Εικόνες σελίδας



Mean Diame-
ters in Miles.

of Axes to the


of Orbits to
the Ecliptic.

Times of Rev.

round the Sun in Days.

distances from the sun; their approximate mean diameters; the RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. inclinations of their axes and orbits to the ecliptic, or path

THE BUTTERFLY. in the heavens in which the sun and planets move; their periodic times, or times of a complete revolution round the sun, as far as | “Will he catch it? Does that thoughtless little imp know what they are known; and the axial time of rotation occupied by a creature of beauty he is trying to crush? Well done, bright each planet. Further particulars respecting the planets and fairy of the spring! that last wave of thy sun-tinted wings has their satellites we must reserve for our Lessons on Astronomy,

carried thee over that blooming hedge now far away from the otherwise we shall lose sight of those on Geography. We may baffled, puffing, red-cheeked schoolboy." Such were our reflecremind onr readers that the actual existence of Vulcan has not tions as we once watched " my noble English boy" in hot pursuit been confirmed, that is to say, it has not been noticed by any of a “Swallow-tail” (Papilio * Machaon) butterfly. (See illusastronomer since its alleged discovery by Lescarbault. For this tration, page 48.) “Kill, kill," were the words written on young reason a note of interrogation has been appended to its name, Hodge's face as with determination, worthy of a Briton, he etc., in the subjoined table, in which we have arranged the chased the winged type of beauty. At first it seemed two to one planets in the order of their distances from the sun :

in favour of the boy ; nearer and nearer he came, up went his cap

full at the “Swallow-tail." It was so well aimed, that the insulted TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

butterfly indignantly swept into a neighbouring field, leaving the

young hunter in a rage at the uselons expenditure of so much Approximate

toil. To make his defeat more ignominious, the cap had stuck Mean

Times of


in a thorn bush, from which the little biped did not recover it of the from the Sun

upon without sundry pricks and provoking scratches. We rejoiced Planets. in Miles.

Axes. in the escape of the insect, knowing well that its hunter did not

wish to examine the wonders of that tiny " thing of life," but to Vulcan (?) 13,082,000 (?)


gratify his bump of destructiveness.
35,392,600 2,900

170 0

88' 24h. 5m. Now we are not going to write the history and adventures of Venus. . 66,131,500 7,510 73° 32 3° 23 225 23h. 21m. that particular butterfly ; we are not certain that we ever saw The Earth 91,430,220 7,913 66° 32 00 O 365 23h. 56m. this particular insect again, but wish to make a few remarks Mars . .

139,312,200 4,920 61° 18' 1° 51' 687 24h. 37m. on his relations and friends. In summer they are glancing hither Planetoids

and thither over meads and gardens, and we cannot let such Jupiter 475,693,100 88,390 86° 55' 1° 18 4,333 9h. 56m.

beauties pass unnoticed. Saturn . 872,134,600 71,900 58° 41' 2° 29' 10,759 10h. 29m.

It seems almost an insult to call such a brightly-robed creature Uranus J H 1,753,851,000 33,000

0° 46' 30,687 9h. 30m. Neptune. * | 2,746,271,200 36,600 ...

an insect, but we must not flatter the prondest butterfly, merely 1° 46'60,127

because he wears a fine coat. How vast seems the difference

between the abhorred cockroach and the splendid peacock butterIn the preceding table it will be observed that the new planets

fly! yet the latter cannot deny his distant relationship to that are found in the space intermediate between Mars and Jupiter.

creeping thing, hated by all housemaids: both are insects. A These planets were discovered in this space because they were

long Greek name separates the princes of the insect world from sought for; and the origin of their search is curious. Kepler

the less honoured orders. Lepidoptera (a term meaning scale had discovered that the distance between Mars and Jupiter was

winged) is the title of nobility applied by the great Swedish anomalous as compared with the distances between the other

historian of the animal kingdom, Linnæus, to the butterflies planets, that it was greater in proportion to their distances

and moths. We must pass over the latter for the present, and from the sun, and he strove by some analogies of Nature to find

confine our attention to their less numerous but more admired out the reason, but failed. Titius, a professor of Wittenberg,

relations. in Saxony, endeavoured to discover the law of progression in the

The term “butterfly" seems to be unsuitable for an insect distances of the planets, and to a great extent succeeded. This

which has a taste far too refined for butter. The name was, it discovery was published by Bode, in 1772, in the Connaissance du

is thought, given to the insect by our Saxon ancestors, because it Ciel Etoilé; and hence it is usually called Bode's law. It is the following :--Calling the earth's distance from the sun 10, it was

appeared in the butter-making season. Be it so; many a finer

name has had a lower origin. Has the butterfly a memory? If found that the distances of the other planets with that of the

so, does the insect recollect the two previous states through earth were very near to one another in the proportion of the fol

which it has passed ? Perhaps not; but we must not forget the lowing numbers :

former condition of our brilliant white admiral, or swallow-tail. Planots-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.

First a caterpillar ; then cramped in bands and folds, which we Numbers, 4, 7, 10, 16, 52, 100.

call a chrysalis; and, lastly, a winged fairy of the air. Catch On further inquiry it was discovered that these numbers were that large “ White Cabbage," lady butterfly (Pontia Brassiat), related as follow :

and ask her a few questions about “auld lang syne," just to

illustrate what are called metamorphoses.
4 = 4.
7 = 4 + 3.

On the 1st of May last year--we like to be particular in 10 = 4 + 3 X 2.

dates--her grandmother was a bandaged chrysalis, and about 16 = 4 + 3 x 2 x 2.

the end of the month became a butterfly. Her elegantly-shaped 52 = 4 + 3 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2.

eggs were carefully laid on the under side of nicely-selected 100 = 4 + 3 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2.

cabbage leaves, without permission of the gardener. Mighty An inspection of the foregoing series will show that between was his rage when, in a few days, his choicest cabbages were 16 and 52 there should be another number, 4 + 3 X 2 X 2 X 2, sawn into the most intricate patterns by a thriving family or 28, to make its progression regular and complete, and this of ravenous caterpillars. To kill them all was ont of the quesencouraged the belief, originated by Kepler, that there was a tion. Napoleon's artillery might have failed to accomplish that planet revolving in an orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter Many did perish; the sparrows especially delighted in such that had not yet been discovered.

delicious morsels. One, however, escaped, in consequence of her That there were good grounds for entertaining this idea was exceeding cleverness in feeding on leaves concealed from the further shown by the discovery of Uranus, when it was found birds' eyes. Having formed a chrysalis, she secured the cradle that its distance from the sun represented by 191.93, supposing like bit of work to a sunny wall by a strong but elegant siker

like bit of work to a sunny wall by a strong the earth's distance be 10, agreed closely with the distance at band. which it should be according to Bode's law, namely, 4+3 X 2 From this came a butterfly about August, the mother of the one

X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2, or 4 + 3 x 64 = 196. Astronomers which is supposed to have been just caught by the reader. From in all parts of Europe anxiously searched the field of the heavens her eggs sprang another succession of caterpillars, which changed for the planet that was supposed to be whirling through to chrysalides in September last. Now mark what followed. illimitable space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and the supposition was shown at last to be true by the discovery! The term Papilio is applied to a large butterfly family; MACH of Ceres, the first of the long list of minor planets, by the for the name of a famous physician present at the siege of Troj, und Innate Italian Piazzi.

nates this particular species,

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No butterflies came from these chrysalis forms as usual. They touch. But what are these so-called feathers ? They are really must have died of starvation, as winter yields but little indeed scales, laid upon the wings much in the manner of slates or of the delicate food required by them. This second series of tiles upon a roof. Get a microscope, and examine those of the chrysalides were therefore commissioned to keep the undeveloped “Peacock" or "Red Admiral." No unaided eye can discern the insects safely wrapped within their folds through the cold and minute wonders. The brilliant, numerous, and diversified tints storms of the winter. In the May of this year, each little cradle of the scales are beyond all verbal description and all artistic gives up its brilliant child to sport with the perfumed zephyrs. imitation. Few will talk of human skill in the combination of Thus, in the course of a twelvemonth, the large white butterfly colours when those fairy-like tintings have once astonished the goes through a twofold round of most wonderful changes. eye. Then consider the almost countless number of tinted scales

A question here will naturally arise. How does the cabbage on one wing. A mosaic picture has been exhibited, containing butterfly know that she must deposit her eggs on the cabbage ? | 870 distinct pieces in one inch of work. The delicacy of such She does not feed on it, and can have no notion of the food mechanism might well excite admiration. What shall we say which her brood of caterpillars will require. Here is another when we find more than 100,000 living pictures and richly-dyed of the unanswerable questions which we are accustomed to hush scales on a square inch of a butterfly's wing ? by the reply, “Oh, it is all instinct." Are we one whit the Let us now turn to the head of our butterfly. What do we wiser for such an answer? Well, what is to be said ? Nothing; see there? The two “feelers," or antennæ, at once claim a or a plain confession, “We don't know why the butterfly always notice. By the form of these the butterflies are readily distinselects the very plant which the caterpillars will need.”

guished from moths. Is the tip of the antennæ knobbed ? then Each butterfly may be said to have four epochs in its life-the the insect is most likely a butterfly; if not, it is a moth. What egg state, the caterpillar, the chrysalis, and the fly. We have is the use of these organs? Here we ask a favour from our used the term chrysalis, what does it mean? Of course all readers : will they oblige us by putting that question to the readers know that it is the case or cradle in which the caterpillar most eminent philosopher of their acquaintance ? Should he be takes the butterfly form. The word is derived from a Greek able to answer decisively, will readers further oblige by commuterm, signifying golden, and was originally applied to the most nicating the replies with the proofs? We regret to say that richly-tinted envelopes of this insect. Sometimes the name these antennæ are the teasers of naturalists. We know not Qurelia (aurum, gold) is used to denote these bright forms. what to make of them. Whether the provoking insect feels, Chrysalis is properly applied to the butterflies only, the word sees, hears, or smells with them, no one knows. A pretty conpupa (a little thing) being the more correct designation for the fession is this for men to make, who have weighed the earth, third state of other insects. Linnæus saw some resemblanco and tested the minerals in the sun. “How like a god is man," between the creature thus tightly packed up in its foldings, and says Shakespeare. It may be so; but we cannot forget that all babies bandaged up in close mummy-like wrappers. He there our science is puzzled by the "feelers” of a butterfly. Some fore employed the term pupa to represent this stage of insect think the antennæ contain a sixth sense unknown to human life. Let the reader by all means look for some chrysalides, beings; but this is only an attempt to escape from a puzzle by and carefully examine them. He will sometimes see through a guess. The experiment which suggested this notion was, perthe fine covering, the body, legs, and wings of the insect, haps, the following :- A female of one of the day moths, called most marvellously packed up in its case. The antennæ, or the “Kentish Glory," which had been bred from the crysalis in feelers, as they are wrongly called, are placed in a line with a house, was enclosed in a box, and taken into a wood frequented the legs. The long tongue, too, strange as it may sound, is by her species. The box being laid on the ground, in a short placed straight between the legs; and the wings make a very time a number of the male moths settled on it. Yet a person might small but very distinct package. The various parts of the have frequented that locality for days without seeing one of the butterfly may often be seen even in the interior of the cater- insects. This experiment has been often made with success. pillar itself, which is thus but the living covering of the yet By what sense did these moths discover the presence of the undeveloped purple emperor or peacock.

lady? Not by sight-she was hidden; not by hearing—she Has the reader ever seen a butterfly “coming out” into the uttered no cry. It is no marvel if some ascribe this strange world? Let him take the first opportunity, then, of witnessing power to a mysterious sense lodged in the antennæ. Does any the operation. How is it effected ? The cradle cracks, the one ask why the term antenna was applied to these organs? The wrappers are torn, and the fly extricates itself, standing like a word denoted among the ancients the yard or mast of a ship. thing most forlorn. No mother is near to “introduce" the and was subsequently given to these “feelers" from a fancied stranger ; not a single friend to give help—the young butterfly resemblance to the projecting spars of a vessel. We have not is indeed coldly received by the world. Her very wings are done with the head of the butterfly yet. Look next at the eyes. pany things, and her limbs look as if rheumatic. But she has Of course every one, in the year 1868, knows that the eyes a cheerful heart, soon gets over her first amazement, and one of of all insects are compound; in other words, that what seems her earliest operations is to attend to her beauty. Suppose one eye only consists of many thousands. The reader would be the wings should not open “nicely ;” what if there should be a puzzled to count these butterfly eyes, even by the aid of a powercrease in that important part of her wardrobe! her life would ful microscope. But the calculation has been made by men who be wretched then; the gentlemen would not look at her, and have devoted years to the study of insect structure. The eye of no female of her race would condescend to sip from the same a butterfly contains, in reality, about 17,000 eyelets, giving to flower. In about an hour, however, all is generally right; the our gaudy insect 34,000 in all. Each little eye is a perfect gorgeous wings become fully expanded by the sun's heat, and organ in itself, six-sided, or hexagonal, in shape, so that the the beauty sails exulting in the full luxury of life.

whole collection resembles the cells in a honey-comb-17,000 eyes Have our friends ever seen a butterfly in the winter ? The all arranged in that small space! Yes, it is so. Some speculative very question may seem absurd. How can the symbol of flowery readers may inquire why this creature has been endowed with Eummer live amid the snows of December? The surprise is eyelets in thousands. We must beg to be excused from answernatural ; but some butterflies do live through the season of frosting so profound a question. Of course no one will suppose that and tempest; in other words, they hybernate; sleep comes on when a butterfly looks on a female of his species he sees 34,000 them in some sheltered nook as winter approaches, and lasts, fluttering beauties before him. As the two human eyes do not with a few breaks, till the return of spring. Sometimes a mild double objects, so the numerous lenses of the "Purple Emperor" day, eren in January, will rouse the sleepers, and they come out may combine to form but one image. But some of these insects for a short airing, to the astonishment of the schoolboy or the have also two simple eyes on the top of the head, so that we young lady out for a walk. One of these hybernators is the must confess ourselves to be altogether inferior in the matter of brimstone butterfly, common in parts of Devonshire, Suffolk, eyes to the “Swallow-tail" or the “Peacock.” and Esses. The small tortoiseshell butterfly is another species, We must now take a look, with his permission, at the buttersometimes seen on warm days in winter sailing merrily along fly's mouth. The insect luxuriates in such refined food that under the shelter of some friendly hedge.

teeth are needless, and strong jaws not wanted. What does the Now let us pause a minnte to examine the wings of our butter- observer see in the mouth ? He finds a long tube, like a trunk, fly. Touch them not; the friction of the softest finger will act and also notes that the organ can be folded up, like a watchlike a rough file on the richly-tinted mosaic work of those wings. spring, out of harm's way, when the animal is not making its We all know how “the feathers" are rubbed off by the slightest breakfast on the delicious nectar of a summer flower. A closer


ingpection shows a remarkable bit of living mechanism. The we allude rather to the whole nervous mass than to one organ, trunk is found to consist of three sucker-like tubes, secured in like that found in the larger animals. The brains of insects an elegant caso, the wholo protected from injury by horny may in truth be called many. If we insist upon finding one defonces and supports. This complex tube is not thicker than brain, the first knot, or ganglion as it is called, in the spinal a hair, and through this all the food of the butterfly must be marrow, may be so regarded. The same remark must be made convoyed. Does not so fino a tubo get clogged up sometimes respecting the heart, which is not one organ, but consists of from tho thick flowery juices in which tho winged beauty de- numerous circulating vessels. A butterfly may be as truly said lights? Yes, there is a liability to this ; for, though a butterfly to have many hearts as one. cannot have toothache, he is not quite free from all accidents. The nine air-holes on each side, eighteen in all, may be reWhat does the insect do then ? Clears out his trunk, of garded as so many nostrils by which the air enters. Naturalists course, tho mochanism of the central tube allowing it to be opened call them spiracles. for this purpose. Is not this a beautiful provision, enabling the How many species of these insects are found in Britain ? butterfly to bo

About 70; its own sur

but some are goon in 80

only met with dangerous a

in limited discrisis P "Doth

tricts, and few God oare for

persons have oxen ?" is a

seen them all question put

in their native in an ancient

haunts. The book. It is

total number also olear that

of known spe the wants of a

cies is about butterfly havo

3,000. beon wonder

Readers who fully cared for

wish to make by the Creator.

& collection A whole paper

should endea. might be filled

vour to obtain with the do

the caterpillar, scription of

chrysalis, and the sucker

butterfly of or trunk of

each species; the butterfly.

they will then We can only

possess a spe stato here that

cimen of each it seems to be

form of life formed of a

through which countless

the insect number of fino

passes. No elastio rings,

one will, of moved by a

course, run 8 multitude of

pin through s musoles. Some

butterfly to naturalists

secure it, be have supposed

fore either the muscles in

killing or be this small and

numbing the delicate organ

creature, by to exceed in

placing it in number those

a ressel, into in the ele

which some phant's trunk:

chloroformhas there are es

been dropped tamated at

The captire 70,000. Space

may also be does not ad.

killed by a mit of our sar.

*nip," 01 ing more about



The "hag" is head of a but BUTTERFLIES' WINGS,

fatal to the terfer

whole family. We have but a few lines to remark that the nertes and Poets, philosophers, and theologisns hare used the battery digestive system of the butterfly hare been closely eramined by 'to illustrate their sentiments. The ancients regarded the bright naturalists, and would require a rolume to describe them fully ethereal creature as a symbol of the human soal, searching "As giddy as a butterfly" is a remark applied to some pretty after a higher home and a more perfect life. A noble Delta bipects: but the insect's so-called giddiness is really its work, by called Parche the south was described as falling in love with which it gets its living, speeding from flower to forer for food. visible beanty, then losing through her folly the bright posses A "Parple Emperor's " brain may be as much tared by these sion, and after a sorrowfal search finding again the long-los Jabours as that of the said biped's br reading three sets of and glorious prize. This Psyche was represented under the fou morals in one week. The nervous system of the butterfly is of a butterfer, and such marbles may be seen in the Tony

At the stomach, so that “weak nerves" must tell upon the Collection in the British Museum We all know that Chrast digestion of a "Blue Argas" or "White Admiral." It will have long deemed the uprising of so bright a forun, tromb nesir be imagined that the nortes connected with the comp.es chrysals-like grane, as a type of the resurrectosThese ere and wonderfai trenk of a butterfly must form an elaborate a butter, scontardom a tomb, may suggest a rolume et sa mionoscopical system. When speaking of a butterfly s brain and ennoting tinghts

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intersect c p in F. The point F is the centre from which the

arc A C B has been described. PROBLEM XXXV.-To find the centre of any given circle, or of Now let A E B in Fig. 53 be the arc of which it is required to any given arc of a circle.

find the centre. Join A B as before; bisect AB in D. Draw Let ABC (Fig. 53) be the given circle of which it is required D E perpendicular to A B, and join A E. Produce ed indefinitely to find the centre. First, draw any straight line, A B, dividing towards c, and at the point A in the straight line E A, make the the circle into two unequal segments. Bisect A B in D, and angle E A F equal to the angle A E F, producing the leg A F of through the point o draw the straight line E c at right angles the angle E AF, if necessary, far enough to intersect ED proto AB. Bisect Ec in F. The point F is the centre of the circle duced in the point F. This point, as before, is the centre from ABC.

which the arc A E B has been described. There are other methods by which the centre of the circle In the first of these two cases it will be noticed that the aro ABC may be found, although the one that has just been described of which the centre is required is greater than half the circumis perhaps the most simple. For instance, we might have drawn ference of the circle of which it is an arc, but in the second it is the straight lines G H, KL as tangents to the circle A B C, through less than half the circumference. If the arc were half the

the points A and B, and at circumference, it is plain that to find its centre all we have to
the points of contact, A and do is to join its extremities, and bisect the chord that joins
B, drawn the straight lines them.
AN, BO, at right angles to On further inspection of Fig. 53 it will be noticed that the
the straight lines G H, KL, straight lines GH, KL, ?-hich were drawn as tangents to the
and intersecting each other circle ABC through the points A and B, have their points of
in the point F; from which intersection m in the straight line ce obtained by producing
we learn that if any two CE in an upward direction; and the angle Amc is equal to the
points be taken in the cir- angle BMC. This leads to another mode of finding the centre
cumference of a circle, which of the circle A B C, which is as follows:-
are not the opposite extremi. Through any two points, A and B, in the circumference of the
ties of a diameter of that given circle A B C, draw the tangents G H, K L, intersecting each
circle, and tangents to the other in the point m. Bisect the angle AMB by the straight
circle be drawn through line M E, and produce it to cut the circumference of the circle
these points, the straight in c. Bisect C E in F. The point F, as before, is the centre of
lines drawn at right angles the circle A BC.
to the tangents through the PROBLEM XXXVI.—To describe a circle through any three
points of contact shall inter-given points which are not in the same

sect each other, if produced straight line..
Fig. 53.

far enough, in the centre of Let A, B, C (Fig.55), be the three given
the circle.

points through which it is required
This method is useful when we wish to find the centre from to describe a circle, or rather the cir.
which an arc or part of the circumference of a circle of very cumference of a circle. Join A B, A C,
great extent has been described. The following is a third and bisect these straight lines respec-
method of finding the centre of a given circle or the given arc of tively in the points D and E. Through
any circle. Let us suppose, as before, that ABC in Fig. 53 | D draw the straight line D F of inde-
represents the given circle. Set off along any part of the cir- finite length, perpendicular to AB,
camference three equal arcs, BE, E A, and AP.
equal arcs, BE, E A, and AP. Then from tho and through E draw the straight line

Then from the points P and E as centres, with any radius greater than the EG, also of an indefinite length, perradius of the given circle, describe two arcs intersecting each pendicular to A C. The point of inother in the point n; and from the points A and B as centres, tersection, H, of the straight lines D F,

Fig. 55. with any radius greater than the radius of the given circle, | EG, is the centre from which a circle describe two arcs intersecting each other in the point Q. Join may be described with a radius, 1 A, that shall pass through AX, EQ. The point r in which these lines intersect each other the other two given points, A, B, and c. The same result would is the centre of the circle A BC.

| be obtained by joining the straight lines A B, BC, or A C, C B, Our figures, as we have said before, sometimes appear compli- bisecting them, and drawing perpendiculars through the points cated from the necessity that there is of saving as much space of bisection as shown in the figure.

as we can by making one diagram serve as an PROBLEM XXXVII.-To draw a tangent to a given circle

illustration either to many methods of doing the through any given point either in the circumference of the circle
8 same thing, or to sequences that may arise out or without it.
of th

nsideration of the problem in question. The case in which the given point is in the circumference of Our readers are therefore in all cases when it is

-x the circle needs no illusnecessary recommended to study our problems

tration and very little with a piece of paper, a pair of compasses, and

explanation, for it is a parallel ruler at hand, that they may construct

manifest that nothing Fig. 54. for themselves just so much of our diagram as

more is required than to is necessary for an illustration of the process in

draw a straight line joincourse of description, disentangling it as it were from the

ing the centre of the figure that we have given as a means of explaining our direc

circle and the given point, tions. Ag an example of this, we give in Fig. 54, on a reduced

and then through the scale, just so much as is absolutely necessary of Fig. 53 to

given point to draw a Enable & reader to understand the first method that we have

K _

straight line at right given of finding the centre of any given circle.

Fig. 56.

angles to the radius of Some of the methods that have been described for finding the

the circle thus obtained. centre of a given circle apply equally well, as it may have been The straight line drawn through the given point at right angles seen, to finding the centre from which any given are of a circle to the radius will be a tangent to the given circle. has been described ; but there is another method of finding the In the case in which the given point lies without the circumcentre of any given arc that we will now proceed to bring under ference of the circle, let ABC (Fig. 56) represent the given circle, the reader's notice.

and d the given point without it. Find E, the centre of tho First, let ACB in Fig. 53 be the arc of which it is required to circle A B C, and join D E. Bisect DE in F, and from the point find the centre. Join A B; bisect AB in D; draw cat right F as centre, at the distance FE or FD as radius, describe the angles to A B, and join Ac. Then at the point A in the straight circle DGH, cutting the circumference of the circle a Bc in tho line ca make the angle CAF equal to the angle A CF, and pro- points G, H. Join D Q, D , and produce them indefinitely duce the leg A F of the angle CAF, if necessary, far enough to towards K and L respectively. The straight lines D K, DL are



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de ABC, and they are dr. from the gives mysteries of devotion ; let me forget the world, and by the world be Dans D. W t tee circunference of the circle ABC, 23 forgotten, till the moment arrives in which the veil of eternity shall

faks, aud I shall be found at the bar of the Almighty. From this pechen we learn that from any point without a.

a Bebgioa will grow up with you in youth, and grow old with you in je s9 trigit lines can be drawn which are targets to

age; it will attend you, with peculiar pleasure, to the hovels of the

Por, or the chamber of the siek; it will retire with you to your wat cire, and test the angle formed by any pair of tangenta

caset, and watch by your bed, or walk with you, in gladsome union. é v to & creie from a point without it is bisected by tbe to the bouse of Gd; it will follow you beyond the confines of the **ngit lire skich joins that point and the centre of the given all, and dwell with you for ever in heaven, as its native residence. We also learn from this problem kow, with a given radias, to

2. - Emphatie series." 2 . crne touchipz two given straicht lines. In Fiz. 56, let Assemble in your parishes, villages, and hamlets. Resolve, peti. LX, EX represent the two giren straight line and x the tion, address. giten radins of the circle that is required to be draw, toaching This monument will speak of patriotism and courage ; of civil and given straight lines LX, EX. If necessary, prodace the religious Iberty ; of free government; of the moral improvement and

elevation of mankind; and of the immortal memory of those who, with ion of Man mes L. XX int toon meet in D. Binect the anzle LDK be the straight line berote devotion, have sacrificed their lives for their country. Jo and at any point. p. in the straight line D & draw PO I have roomed through the world, to find hearts nowhere warmer Drpendicular to D K, ar I equal to the given ra lius I. Then

than those of New England, soldiers nowhere bràver, patriots Dowhere térough the point o draw the straight Zees of indefinite length,

• pirer, wires and mothers nowhere truer, maidens nowhere lovelier,

green valleys and bright rivers nowhere greener or brighter; and I will parallel to D K, and intersecting the straight line do in the

not be silent, when I hear her patriotism or her truth questioned with Doint . From the point E as centre, with a ratins equal to so much as a whisper of detraction. the given radius x, describe the circle AHG. This circle touches the given straight lines L X, kx, in the points I and G.

What is the most odious species of tyranny? That a handful of men, free themselves, should execute the most base and abominable despotism over millions of their fellow-créatures ; that innocence

should be the victim of oppression; that industry should toil for READING AND ELOCUTION.-XV. rapine; that the harmless labourer should sweat, not for his own ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE continue?).

benefit, but for the luxury and rapacity of tyrannic depredation ;-in a

wird, that thirty millions of men, gifted by Providence with the [NOTE.-Those examples, in this and a former lesson, in which

or 'inary endowments of humanity, should groan under a system of the accents are purposely omitted, are intended as exercises for deskotista, unmatched in all the histories of the world. the student.]

3. “Poetic series."
Siinple Concluding Series.

He looks in boundless majesty abroad,

And sheds the shining day, that burnished plays It is a subject interesting alike to the old and to the young.

On röcks, and hills, and towers, and wandering streams, Nature, by the very disposition of her elements, his commanded, High-gleaming from afar. as it were, and imposed upon men, at moderate interva's, a general

Round thy beaming car, intermission of their toils, their occupítions, and their pursuits.

High-seen, the Seasons lead, in sprightly dance The influence of true religion is mild, and soft, and núiseless, and

Harmonious knit, the rosy-fingered Hours, constant, as the descent of the evening dew on the tender herbage,

The Zephyrs floating loose, the timely Rains, nourishing and refreshing all the atniable and social virtues; but

Of bloom ethereal, the light-footed Déws, enthusiasın is violent, sudden, rattling as a summer shower, rooting

And, softened into joy, the surly Storms.
up the fairest fluwers, and washing away the richest mould, in the
pleasant garden of society.

Hear him compare his happier lot, with his
Compound Concluding Series.

Who bends his way across the wintry wolds,
The winter of the good man's age is cheered with pleasing reflec-

A poor night-traveller, while the dismal snow

Beats in his face, and dubious of his paths, tions of the past, and bright hopes of the future. It was a moment replete with joy, amazement, and anxiety.

He stops and thinks, in every lengthening blast, Nothing would tend more to remove apologies for inattention to

He hears some village mastiff's distant howl, religion than a fair, impartial, and full account of the education, the

And sees, far streaming, some lone cottage light; characters, the intellectual processes, and the dying moments of those

Then, undeceived, upturns his streaming eyes, who offer them.

And clasps his shivering hands, or, overpowered, Then it would be seen that they had gained by their scepticism no

Sinks on the frozen ground, weighed down with sleep, new pleasures, no tranquillity of mind, no peace of conscience during

From which the hapless wretch shall never wake. Kle, and no consolation in the hour of death.

There was neither tree, nor shrub, nor field, nor house, por living Well-doing is the cause of a just sense of elevation of character; it créatures, nor visible remnant of what human hands had reared. clears and strengthens the spirits; it gives higher riches of thought; I am charged with pride and ambition. The charge is true, and it wins our ben Folence, and makes the current of our peculiar affec- glory in its truth. Who ever achieved anything great in letters... tions swift and deep.

or arms, who was not ambitious ? Cæsar was not more ambitious A distant sail, gliding along the edge of the ocean, was sometimes

than Cicero. It was but in another way. All greatness is borna

e e theme of teculation.

worla | ambition. Let the ambition be a noble one, and who shall b ". How interesting this frument of Listenin to rejoin the great mass of existence! What a glorions I confess I did once aspire to be queen, not only of Palmyri, Inreument of human invention, that has thus triumphed over wind

the East. That I am. I now aspire to remain 80. Is it not 2:1 wive; has brought the ends of the earth in communion ; has

honourable ambition? Does it not become a descendant of est

I am applauded by you all for White

Ptolemies and of Cleopatra ? an interchange of blessings, pouring into the sterile regions have already done. You would not it should hare been less. of the nirth all the luxuries of the south ;* diffused the light of know.

But why pause here? Is so much ambition praiseworthy, and 1.1., and the charities of cultivated life; and his thus bound together

more criminal? Is it fixed in nature that the limits of this empas those cattered portions of the human race, between which nature

should be Egypt on the one hand, the Hellespont and the Euro seems to have thrown an insurmountable barrier!

the other? Were not Suez and Armenia more natural 113 1. “ Disconnected series.”

bath empire no natural limit. but is broad as the gemius Y0*'h, in the fulness of its spirits, defers religion to the sobriety

devise, and the power that can win ? Rome has the West. 10 of miihood; manhood, encumbered with cares, delers it to the leisure

Palmyra possess the East. Not that nature subscribes this and to of om åge; old age, weak and hesitating, is unable to enter on an

more. The gods prospering, and I swear not that the Mediterrace untriel mode of life.

shall hem me in upon the west, or Persia on the east. Longinus

right: I would that the world were mine. I feel, within, the will * Let me prepare for the approach of eternity ; let me give up my the power to bless it, were it so. soul to meditation; let solitude and silence acquaint me with the Are not my people happy? I look upon the past and the per

us on my nearey and remoter subiects, and ask nor fear the sun • Accidental " falling" inflection, for contrast.

Whom have I wronged-what province have I oppressed

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a more natural limits

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