finished

rendered.

sister? 30. I have given her nothing, I have nothing to give parl chér

aperç-us vend -is, her. 31. When your brother gave you a book last year, did spokest cherishedst perceivedst soldest.

you thank him ? 32. I did not thank him. 33. Is it late ? n

fourn it

perc -ut tend -it. 34. It is not late, it is only six. 35. Is it fine weather or bad gare furnished gathered tended.

weather ? 36. It is very fine weather. Nous cherch -âmes

pun -imes
cong -ûmes

entend imes,
sought
punished conceived heard.

SECTION LI.-THE PAST DEFINITE OF IRREGULAR port -âtes

d
perd -ites.

VERBS.
seized

1. The terminations of the past definite of irregular verbs aim -èrent

-irent déç -urent mord -irent.
loved, liked united
deceived bit.

are seldom arbitrary, * but an irregular verb of one conjugation

will sometimes, in this tense, assume the terminations of another 5. It will be seen that the terminations of the second and fourth conjugation. In a few instances the stem (Sect. XXII.) of the conjugations are alike.

verb is entirely changed. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Avoir, to have. ÊTRE, to be. VOIR, to see. LIRE, to read. On nous parla de vous hier. They spoke to us of you yesterday. Le banquier nous donna de l'argent The banker gave

US money last Tu

f-us l'année dernière. year.

e-ut

f-ut Le banquier nous a donné de l'ar. The banker has given us money. Nous e-umes

f -umes
V -imes

1 -úmes, gent.

Vous etes

f -ûtes

vites

1 -utes. Le professeur nous parla de vous The professor spoke to us about you

f -urent

V -irent

1 -urent. l'année dernière. Il nous a parlé de ses amis et des He spoke to us of his friends and of new stem, e-us, f-us; être and lire, though belonging to the fourth

2. Avoir and être, it will be perceived, take in this tense : nôtres. Pendant notre voyage il nous ra. During our journey he related to us

conjugation, take the terminations of the third; and voir, & verb conta ses aventures.

his adventures.

of the third, takes the terminations of the fourth. Il nous a raconté l'histoire de sa He related to us the history of his 3. In other instances, the stem of the verb drops some of its vie.

life.

letters, and sometimes adopts others. This may be seen in the VOCABULARY.

verbs Ainé, -e, elder, eldest. Se lev-er, 1, ref., to Propriétés, f. pl., pro

VENIR,

PRENDRE, CRAINDRE, ConxATRE, CONDCIRE, Avec, with,

rise.
perty.

to take. to fear. to know. to conduct. Se couch-er, 1, ref., to Lorsque, when.

Je
Remerci-er, 1, to thank.

v-ins
craign -is

conduis -is. go to bed. Neuf, -ve, new, Séjour, m., stay.

V -ins
craign -is

conduis -is. Dernier, -e, last. Ordinairement, gene- Semaine, f., week.

n v-int

craign -it conn -ut conduis -it. S'échapp-er, 1, ref., to rally.

Soldat, m.,
soldier.

Nous vinmes pr -imes craign -îmes conn -úmes conduis imes. escape. Pendant, during. Tard, late,

Vous y intes

pr -ites craign -ites conn -ûtes conduis -ites. Habillement, m., dress. Pri-er, 1, to beg. Trop tôt, too soon.

Ils vinrent pr -irent craign -irent conn -urent conduis -irent. EXERCISE 95.

4. Like venir, are conjugated all verbs ending in enir; like 1. Le banquier reçut-il beaucoup d'argent la semaine dernière? and uire; and like prendre, those composed of this verb and a

craindre, connaître, and conduire, those ending in indre, aitre, 2. Il en reçut beaucoup. 3. Aussitôt que vous aperçûtes votre frère, ne lui parlâtes-vons pas ? 4. Dès que je l'aperçus, je lui prefix,

as comprendre, surprendre, etc. parlai. 5. Avez-vous déjà porté vos habillements neufs ? 6. irregular verbs, & 62, for those tenses of the irregular verbs

5. We would at all times refer the student to the table of Je ne les ai pas encore portés. 7. Quand il vous donna de with which he is not familiar. l'argent hier, le remerciâtes-vous ? 8. Je le remerciai et je le priai de vous remercier. 9. Avez-vous trouvé vos livres ? 10.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Je ne les ai pas encore trouvés. 1!. Lorsque vous vîntes nous Ne conduisites-vous point votre Did you not take your son to S12* voir ne finîtes-vous pas vos affaires avec mon père ? 12. Je les fils en Espagne l'année dernière ? last year? finis alors et je le payai. 13. N'avez-vous pas vu votre saur Je l'y conduisis et je l'y laissai. I took him there, and left him there. aînée pendant votre séjour à Lyon ? 14. Je ne l'ai pas vue. Aussitôt que vous vites votre frère, As soon as you saw your brother, did 15. Ne vous couchâtes-vous pas trop tôt hier au soir ? 16. Je

ne le reconnutes-vous pas ?

you not recognise him ! me couchai tard. 17. À quelle heure vous êtes-vous levé ce

Je le reconnus aussitôt que je I recognised him as soon as matin ? 18. Je me suis levé à cinq heures ; je me lève ordi- Le pharmacien ne vint-il pas vous Did not the apothecary come to *

l'aperçus.

ceived him, nairement de bonne heure. 19. Ne cherchâtes-vous pas à vous

voir ? échapper de votre prison l'année dernière ? 20. Je n'ai jamais

you ! cherché à m'échapper. 21. Avez-vous vendn vos propriétés ? This termination is arbitrary only in verbs ending in enir, ia which 22. Je ne les ai pas vendues. 23. Qu'avez-vous donné au an n comes after the i of the termination ; vinmes, tínmes, etc.

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Il vint me voir ; il fut bien étonné He came to see me; ho was much d'argent et le porte-crayon d'or. 12. A-t-elle la robe de satin ? 13. de trouver chez moi un de ses astonished to find one of his old La scur du médecin a la robe de satin. 14. Qui a le bois ? 15. Le anciens amis. friends at my house.

frère du charpentier a le bois. 16. Avez-vous les bas de laine ? Ne prites-vous pas congé de vos Did you not take leave of your friends 17. Non, Monsieur, j'ai les bas de coton." 18. Qui a le pain du amis hier? yesterday !

1. ulanger? 19. Nous avons le pain du boulanger et la farine du Je nris congé d'eux, et je les priai I took leave of them, and begged them meunier. 20. Avons-nous le foin du cheval? 21. Vous avez l'avoine de m'écrire. to write to me.

du cheval. 22. Avons-nous le chapeau de soie du tailleur ? 23. Oui, VOCABULARY.

Monsieur, vous avez le chapeau de soie du tailleur et le soulier de cuir du cordonnier. 24. Avez-vous le soulier de drap de la sœur du

médecin ? Accompagn-er, 1, to De mon mieux, as well Histoire, f., history.

25. Non, Madame, j'ai la robe de soie de la dame.
Gocompany.
as I could.
Inform-er, 1, to inform.

EXERCISE 5 (Vol. I., page 20).
À la fin, et last. Se dépêch-er, 1, ref., to Lu, from lire, 4, ir., to
Amicalement, kindly. make haste.

read.

1. Have you some (or any) meat ? 2. Yes, Sir, I have a pound of Arrivée, f., arrival. Dès que, as soon as. Notaire, m., notary. meat. 3. Has your son a piece of bread ? 4. Yes, Madam, he has a Attend-re, 4, to wait for. Ecolier, m., scholar. Peintre, m., painter. piece of bread. 5. Has the bookseller a book? 6. He has ink and Au secours, to the as. S'ennuy-er, 1, pec., to Sans, without.

paper. 7. Has your sister a gold watch? 8. She has a gold watch sistance. become weary.

Secour-ir, 2, ir., to suc- and a silver thimble. 9. Has the baker wine or beer? 10. The baker Congé, m., leave. Se hát-er, 1, ref., to cour'.

has tea and coffee. 11. Has your brother cheese? 12. He has cheese Cour-ir, 2, ir., to run. haston.

and butter. 13. Has the lady a silver spoon? 11. The lady has a

fork and silver spoon. 15. Has the butcher any meat to-day? 16. EXERCISE 97.

Yes, Sir, he has a piece of beef, 17. Has the carpenter a table? 18.

19. Have you the physician's 1. Nos écoliers s'ennuyèrent-ils hier d'attendre si longtemps ? Yes, Sir, he has a mahogany table.

21. Who has 2. Is furent obligés d'attendre si longtemps, qu'à la fin ils per- coffee and sugar? 22. The grocer has coffee and sugar,

book? 20. No, Madam, but I have your sister's book.

23, Has the dirent patience. 3. Ne reçûtes-vous point votre parent amicale- bookseller's sister a glove! 24. No, Sir, but she has a book. 25. Has ment lorsqu'il vint vous voir ? 4. Je le reçus de mon mieux. she a steel pen? 26. No, Sir, she has a gold pen. 27. You have the 5. Ne lates-vous pas la lettre de votre frère avant-hier ? 6. Je physician's pencil-case. la lus et je l'envoyai à mon oncle. 7. Ne courûtes-vous pas au

EXERCISE 6 (Vol. I., page 20). secours de votre frère aussitôt que vous le vîtes en danger ? 8. Je me hâtai de le secourir. 9. Ne vous êtes-vous pas dépêchés 1. Avez-vous du thé ? 2. Oui, Madame, j'ai une livre de thé. 2. de venir ? 10. Nous nous sommes dépêchés. 11. Aussitôt que Qui a du pain? 4. Le boulanger a du pain, du beurre, et du fromage. vous eûtes aperçu mon frère, ne m'informâtes-vous pas de son

5. Le tailleur a-t-il du drap? 6. Le tailleur a un morceau de drap. arrivée ? 12. Je vous en informai. 13. À quelle heure votre 7. Le médecin a-t-il de l'or? 8. Oui, Monsieur, le médecin a de l'or sceur est-elle venue aujourd'hui ? 14. Elle est venue à midi. Mademoiselle, la dame a une montre d'argent et une plume d'or. 11.

et de l'argent. 9. La dame a-t-elle une montre d'argent? 10. Oui, 15. Vos compagnons vinrent-ils hier vous prier de les accom

Votre sæur a-t-elle de la soie ? 12. Oui, Monsieur, elle a de la soie pagner? 16. Ils vinrent me voir, mais ils me quittèrent sans et du coton. 13. Avez-vous un couteau ! 14. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai un me parler de leur voyage. 17. Ne peignîtes-vous pas un tableau couteau d'acier et un fourchette d'argent. 15. Avez-vous de la viande l'année dernière ? 18. Je peignis un tableau d'histoire. 19. aujourd'hui, Monsieur? 16. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai un morceau de bouf. Le peintre italien a-t-il fini son portrait ? 20. Il le finit hier. 17. Votre charpentier a-t-il une table d'acajou! 18. Oui, Monsieur, 21. Il l'a fini ce matin. 22. Dès que j'eus reçu cette nouvelle, il a une table d'acajou ? 19. Votre sæur a-t-elle un gant? 20. Oui,

21. Le fils du libraire a-t-il un j'envoyai chercher le notaire. 23. Ce jeune homme a-t-il pris Monsieur, ma scur a un gant de soie. congé de son père? 24. Il a pris congé de lui. 25. Il prit congé porte-crayon d'or? 22. Oui, Monsieur, il a un porte-crayon d'or et

une plume d'acier. 23. Qui a la montre de votre seur? 24. Votre de lui hier.

frère a la montre d'or et le chapeau de soie. 25. Nous avons de l'or, EXERCISE 98.

de l'argent, et de l'acier. 1. Did the notary accompany you yesterday ? 2. He accom

EXERCISE 7 (Vol. I., page 20). panied me as far as (jusque chez) your brother's. 3. Did your companion take leave of you yesterday? 4. He took leave of

1. Has the hatter silk ? 2. The hatter has no silk, but he has velvet,

3. Has he cotton velvet? 4. No, Sir, he has no cotton velvet, he has me this morning. 5. Did you read yesterday the book which

silk velvet. I have lent you ? 6. I read it the day before yesterday (avant. physician has no money.

5. Have you meat? 6. Yes, Sir, I have meat. 7. The

8. Who has money! 9. The merchant kas hier). 7. At what time did the painter come this morning ? no money, but he has cloth, velvet, and silk. 10. Have you anything ? 8. He came at half-past nine. 9. Has he finished your father's 11. No, Sir, I have nothing at all. 12. Has the tailor two silver but. portrait? 10. He painted all day yesterday, but the portrait tons? 13. No, sir, he has two silk buttons, 14. Who has your dog? is not yet finished. 11. Did you not run to your father's relief

15. The neighbour has my cousin's dog, 16. Has he not your horse when you saw him in danger ? 12. I hastened to succour him. also ? 17. No, Sir, he has your friend's horse. 18. Have you the 13. What did you do when you came? 14. As soon as I came

history of France? 19. No, Madam, I have neither the history of I sent for my brother. 15. Did you take your sister to Germany

France nor the history of England. 20. Have you peither the book

nor the paper? 21. No, Miss, I have neither the one nor the other. last year? 16. I took her there this year. 17. Did you take 22. Who has paper? 23. The bookseller has no paper. 24. Has any Four children to school yesterday? 18. I took them to my one a book ? 25. No one has a book. brother's. 19. Do you paint an historical picture ?

20. I painted last year an historical picture. 21. Did your sister beg

EXERCISE 8 (Vol. I., page 21). you to accompany her? 22. She begged me to accompany her. 1. Le boulanger a-t-il du velours ? 2. Non, Monsieur, le boulanger 23. Did you send for the notary as soon as you heard from your n'a pas de velours. 3. Qui a du velours de soie ? 4. Le chapelier a father? 24. I sent for him. 25. When did the notary take du velours de soie et un chapeau de soie. 5. Avez-vous deux boutons leave of you ? 26. He took leave of me this morning at nine. d'argent? 6. Non, Monsieur, j'ai un habit de drap, un chapeau de 27. Has the apothecary finished his letter? 28. He has not yet soie, et un soulier de velours. 7. Votre voisin a t-il uno table de bois ? finished it. 29. Were you not astonished yesterday to see that histoire d'Angleterre ! 10. Non, Monsieur, il a une histoire de France.

8. Oui, Monsieur, il a une table d'acajou, 9. Votre cousin a-t-il une lady? 30. I was not astonished to see her. 31. Did you make 11. Je n'ai ni le drap, ni le velours. 12. Nous n'avons ni la viande ni haste to read your book last night (hier au soir)? 32. I made le café. 13. Quelqu'un a-t-il un livre ? 14. Votre cousin a un livre, haste to read it. 33. Have you finished it? 34. I have not un habit de velours, et un chapeau de soie. 15. Avez-vous le livre yet finished it.

du médecin ? 16. Oui, Madame, j'ai le livre du médecin, et la plume d'or de la dame. 17. Le marchand a-t-il du drap? 18. Le marchand

n'a pas de drap, mais il a de l'argent. 19. Qui a le chien de votre KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.

voisin? 20. Personne n'a le chien de mon voisin. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il

mon livre ? 22. Personne n'a votre livre. 23. Le frère de votre cousin EXERCISE 4 (Vol. I., page 3).

a-t-il quelque chose ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'a rien. 25. Qui a le 1. Avez-vous le livre du tailleur ? 2. Non, Monsieur, j'ai la montre livre de votre ami ? 26. Votre frère a le livre de mon cousin. 27. A-t-il du médecin. 3. Qui a la montre d'or? 4. La dame a la montre d'or l'habit du tailleur ? 28. Il n'a pas l'habit du tailleur. 29. Nous n'avons et le porte-crayon d'argent. 5. Avez-vous le soulier du tailleur ? 6.

ni le drap ni la soie. J'ai le soulier de drap du tailleur. 7. Avons-nous la table de bois ?

EXERCISE 9 (Vol. I., page 43). & Oui, Monsieur, vous avez la table de bois. 9. Ont-ils le couteau d'argent ? 10. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 11. La dame a le couteau 1. Who is sleepy? 2. My brother is hungry, but he is not sleepy.

NEPTUNE

URANUS

JUPITER

3. Are you right or wrong? 4. I am right, I am not wrong. 5. Have called the square of that number. But the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, you my brother's good gun? 6. I have not the gun. 7. Are you cold 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, etc., are the squares of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, to-day? 8. I am not cold; on the contrary, I am warm. 9. Have you 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., because they are found by multiplying the good bread ? 10. I have no bread. 11. Are you not hungry? 12. I

latter numbers each by itself; and the fractions , , , , am neither hungry nor thirsty. 13. Are you ashamed? 14. I am neither ashamed nor afraid. 15. Have we pepper or salt? 16. You to st, etc., are called the reciprocals or inverses of the squares; have neither pepper nor salt. 17. What book have you ? 18. I have and ratio means the rate at which anything increases or de my cousin's book. 19. Have you the iron hammer or the silver creases; hence, the force of heat, or quantity of heat received hammer? 20. I have neither the iron hammer nor the silver ham. from a common fire, is in the ratio of the inverses of the squares mor, I have the tinman's wooden hammer. 21. Is anything the of the distances; or more shortly, in the inverse ratio of the matter with you? 22. Nothing is the matter with me. 23. Have squares of the distances. you the bookseller's large book ? 24. I have neither the book- This may be explained in another way still. Suppose A seller's large book, nor the joiner's small book; I have the captain's to be placed at 2 feet distance from the fire, and B at 3 feet good book.

distance; then B will receive less heat than A, not in the

ratio of 2 to 3, the numbers which represent their distances, LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XV. but in the ratio of 2 times 2 to 3 times 3, that is, of 4 to 9: in

other words, as 4 is contained 24 times in 9, so A will ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY.

receive 24 times more heat than B; and this is all that is In our last lesson we endeavoured to explain to our geographi- really meant by the phrase the inverse ratio of the squares of the cal students the nature of the motion of the earth round the distances. sun, and of its motion round its own axis. We there stated Having thus explained the law of the influence of heat upon the principle or law of attrac

two bodies, or any number of bodies tion in the language peculiar to

at different distances from the the science of astronomy, somewhat

source of heat, in the case of a modified and simplified; but as

common fire, we again observe that some of our readers may be entire

this law is equally true of the innovices, and may never have heard

fluence of light and of the influence or understood several of the terms

of attraction upon bodies at different we made use of, we shall in this

distances from the source of light lesson endeavour to make the sub

and of attraction. Thus we know ject clearer still.

and feel that the sun is the great First, then, as to the said law of

source of light and heat to this attraction: let us illustrate this, by

SATURN

world of ours; and Astronomy a very familiar instance taken from

teaches us that it is also the source the heat of a common fire. Sup

of attraction, or of that power pose two persons, A and B, sitting

which has operated upon the earth at the same distance from the fire,

and the other planets, and which both in front of it-at least, the

continues still to operate upon one as much as the other; it

them, by causing them to revolve is plain that they would both feel

in elliptical orbits or paths round the same degree of heat; for,

that luminary, as explained in our whatever reason may be assigned

last lesson. to show that A received more

From the earliest ages up to the

MARS heat than B, the

time of Kepler, the planets (Greek, might be assigned to show that B

alamtns, pla-ne'-tees, a wanderer), received more heat than A ; there

Moon EARTH

or wandering stars so called in fore, they must both receive the

opposition to the fized stars, which

VENUS samo heat.

appear always to preserve the same Now, suppose that B removes to

relative distances from each other double the distance that he was at

were reckoned to be in number only when alongside of A, and that A

sic; and this number being ma. remains in the same place; it might

thematically perfect—that is, equal then be supposed that B would re

to the sum of all its factors, 1, 2, 3 ceive only half as much heat

-it was imagined that no more as he did before; or that A DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIVE POSITIONS, planets could exist, or could be erwas now enjoying double the

ETC., OF THE SUN, PLANETS, AND PLANETOIDS. pected to be found. Kepler, inheat which B was receiving in his

deed, inquired most earnestly thy new position. Such is not the case, however; for the degree | they were only six in number ; but Galileo, who first applied of heat does not diminish at the same rate that the distance the telescope to astronomy, opened a new door in the temple of increases, as you might expect at first sight; but it diminishes science, by the discovery of the four satellites of Jupiter, in at a much greater rate, and the question is how much greater? 1610, and led by this discovery to that of the other planeta Now, well-conducted and careful experiments in Natural at a later period, which put to flight all reasons why the Philosophy have proved that the heat received at the dis number of the planets should be limited to any given number. tances of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., feet, is not } }, , , , }, };. He would be a bold man indeed now-a-days who would try to of the heat received at 1 foot ; but it is , a, a, i, o limit the number of the planets, seeing that so many have etc., of the heat received at 1 foot. So that B will receive at been discovered within these few years past. double the distance of A, only one-fourth of the heat which The six planets known from antiquity are the following :A receives ; at triple the distance, only one-ninth of the heat; Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Satur; no sateland so on.

lite was known from antiquity but the Moon. The first addiThe law of progression then is as follows:-Let the heat re- tion to the planets of the Solar System was Uranus, at first ceived at the distance of 1 foot be denoted by 1, then the heat called the Georgium Sidus (the Georgian Star), in honour of received at the distance of 2 feet will be represented by 1 King George III., by Sir William Herschel, who discovered it, divided by 2 times 2, ord; the heat received at the distance of March 13th, 1781. It was afterwards called Herschel, in honour 3 feet will be represented by 1 divided by 3 times 3, or $; the of the discoverer; but it is now called Uranus, because, for heat received at the distance of 4 feet will be represented by 1 sooth, Uranus was in the Greek mythology (the fables of divided by 4 times 4, or ; and so on.

the heathen gods) the father of Saturn! Uranus has eight Now, dividing 1 by any number gives a result which in satellites, of which six were discovered by Sir William Herschel.mathematics is called the reciprocal or inverse of that number; Of these, five have since been observed by other astronomers. and multiplying any number by itself gives a result which is The planet Neptune, the third in point of size of those that

ASTEROIDS

same

reason

MERCURY

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32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

45 46 47 48 49

are yet known to form part of our Solar System, was discovered by Dr. Galle, of Berlin, September 23, 1846, in consequence of a letter received from Leverrier, of Paris, stating that he had calculated the position of a planet outside Uranus which would account for certain irregularities in the motion of that planet, hitherto unexplained, and indicating the part of the hearens in which it ought to be found. Neptune has two satellites. The credit of the discovery of the planet Neptune belongs to Leverrier and Galle, but it should be said that Mr. J. Couch Adams, of Cambridge, had also gone through a series of calcu. lations establishing the existence of this planet, and would have had the honour of being its discoverer, had the French astronomer been a little less prompt in giving publicity to the result of his calculations. By means of the calculations of Mr. Adams, Professor Challis, of Cambridge, also detected the planet simul. taneously with Dr. Galle. In 1859 a French physician named Lescarbault asserted that he had discovered a planet, to which he gave the name of Vulcan, moving in an orbit within that of Mercury. Leverrier was satisfied at the time that Lescarbault bad really lighted on a fresh member of our Solar System, but as no astronomer has yet been successful in detecting it a second time, it is supposed that Lescarbault was mistaken and that Lererrier gave credit to the supposed discovery because it satisfied an hypothesis he had formed, that a planet existed, moving between Mercury and the sun, and which would be at that time in that part of the heavens in which Lescarbault supposed he had found Vulcan.

At the close of the last century, and for some time prior to this, it was supposed that a planet, which had either escaped discovery or had disappeared from the Solar System, moved in an orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter, for reasons detailed at the close of this lesson. This suspicion was confirmed by the discovery of Ceres by a Sicilian astronomer named Piazzi, at Palermo, January 1, 1801, moving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Further research has resulted in the discovery of nearly one hundred of these small planetary bodies having orbits near that of Ceres. These small planets are called planetoids or asteroids. They were at first supposed to be fragments of a shattered planet which once revolved round the sun between the orbits of Mary and Jupiter ; but this supposition has been proved to be antenable. The following is a list of the planetoids that have been discovered since the finding of Ceres, with the names of their discoverers and the dates and places of their discovery :LIST OF PLANETOIDS REVOLVING BETWEEN THE ORBITS OF

MARS AND JUPITER.

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Pomona Goldschmidt
Polyhymnia Chacornac
Circe

Chacornac
Leucothea Luther
Fides

Luther Atalanta Goldschmidt Leda

Chacornac Lætitia Chacornac Harmonia Goldschmidt Daphne Goldschmidt Isis

Pogson Ariadne Pogson Nysa

Goldschmidt Eugenia Goldschmidt Hestia Pogson Melete Goldschmidt Aglaia

Luther Doris

Goldschmidt Pales

Goldschmidt Virginia Ferguson Nemausa Laurent Europa Goldschmidt Calypso Luther Alexandra Goldschmidt Pandora Searle Mnemosyne Luther Concordia Luther Danaë

Goldschmidt Olympia Chacornac Erato

Forster Echo

Ferguson Ausonia De Gasparis Angelina Tempel Cybele Tempel Maia

Tuttle Asia

Pogson
Hesperia Schiaparelli
Leto

Luther
Panopea Goldschmidt
Feronia Peters
Niobe

Luther
Clytie

Tuttle Galatea Tempel Eurydice Peters Freia

D'Arrest Frigga Peters Diana

Luther Eurynome Watson Sappho

Pogson Terpsichore Tempel Alcmena Luther Beatrix De Gasparis Clio

Luther Ιο

Peters Semele Tietjen Sylvia Pogson Thisbe Peters

Stephan
Antiope Luther

Stephan
Peters
Watson

Watson
Arethusa Luther

Coggia
Tempel

Paris

Oct. 26, 1854. Paris

Oct. 28, 1854. Paris

April 6, 1855. Bilk

April 19, 1855. Bilk

Oct. 5, 1855. Paris

Oct. 5, 1855. Paris

Jan. 12, 1856. Paris

Feb. 8, 1856. Paris

Mar, 31, 1856. Paris

May 22, 1856. Oxford

May 23, 1856. Oxford

April 15, 1857. Paris

May 27, 1857. Paris

June 28, 1857. Oxford

Aug. 16, 1857. Paris

Sep. 9, 1857. Bilk

Sep. 15, 1857. Paris

Sep. 19, 1857. Paris

Sep. 19, 1857. Washington Oct. 4, 1857. Marseilles

Jan. 22, 1858. Paris

Feb. 6, 1858. Bilk

April 4, 1858. Paris

Sep. 10, 1858. Albany, U.S. Sep. 10, 1858. Bilk

Sep, 22, 1859. Bilk

Mar. 4, 1860. Paris

Sep. 9, 1860. Paris

Sep. 12, 1860. Berlin

Sep. 14, 1860. Washington Sep. 14, 1860. Naples

Feb. 10, 1861. Marseilles

Mar. 4, 1861. Marseilles

Mar. 8, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 9, 1861. Madras, U.S. April 17, 1861. Milan

April 29, 1861. Bilk

April 29, 1861. Paris

May 5, 1861. Clinton, U.S. May 29, 1861. Bilk

June 13, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 7, 1862. Marseilles

Aug. 30, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 22, 1862. Copenhagen Oct. 21, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Nov, 15, 1862. Bilk

Mar, 1, 1863. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 14, 1863. Madras, U.S. May 2, 1864. Marseilles

Sep. 30, 1864. Bilk

Nov. 27, 1864. Naples

April 26, 1865. Bilk

Aug. 25, 1865. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 19, 1865. Berlin

Jan. 4, 1866. Madras, U.S. May 17, 1866. Clinton, U.S. June 15, 1866. Marseilles

Aug. 6, 1866. Bilk

Oct. 1, 1866. Marseilles

Nov. 4, 1866. Clinton, U.S. July 7, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Aug. 24, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 6, 1867. Bilk

Nov. 23, 1867. Marseilles

Feb. 1868. Marseilles

Feb. 1863.

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1 Ceres

Piazzi
Pallas

Olbers
3 Juno

Harding
4
Vesta

Olbers
6 Astra

Hencke
6
Hebe

Hencke
7 Iris

Hind
8. Flora

Hind
Metis

Graham 10 Hygeia

De Gasparis 11 Parthenope De Gasparis 12 Victoria Hind 13 Egeria

De Gasparis 14 Irene

Hind 15 Eunomia De Gasparis 16 Payche

De Gasparis 17 Thetis

Luther 18 Melpomene

Hind 19 Fortuna Hind 20 Massalia De Gasparis Lutetia

Goldschmidt 22 Calliope

Hind 23 Thalia

Hind Themis De Gasparis 25 Phocea

Chacornac 26 Proserpine

Luther 87 Euterpe

Hind 28 Bellona

Luther 29 Amphitrite

Marth 30 Urania

Hind 31 Euphrosyne ! Ferguson

Palermo
Bremen
Lilienthal
Bremen
Driesen
Driesen
London
London
Markree
Naples
Naples
London
Naples
London
Naples
Naples
Bilk
London
London
Naples
Paris
London
London
Naples
Marseilles
Bilk
London
Bilk
London
London
Washington

Jan. 1, 1801. Mar. 28, 1802. Sep. 1, 1804. Mar. 29, 1807. Dec. 8, 1845. July 1, 1847. Aug. 13, 1847. Oct. 18, 1847. April 25, 1848. April 12, 1849. May 11, 1850. Sep. 13, 1850. Nov. 2, 1850. May 19, 1851. July 29, 1851. Mar. 17, 1852. April 17, 1852. June 24, 1852. Aug. 22, 1852. Sep. 19, 1852. Nov. 15, 1852. Nov. 16, 1852 Dec. 15, 1852 April 5, 1853. April 6, 1853. May 5, 1853. Nov. 8, 1853. Mar. 1, 1854. Mar. 1, 1854. July 2, 1854. Sep. 1, 1851.

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

The additions made to the satellites of the planets since the discovery of those of Jupiter and the ring of Saturn by Galileo, are the following :-M. Huygens discovered one of Saturn's satellites in 1665; M. Cassini, four, between 1671 and 1685; Sir W. Herschel, two, between 1787 and 1789; and Messrs. Lassell and Bond, one, September 19th, 1847; making in all eight satellites for Saturn. Mr. Lassell has discovered satellites belonging to Neptune; it is also supposed that this planet possesses a ring like Saturn.

The following is a table of the principal planets of the solar system ; their approximate moan

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