Εικόνες σελίδας

pillaged 1—what region drained with taxes ?—whose life have I unjustly

Still, still, for ever taken, or estates coveted or robbed ?-whose honour have I wantonly

Better, though each man's life-blood were a river, assailed_whose rights, though of the weakest and poorest, have I

That it should flow, and overflow, than creep trenched upon ? I dwell, where I would ever dwell, in the hearts of

Through thousand lazy channels in our veins, my people. It is written in your faces, that I reign not more over you

Dammed, like the dull canal, with locks and cháins, than within you. The foundation of my throne is not more power

And moving, as a sick man in his sleep, than love.

Three paces, and then faltering ; better be
How shall I know thee in the sphere which keeps

Where the extinguished Spartans still are free,
The disembodied spirits of the dead,

In their proud charnel of Thermopylæ,
When all of thee that time could wither, sleeps,

Than stagnant in our marsh."
And perishes among the dust we tread ?

Exception.—" Emphatio negation.”
For I shall feel the sting of ceaseless pain,

I'll keep them all ;
If there I meet thy gentle presence not;

He shall not have a Soot of them ;
Nor hear the voice I love, nor read again

No, if a Scot would save his soul, he shall not.
In thy serenest eyes the tender thought.

Do not descend to your graves with the disgraceful censure, that
Will not thy own meek heart demand me there?

you suffered the liberties of your country to be taken away, and that That heart whose fondest throbs to me were given ?

you were mates as well as cowards. Come forward, like mèn; protest

against this atrocious attempt.
My name on earth was ever in thy prayer,
Shall it be banished from thy tongue in heaven ?

I am not sounding the trumpet of war. There is no man who

more sincerely deprecates its calamities than I do. In meadows fanned by heaven's life-breathing wind,

Rest assured that, in any case, we shall not be willing to rank làst In the resplendence of that glorious sphere,

in this generous contest. You may depend on us for whatever heart And larger movements of the unfettered mind,

or hand can dd, in so noble a cause. Wilt thou forget the love that joined us here?

I will cheerfully concede every reasonable demand, for the sake of The love that lived through all the stormy past,

péace. But I will not submit to dictation.
And meekly with my harsher nature bore,

Rule 2.—“Question and answer.”
And deeper grew, and tenderer to the last,
Shall it expire with life, and be no more ?

Do you think these yells of hostility will be forgotten? Do you suppose their echo will not reach the plains of my injure

injured and insulted A happier lot than mine, and larger light,

country, that they will not be whispered in her green valleys, and Await thee there; for thou hast bowed thy will

heard from her lofty hills ? Oh! they will be heard there ; yès, and In cheerful homage to the rule of right,

they will not be forgotten. And lovedst all, and renderedst good for ill.

I will say, what have any classes of you, in Ireland, to hope from For me, the sordid cares in which I dwell,

the French? Is it your préperty you wish to preserve ?-Look to the Shrink and consume the heart, as heat the scroll;

example of Holland; and see how that nation has preserved its property And wrath hath left its scar,-the fire of hell

by an alliance with the French! Is it independence you court ?Has left its frightful scar upon my soul.

Look to the example of unhappy Switzerland : see to what a state of

servile abasement that once manly territory has fallen, under France ! Yet, though thou wear'st the glory of the sky,

Is it to the establishment of Catholícity that your hopes are directed ? Wilt thou not keep the same beloved name,

The conduct of the First Consul, in subverting the power and authoThe same fair thoughtful brow, and gentle eye,

rity of the Pope, and cultivating the friendship of the Mussulman in Lovelier in heaven's sweet climate, yet the same ?

Egypt, under a boast of that subversion, proves the fallacy of such a Shalt thou not teach me, in that calmer home,

reliance. Is it civil liberty you require ? Look to France itself, The wisdom that I learned so ill in this,

crouching under despotism, and groaning beneath a system of slavery, The wisdom which is love,-till I become

unparalleled by whatever has disgraced or insulted any nation. Thy fit companion in that land of bliss ?

Shall I be left forgotten, in the dust,

When Fate, relenting, lets the flówer revive ?
Both Inflections, in connection.

Shall Nature's voice,-to man alone unjust,-
Rule 1.—“Negation opposed to affirmation."

Bid him, though doomed to perish, hope to live ? It is not a parchment of pedigree,-it is not a name derived from

Is it for this fair Virtue oft must strive the ashes of dead men, that make the only charter of a king. English.

With disappointment, pénury, and páin?

NÒ: Heaven's immortal spring shall yet arrive, mnen were but slàves, if, in giving crown and sceptre to a mortal like ourselves, we ask not, in return, the kingly virtues.

And man's majestic beauty bloom again,

Bright through the eternal year of Love's triumphant rèign. The true enjoyments of a reasonable being do not consist in udbounded indulgence, or luxurious éase, in the tumult of passions, Rule 3.-“ Disjunctive Or.'» the languor of indolence, or the flutter of light amúsements. Yielding

Will you rise like men, and firmly assert your rights, or will you to immoral pleasures corrupts the mind; living to animal and trifling | tamely submit to be tràmpled on? ones, debàses it; both, in their degree, disqualify it for genuine good, and consign it over to wretchedness.

Did the Romans, in their boasted introduction of civilisation, act

from a principle of humane interest in the welfare of the world? Or What constitutes a state ?

did they not rather proceed on the greedy and selfish policy of aggranNot high-raised battlements, or laboured móund,

dising their own nation, and extending its dominion ? Thick wall, or moated gate;

Do virtuous hábits, a high standard of morality, proficiency in the Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned,

arts and embellishments of life, depend upon physical formation, or Not bays and broad-armed pórts,

the látitude in which we are placed ? Do they not depend upon the Where, laughing at the storm, proud návies ride;

civil and religious institutions which distinguish the country ? Not starred and spangled courts,

The remaining rules on “inflection," as they are of less Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to príde ! No !-men,-high-minded MÈN,

frequent application, are thought to be sufficiently illustrated Men who their duties know,

by the examples appended to each rule. A repetition of these, But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain.

however, may be useful to the student as an exercise in review. Note.-“ Concession and unequal antithesis.” The clouds of adversity may darken over the Christian's páth; but he

LESSONS IN MUSIC.–VIII. can look up with filial trust to the guardian care of a beneficent Father. I admit that the Greeks excelled in acuteness and versatility of

MENTAL EFFECT OF NOTES. mind. But, in the firm and manly traits of the Roman character, I We have now to treat of a most important subject, and one see something more noble, more worthy of admiration.

| which should be thoroughly well understood by every pupil. We war against the leaders of evil-not against the helpless tóols: We refer to the mental effect of notes. Let us put the topic in we war against our oppressors,-not against our misguided bréthren. the form of a question. What is the principal source of a note's

power to affect the mind? We observe, for instance, in one of • The penultimate inflection falls, when a sentence ends with the Handel's songs, that a certain note produces a certain effect rising slide.

upon our minds. Why does it produce that effect? Is there any law by which such mental effects are chiefly regulated ? | this second mental effect, and that no other note produces the To these questions we answer, that many circumstances may same effect, however you may quicken its rate of movement. modify the mental effect of a note, but that it is mainly pro- There is still, therefore, a law presiding even in this "duplicity" duced by the principle of key-relationship, in connection with of mental effect. This note LAH (sixth above or " minor third” rate of movement. We believe that every note of the scale below the key-note) is now proved to possess twin mental effects. (whatever may be the pitch of the key-note) has a peculiar the one showing the grave, the other the gay side of a certain - mission” of its own to the human mind—a proper mental emotion. So is it with every note of the scale. “Key-relationeffect, which circumstances of pitch, quality of voice, rhythmical ship" gives it a certain acceptance with the mind, and “rate of arrangement, peculiarities of expression, etc., may modify, but movement" has a certain way of modifying that impression. To cannot efface. Let us take an example, and look at it in these prove, however, that the key-relation into which a note is thrown, various lights. It cannot be doubted that the last note in the by the sounds which have been heard before it, is the principal following phrase, from Dr. Calcott's well-known glee, produces producing cause of mental effect, we must try another experia mental effect peculiarly appropriate to the word to which it is ment. Take the same sound, as to absolute pitch, and vary its set. That note we call LAH. It is the sixth above or the key-relationship. Strike the “chord " and scale of B, for instance, “minor third” below the key-note. The question is, How and then the note B, at length, noticing its mental effect. Next comes that note to produce a sorrowful impression on the strike the chord and scale of A, followed by the same note B mind? What is the law, if there is one, by virtue of which (the same in pitch), as a long note. Notice, now, its effect on that note possesses its power ? Let the pupil sing the phrase : the mind. How changed ! Try, next, the chord and scale of KEY D

G, and observe the note, in the same way. How changed again! Try other keys, and you will find that every change of key-relationship makes a change in the reception which the mind gives to that particular sound of unaltered pitch. If you

wish to prove this to an incredulous friend, tell him that you :did :

rm : S .f:m .r 11: are about to play to him, on the flute or piano, a number of long For- 1 give, blest shade, the tri - bu - ta - ry | tear. Il notes, and that, without looking at your playing, he is to tell Try first the various conditions of pitch. Take a higher

| you, as well as he can, what notes they are, and describe their sound, say G, for your key-note or don, and sing the phrase

mental effect. Then play to him the following phrases, and ask again. You will notice that the mental effect is modified, but it

him, at the close, whether the notes were the same, or, if not, romains essentially the same. Again, while in the key of G,

how they differed. Unless he takes care to keep singing the sing tho phrase, taking the lower lan, instead of the upper.

note B all through (which would be a physical rather than a The effect on the mind is more gloomy, but it is still the same

mental test), he is sure to suppose the notes different. Of course effect. It is not the mere height in pitch, then, that gives to

you must be acquainted with some instrument to perform this the Lah its peculiar characteristic of sorrowfulness. The differ

experiment. The violin will give it most accurately. ence between the same tune set in a low and in a high key is undoubtedly great, but the special effect of each individual note

KEY B. remains of the same kind. Next try the effect of what is called in French “ timbre," or different qualities of sound, upon this note. Let the phrase be sung by a rough voice, a clear voice, a hard voice, a mellow voice, etc., or let it be played first on a flute, next on a trumpet, and again on a violin. Such changes

Id.r:m.fls.d:ti.l. | m: lr : ld:-|-:-1! will certainly modify the mental effect. One voice or instrument may be better than the other, but they will all agree in

KEY A. expressing, on the note Lah, the sorrowful sentiment, and, if they sound the note correctly, they cannot help doing so. This mental effect is therefore independent of the mere qualities of sound, and is governed by some other law. Let the next experiment be in relation to interval, for some persons might imagine

1 d.r:m.fls.dtil, f:im: r:--that the “distance in pitch” between Ray and Lan, called a fifth, produces the mental effect. Therefore sing the word “tear,” when you come to the close, thus :


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t : 1 You will find that every change produces a modification of the idea, but the idea itself belonging to Lah remains still the same. Interval, therefore, is not the law which governs mental effect. In a similar way you may try whether singing the same sound to different words or syllables, or with different modes of “ expression” (as loud, soft, etc.), will produce any material changes. And when you have found that none of these various conditions of the note can rob it of its own peculiarly emotional character, then try another and most important experiment. Vary the rate of movement. Instead of singing the phrase slowly, sing it as rapidly as though it were a jig. You will then understand why we said that key-relationship, in connection with rate of movement, was the chief cause of mental effect. The note seems, now, to express an abandonment to gaiety, instead of sorrow. But notice that LAH, sung quickly, always produces

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present, as a mental element, with every single note that follows. In a similar manner, the effect of a given colour—the artist will tell us—is modified by the surrounding ones, or those on which the eye has just rested. This is a deeply interesting subject,

and deserves to be well studied and further explored, especially Uld'.r:m?.f' | s?.d":t .1 | rl : d' : lt:-|-:-|| in connection with harmonic combinations and effects.

These mental effects of notes in key have often been noticed KEY B.

in books of science. Dr. Calcott refers to them in his "Musical Grammar.” M. Jeu de Berneval, Professor to the Royal Academy of Music, in his “Music Simplified,” illustrates them very ingeniously and beautifully. Dr. Bryce introduces them into

his “Rational Introduction.” It would seem surprising (did we | d.rim.fs.d:t.. s, : |ti : Id :-:-:-|| not know how the old notation, with its attempted, but inaccu

rate, scale of fixed sounds, takes up the learner's time, and disWhy a note's standing at a particular interval from the key tracts attention from the real beauties of musical science) that note should give it a particular musical effect, we do not know. these interesting facts, so well calculated to aid the pupil, have We can only notice the fact, and make use of it in teaching. been so little used in elementary instruction. It is obvious that There must come to us, along with the actual sound itself, some the moment a pupil can recognise a certain musical property in mental association of the relationship of interval (indicated by any note, he will be able to produce the note with the greater preceding notes) which has been thrown around it. The memory accuracy and satisfaction. From extensive experience we have of notes just heard hovers around that which we now hear, and found that infants and persons with untrained voices are able gives it its character. Quick succession approaches in effect to to appreciate these points, and derive constant pleasure and co-existence, as is familiarly shown in reference to the eye by assistance from the knowledge of them. The teacher will the zoetrope and other optical toys. Thus when once the key is find himself well repaid by a most careful attention to this established by the opening notes of the tune, it is still felt to be subject.

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2. In searching your heart should you find you intend

are in Latin used only when emphasis is required, or to expross Some good to yourself or another to do,

a contrast; as, ego stultus sum, tu sapiens, I am foolish, thou To relieve the distress'd or yourself to amend,

art wise. The same is the case with the possessive pronouns. Oh! watch the bright time when the purpose shall glow; For happiness hangs on the moment I wot,


Absens, -tis, absent. Desiderium, -i, n., a de- / Memor, - ris, mindful

Ango, 3, I torture. I sire,an object of desire. (E. R. memory). 3. Whene'er by a smithy you happen to pass,

Benignus, -a, -um, be- Imměmor, oris, un- Mirus, -a, -um, OnAnd hear on the anvil the hammer's loud clang,

nignant, kind (E. R. mindful.

derful (E.R. admire). This truth in your mind do not fail to rehearse,


Impotens, powerless Perfidus, -a, That you heard from a blacksmith as blithely he sang

-um, Conservātrix, -icis, f., (E. R. impotent). I treacherous (E. R. “IF GOOD BE YOUR AIM, BE WHATEVER YOUR LOT,

preservative (E. R. Industrius, -a, -um, perfidy). NEVER FAIL, SIR, TO STRIKE WHILE THE IRON IS Hor."



Potens, -tis, powerful In the second part” of this tune notes for and TU occur. | Cura, -æ, f., care (E. R.

(E. R, potent). These notes will be more fully and clearly explained hereafter.

a cure, curacy, cu piens), unwise. Teneo, 2, I hold (E. R.

rate). For is a note a little less than half a tone higher than van. It

Ira, -æ, f., anger (E. R. tenet).

T ire). always follows Fay, and seems to rise out of it. It is called a chromatic or colouring note. Tu is nearly the same sound in

EXERCISE 53.-LATIN-ENGLISH. pitch, being a little more than half a tone lower than sol. Itl 1. Omnis natura est conservatrix sui. 2. Mirum desiderium urbis, holds the same relation to Son which te holds to DOH. It is, meorum, et tui, tenet me (desire for, or after). 3. Pater vehementer tuã in fact, the seventh note of a new key, but more of this here- sui memoriã (thy recollection of him) delectatar. 4. Ira est impotens after. It is enough for you to notice, now, that it does not sui (has no power over itself). 5. Sapiens semper potens sui est. 6. follow or rise out of Fal, and that it does not produce the same

Vestri cura (care for you) me angit. 7. Omnes homines benigni judices

sui sunt. 8. Vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua, 9. Ami. “ colouring" effect with For. Observe that Tu has the lower

cus mei et tui est memor. 10. Pater absens magno desiderio tenetur ootave mark on it.

mei, et tui, mi frater, et vestri, O sorores. 11. Amici sunt nostri In singing the words, be careful to notice the italics and

memores. 12. Multi vestrum mihi placent. 13. Plurimi nostrum te SMALL CAPS which indicate expression. The little mark, like | valde diligunt. two interlacing crosses, is called a sharp. It raises the note,

EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH-LATIN. before which it stands, something less than half a tone. You

1. The inwise man (fooi) 's no power over himself (impotens sui). will remark that there is nothing, in the old notation, to distin. 2. The fath.r has power over himself. 3. Virtue has power over itself. guish to from For. Two different things are represented by 4. Vice has wot power over itself. 5. Has anger power over itself? the same signs.

6. Nature is p:eservative of herself. 7. The nature of virtue is preIn the next lesson we shall commence an examination of the servative of itself. 8. No one of you has power over himself. 9. Very different notes, with this point in view, and furnish illustrations many of us have power over ourselves. 10. A treacherous friend is from the great masters. It is sufficient for us here to request

unmindful of me. 17. Faithful friends are not mindful of themselves.

12. Thy recollection du desire of me are very pleasant to me. 13. Care the pupil to read with care, and put to the test, the following

for thee tortures me. 14. Most of you, my scholars, are industrious. remarks

15. Wonderful is the lov“ self. The notes DOH, 801, and ME give to the mind an idea of rest and power (in degrees corresponding with the order in which

Certain pronouns in Latin bear the name of demonstrative, they are named), while TE, FAH, LAH, and RAY (in similar

because they point out (in Latin, demonstro, I point out; E. R. degrees), suggest the feelings of suspense and dependence.

demonstrate) the person or persons that are intended. The deThus, if after we have heard the principal notes of the key, the

monstrative pronouns are is, ea, id; ille, illa, illud ; iste, ista, voice dwells on the sound TЕ, the mind is sensible of a desire

istud; hic, hæc, hoc. .Of these, is signifies this or that, and for something more, but the moment te is followed by Doe' a

approaches to our personal pronoun hc, his, etc.; hic denotes sense of satisfaction and repose is produced. In the same

this person, that is, the nearer to the speaker ; ille, that person, manner the mind is satisfied when Fal resolves itself into ME,

farther from the speaker; iste, that person, particularly when 3 and Lan (though not so decidedly) into son. Ray also excites

person is addressed, the second person. From is, ea, id, idem, a similar feeling of inconclusiveness and -xpectancy, which is

the same, is formed by the addition of dem; thus, is-dem conresolved by ascending to ME, or, more perfectly, by falling to

tracted into idem (pronounced i-dem), eň-dem, id-dem or idem DOH.

(pronounced id-em). To these may be added, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, Notice the power and vigour given to the tunes GRIFFIN,

he himself, that very person. In the following manner decline the LEYBURN, and BLACKSMITH, by the notes DOH, son, and ME.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, Sing the tunes over for the purpose of forming an independent

Is, m. ; ea, f.; id, n., he or that. judgment on this point. Then, to show the effect of the


Plural. “leaning” notes, sing slowly as follows :

Cases. M,


F. :dm:8f:-m

N. :dm:st:-| di

ii Is

eve : dils:m

G. ejus ejus ejus 11:-)s

eorum earum : di se m

eorum r:-m :dm:s|r: -10 D.

D. ei

iis (eis) iis

jis Ac. eum



Ab. eo

iis (eis) iis iis LESSONS IN LATIN.—XV.

Also the pronoun, idem, m.; eadem, f.; idem, 11., the same.



N. idem eadem THE personal pronouns whieh have an adjective force, are G. ejusdem


idem eadem eidem

ejusdem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorunden formed from the genitive of the personal substantive pronouns. D. eidem eidem eidem iisdem(eisdem iisdem iisdein They are called possessive, because they denote an object as Ac. eundem eandem idem eosdem easdem eadem the possession of the first, the second, or the third person. From Ab. eodem eadem eodem üsdem(eisdem)iisdem iisdem mei, of me, is formed meus, mea, meum, my; as appears in this

Iste, m.; ista, f.; istud, n., that person. table.


Mei makes meus, m

mea, f.
meum, n. my or mine

N. iste ista istud isti iste ists Tui tuus


G. istius istius istius

istórum istärum istórum Sui suus sua suum his his onen D. isti isti

istis istis

istis Nostri ,, noster nostra nostruin our ours

Ac. istum istam istud

istog istas Vestri , Vester vestra vestrum your yours

Ab. isto istă


istis istis To increase the force, pte is added to the ablative singular of

Ille, m.; illa, f.; illud, n., that person. suus, as suapte manu, with his owen hand; suopte gladio, with


Paral. his oron sword. Met, with the same view, is appended to the

7. ille


illius illius illius

illorum illarum oblique cases of suus; as, suismet capitibus, to their own heads.

in Srum D. illi illi

illis illis All the cases except the nominative are called oblique.

illa I must here recall to your mind that the personal pronouns Ab. illo

Ac. illum illam illud

illos illas





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his hos

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Ipse, m.; ipsa, f.; ipsum, n., that very person.



1. Multi homines de iisdem rebus eodem die non eadem sentiunt. 2. Casse. X.

Insipiens eidem sententiæ modo fidit, modo diffidit. 3. Ipsi imperaX.

M. X. ipse

tori seditiosi milites resistunt. 4. Animus ipse se movet. 5. Virtus ipsa ipsum ipsi ipse ipsa G. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum

est per se ipsa laudabilis. 6. Sæpe nihil est homini inimicius quam D. ipsi ipsi ipsi

ipsis ipsis ipsis

sibi ipse (himself to himself; than he is to himself). 7. Omne animal Ac. ipsum ipsam ipsum

ipsos ipsas ipsa

se ipsum diligit. 8. Carior nobis esse debet patria quam nosmet ipsi Ab. ipso ipsa ipso

ipsis ipsis ipsis

(we ourselves). 9. Præclarum est illud præceptum oraculi Delphici,

Nosce (know, imp.) te ipsum.
Hic, m.; hæc, f.; koc, n., this person.



1. The enemies besiege the city, and endeavour to take it by storm. N. hic hæc hoc



2. The deed of that great man is praised by all writers. 3. Cæsar and G. hujus hujus hujus horum hárum horum

Pompey are very illustrious Roman generals. 4. To that (one) fortune D. huic huic huic


is more favourable than to this (one). 5. The bravery of that (one) Ac. hunc hanc hoc


and this (one) is wonderful. 6. The king himself is the general of the Ab, hoc


army. 7. Not always dost thou think the same concerning the same EXAMPLES.–After these models decline

things. 8. The father and the son pursue the same learning (literæ).

9. Virtues are lovely in (by) themselves. 10. All men love themselves. Eadem rana, the same Idem equus, tho samo Hlud cornu, that horn. | 11. Thy native country ought to be dearer to thee than thyself. 12. frog. horse.

Ista temina, that woman | Know yourselves, young men. 13. A liar often distrusts himself. Hæc puella, this girl. Idem vitium, the same Iste vir, that man. Hic paer, this boy.


Istud nomen, that Hoc preceptum, this Illa res, that thing. I name.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XIV. command. Ille sensus, that sense.


1. The soldiers fight bravely. 2. Do the soldiers fight bravely? . Addictus, -3, -um, Fidus, -a, -um, faith-, Sallustius, .i, Sallust,

| 3. Do not the soldiers fight bravely? 4. The Romans fight more bravely given to, attached to.

| than their enemies. 5. Of Greece I think more and more. 6. Dost ful

the name of a Roman Auctoritas, ātis, f., Firmo, 1, I strongéhen historian.

thou not think much on thy father? 7. We every day more and more an authority,

(E. R. firm).
Schola, -æ, f., a school.

expect a letter, 8. Most desiringly thou lookest for the coming of

thy mother. 9. The country pleases (my) father every day more and Carmen,-Inis,n., a poem. Heběto, 1, I grow dull. Scriptor, -ūris, m., a

more. 10. Thou art building a house well. 11. Does he build a house Credo, 3, I believe (E.R. Ignavin, -æ, f., idloness. writer.

Iners, -rtis, inactive, Sententia, Creed).

-æ, f.,

very well? 12. The letter is very badly written. 13. Thy words sound

badly. 14, Slaves think very ill concerning their master. 15. Girls Diligentia, &, f., dili- sluggish.

an opinion (E. R.

labour more patiently than boys. 16. Very hidden dangers are avoided Geace. Memorin,-æ,f., momory. sentence).

with very great difficulty. 17. It is difficult to overcome the Greeks. Displiceo, 2, I displease. Mendax, -icis, lying Tarditas, -ātis, f., slow

18. The Greeks fight very bravely. 19. Sedition is put down more Elegans, -ntis, elegant. (E. R. mendacity). ness (E. R. tardy),

mood Placeo, 2, I please. Espete (imp.

Vita (imp. mood of

easily than war. 20. The state is excellently administered. 21. He

boldly denies (it). 22. The citizens inhabit the city in happiness. of expeto), seck for. Sævus, -a, -um, cruel. | vito), avoid.


1. Facile ne bellum sedatur ? 2. Difficillime bellum sedatur. 3. 1. Sallustius est elegantissimus scriptor. 2. Ejus (his) libros libenter Pugnat fortiter. 4. Fortius pugnant. 5. Fortissime pugnant Græci. lego. 3. Amicum fidum habeo. 4. Ei addictissimus sum. 5. Fratris 6. Magnopere expectas veris adventum. 7. A pueris puellisque omnibus carmen valde mihi placet, id legere debes. 6. Ignavia corpus hebetat, cupidissime expectatur adventus veris. 8. Epistolam tuam in dies labor firmat. 7. Illam vita, hunc expete. 8. Hæ literæ graviter me plus plusque expectant. 9. Male mala verba sonant. 10. Milites movent. 9. Hæc carmina suavissima sunt. 10. Isti homini mendaci

magis atque magis dimicant. 11. Occulta non facile evitantur. 12. non credo. 11. Huic duci milites libenter parent. 12. Ili viro omnes

Matres patientius quam filiæ laborant. 13. Seditio feliciter sedatur. favent. 13. Præclarum est istud tuum præceptum. 14. Hæc sententia 14. Pulchre literas scribit. 15. Romani fortius quam Græci pugnant, mihi placet, illa displicet. 15. Hoc bellum est sævissimum. 16. Hic

16. Rus animum meum maxime delectat. 17. Multum animus ne tuus puer industrius est, ille iners. 17. Memoria teneo præclarum illud

delectatur a rure ? 18. Maxime cogito de domo mea, de fratribus, et præceptum. 18. Iste tuus amicus est vir optimus. 19. Ista vestra de sororibus. 19. Pessime administratur civitas a Romanis. atlctoritas est maxima. 20. Hujus discipuli diligentiam laudo, illius tarditatem vitupero. 21. Ili schola est gratissima, huic molestissima.


1. I sing. 2. Thou shoutest. 3. The friend calls. 4. We narrate. EXERCISE 56.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

5. You dance. 6. Brothers labour. 7. I weep. 8. Thou laughest. 9. 1. Sallust is an elegant writer, Livy a more elegant (writer), and Brother grieves. 10. We teachers teach, you scholars learn. 11. I Cicero the most elegant. 2. I gladly read their books. 3. His (ejus) | play. 12. Thou learnest. 13. Sister paints with the needle (that is, brother and friend are dear to me. 4. Thou hast a faithful friend, embroiders). 14. We write. 15. You read. 16. Brothers paint. 17. and art attached to him. 5. My sons have faithful wives and love I leap. 18. Thou strikest. 19. The boy sleeps. 20. We masters in. them much. 6. I am greatly moved by that letter. 7. Thou dost not struct you, O pupils. 21. You, O good pupils, attentively hear our believe a lying woman (dative). 8. This boy pleases, that boy disprecepts. 22. Virtues are equal among themselves (one to another). pleases me. 9. This poem is very elegant, that more elegant. 10. 23. To command one's self is the greatest command. 24. An angry This thy soldier is brave. 11. The diligence of this scholar is praised man is not his own master. 25. The pursuit (handling) of letters is by me the teacher. 12. In this school (there) are more diligent scholars salutary to us. 26. Truth is always pleasant to me. than in yours.


1. Ego narro. 2. Tu saltas. 3. Frater laborat. 4. Nos cantämus. Admirabilis, -e, admir. Imperātor, -öris, m., | Pompeius, -i, m., Pom- 5. Vos laborātis. 6. Amici saltant. 7. Ego, præceptor, doceo; vos, O alle.

a commander (E. R. pey, the name of a discipuli, discitis. 8. Nos dolemus. 9. Tu pingis. 10. Juvenes Agnosco, 3, I recognise, emperor).

Roman general.

11. Nos praeceptores non tentamus docere vos, O irati pueri. Inimicus, -a, -um, un- Pro (prep.), for (with

12. Boni discipuli debent sibi imperare. 13. Imperare sibi est virtus. Cesar, Iris, m., Cesar, friendly (E. R. en the ablative). 14. Difficile est irato sibi imperare. 15. Irati non sunt apud se. 16. the name of a Roman mity).

Quia (conj.), because.

Imperium semper est tibi gratum. 17. Nonne gratum nobis est imgeneral,

Laudabilis, -e, laudable. Resisto, 3, I stand perium ? 18. Tibi hand mihi grata est veritas. 19. Veritas est salutaris Clarus, -a, -um, illus- praiseworthy.

against, resist (with tibi, mihi, nobis, omnibus. trious.

Meritum, i, n., a dative). Delphicus, -2, -um, merit.

Seditiosus, -a, -um,

EXERCISE 51.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Delphion, belonging Modo- modo, now seditious,

1. Vices creep on us under the name of virtues. 2. We favour you, to the oracle at Delphi, now, at one time—at Sentio, 4, I feel, think

not favour us. 3. Thou lovest me, I love thee. 4. My life is in Vorthern Greece. another.

(E. R. sontiont). dear to me, thine (is dear) to thee. 5. Virtue always shines of itself Diffido, 3, 1 distrust Nosco, 3, I become ac- Studeo, 2, I strive after, (by its own light). 6. The song delights us. 7. Our parents are loved (E. R. diffident). quainted with.

ondeavour (E. R. stu by us. 8. O my son, thou never obeyest me! 9. Our brother loves Expugno, i, I take by Obsideo, 2, I besiege. I dent).

me and thee. 10. I am nearest to myself. 11. Thou well commandest storm.

Opus, operis, n., a work Tracto, 1, I treat, pur | thyself. 12. Virtue is cultivated on its own account (for itself). 13. Factum, -1, n., a deed. (E. R. operative). Sue.

Virtue is sought for, for its own nature (for its own qualities). 14. Fido, 3, I trust. Oraculum, i, n., an | Virtus,-tatis,f.,bravery. The citizens fight for their own heads (lives). 15. The sage carries Fortäne,-&, f., fortune. oracle.

| with him all his property. 16. We rejoice with you on the return of

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