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high. The face of the

si t unz. ani ze breadth image of Juggernaut, or Mahadeo, stands in the centre of the across the snowder -1.7 252 T

i ara pagoda, baild.nz, apon an elevated altar. The idol is described as or umpie, s blns I

-bre. thuat urnament; being an irregular pyramidal black stone, and the temple lit up the star is n . .

12 0 Runne states at only with lamps. euch I ther an - T :

Un andering in the ancient Hindoo writings, another kind of temple is El pirant, Des

a L e m aut to described, of which now no vestige is to be found. The Ayeen w st. and v i ne

**, D . Be body of Akberry relates that near to Juggernaut is the temple of the Turn UT IN T

I

DIRIT32. The sun, in the erection of which the whole revenue of the province **1 of 2 2

- Seni Iskusetid. ie me of Orissa, for twelve years, was entirely expended; that the T: uly. KINALE: Met web .

In

a fie 000- wall which surrounded the whole was 150 cubits high, and mn:c. are the market D ata i mer per mireteen cubits thick; that there were three entrances : at the to have

"* te ST D pale it eo- eastern gate were two elephants, each with a man on its trunk; I was in

a 200 wa Ento on the west, two figures of horsemen completely armed; and for sureng

mpai purement. cter the northern gate, two tigers sitting over two dead ele the SLAL Torbe in" ST

T S

94. plants. In front of the gate was a pillar of black stone, of strail a ra

m as in s y eigu an octagonal form, fifty cubits high; and after ascending nine to ope n

s

t

er Set In fights of steps, there was an extensive enclosure with a large porc pe Pollen die

BRILS
JUCO

ineiy cupola constructed of stone, and decorated with sculpture. Jens Dad W164 KANALIKÅ S , 21 2.0D are o Saou are the ancient monuments of which India can boast, long Qvisual seakBts

" V"2" N ILLETV-tive pars before architecture had reached that proud eminence on which o volont , wat in

T suppurt te stood in ancient Greece. In our next lesson we shall glance around to the 1 R

s and captis re com- those of Persia. podud of olegtos to ANI N r with great actDen Koum WBNA *** Wow ang sites for rovdang laman l'1 ve v 8 un star of conter

LESSONS IN GREEK.-III. bap twone w UERR do ngela K. wenty feet in diameter; GENERAL REMARKS ON THE NOUN, THE ADJECTIVE, AND round the ramps. 42 directly over it is a

THE PREPOSITIONS.—THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. large vou ve slutade ut

v e le roes It is said that about thus grand p ulis thur ar a ty tigures or wols, and not less

GENDER. than 100 of them uns within the precincts of the excavations Vorys cr Sabstantives are names of objects or things which The way toplo (urli even on greater seale than now exist in space or in the mind. There are, in Greek, three charbed liut the teruples of Ellora, near Dowlatabad, are genders: the masculine, to denote the male sex; the feminine, rockoned the most surprising and extensive monuments of to denote the female sex; and the neuter (Latin Deuter, neither), an vient lluudeo architecture. They wenst of an entire hill to denote objects which are neither male nor female. The ervarutud m

of al seu ptuned and ornamented genders are distinguished partly by the sense and partly by Baumplus the number and 134*** of these subterranean the terminations of the nouns. There are terminations, for

til the extent and the 'ext.'***8 of prel, the entess direr instance, which denote the feminine gender, as m; there are Nily full the wulgaffallen te vakety of R s fouage of other terminations which denote the masculine gender, as as in minute Iracely, the holy wrot p in rek mythological the first declension ; and, again, there are others which denote tesi 1. hrane

sta l l both estomsh the nentor gender, as oy. This is a peculiarity to which we m i twot the DHT th

n It appears truly wonder have nothing similar in English adjectives. Those who have ful that much jedehnte dives Mar and skill should studied Latin are already familiar with it. In regard to gender Powmin frun time wraply 2 barbarus, without a trace to as denoted by the meaning, let the ensuing rules be committed toll mache hand by which they were designed, or the populous to memory. and powerful untien hy which they were produced. The courts 1. Of the masculine gender are the names of male beings, of of Intra, el Juggernaut Of Marasu Nama, and the Doomar' winds, of months, and of most rivers, as : Aarwy, Plato; 1 dr mana pun ar the nea's fiven to several of Zecupos, the west wind; ExaTouBawy, the month Hecatombæon; the

exation. The teatest admiration has been Evpatas, the river Eurotas. Heiland by the one rulle heylas, or Paradise, consisting of a 2. Of the feminine gender are the names of female beings, of fundet noe, merted from the rest, and hewn out of the trees, of lands, of islands, and of most cities, as :-Kopn, a girl; polent work, 100 feet high, and upwards of 300 feet in circum. opus, an oak ; Apkaðra, Arcadia ; Aeolos, Lesbos; Kolopuk, Bespoveren, m ely avered with mythological sculptures.

Colophon. 11.klo los exited temples of India, there are several 3. Of the neuter gender are the names of fruits, the dimint. Atletill ditt pene furms which may here be noticed. First, those

tive in ov (except the female proper name AEOVTLOV), the names to vprejemail til muna ar oblong enclosures ; secondly, temples in of the letters of the alphabet, the infinitives, all words not de. the Propin til lofth and thirdly, temples of a circular form.

clinable in the singular and the plural, and every word used of perpoleras till the lost him, the largest one remaining is that

merely as the sign of a sound. ve 1 pingelinti, tai Trinchinopoly. Tho circumference of the

4. Of the common gender are personal nouns which, like our wwi la anid tooted nearly four miles. The whole l chilil may be applied to male or female ; thus, Deos may be tretira u VHDL kuara onclosures, the walls being 350

used of a male or female divinity, and so be rendered either pod . linut from me he other in the innermost spacious square

or goddess, # fpeshonglot In the middle of each side of each enclosure

This “common gender" is a grammatical phrase used to ilihan in Hindaway under a lofty tower ; that in the outward

denote such nouns as are common to both males and females ; Jl when the future to the south, is ornamented with pillars of

that is, are sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine. rebrane thinly three feet long, and five feet in diameter.

In Greek grammar it is usual to employ the definite article, in an to wipe the morond kind-namely, those in the form of order to indicate the gender. The definite article, nominsure # Aniene wat reinarkablo is the great temple in the city of singola

e city of singular, is d, Ý, to, the; d is masculine, Ý feminine, and To TRY, Wh the innks of the

MA wa Chamank of the Ganges, which has been devoted neuter: a. therefore, put before a noun. intimates that we

Mohini M wolonce of the Hindoos from the earliest 1 noun is of the mascnline qender: n. that the noun is of us am Www Walory. The form of the temple is that of a feminine gender and to that it is of the nenter gender. w w w ampola in the centre, which towards the top If both & and ń are put before a noun, it is done to show tha

At the extremity of each branch of the the noun is of the common gender ; thus, & amp, the manj

of ournal length, there is a tower with yuyn. the woman : to covoy, the work : d. ń. Oeos, the male or MEGIONM is on the outside.

female) divinity; d, , mais, the child, whether boy or girl. lur form, the temple of Juggernaut is wetent in India ; the Brahmins attribute

NUMBER. w ret king on the coast of Orissa, who Number is a distinction of nouns founded on the circumWhat chronology, 4,800 years ago. The stance whether they denote one or more. If a noun denotes one object, it is in the singular number; if a noun denotes woman, being changed into nouxov before the neuter tekvov, more objarts than one, it is in the plural number. The Greek child. An adjective of three terminations may be seen in this tongue has a third number, called the dual (Latin duo, two), example :which denotes two objects; thus, Aoyos is a word (singular);

Masculine. Feminine.

Neuter. Aoyou, words (plural); norw, two words (dual); where os is the singular termination, ou the plural termination, and w the dual

ο αγαθος ανηρ, ή αγαθη γυνη, το αγαθον τεκνον, termination.

the good man. the good woman. the good child. CASE.

Some adjectives have only one termination, as MaKpOxeip, longThese terminations, os. on, w, undergo changes according to handed; anATWp, without a father. In declension, adjectives, the relation in which they stand to a verb, to another noun, or with a few exceptions, follow the forms of the substantives. to a preposition. Thus os may become ov, and ou may become

PREPOSITIONS. ous. Any word which is changed in form, to express a corre

Prepositions are words which go before nouns, and show the sponding change in sense, is said to be inflected. Such inflexions

relation which the nouns bear to the affirmation or negation or variations in the endings of nouns are termed cases. Tnere

made in the sentence, or the member of the sentence in which are in Greek five cases, namely

they stand. Of prepositions I shall treat in full hereafter. At 1. The Nominative, the case of the subject; as, marne

present some knowledge of them must be communicated, in Yoaden, the father writes

order to prepare the beginner for the following instructions. In 2. The Genitive, the case indicative of origin, whence; as, ó tov

the words Tarpos Úlos, the father's son.

πορευομαι προς 3. The Dative, the case indicative of place, where, and of the

τον πατερα, manner, and instrument; as, TQ TOV matpos úlą, to the father's

I go to the father, son.

the word apos, to, is a preposition. 4. The Accusative, the case of the object, or whither; as, o In Greek, prepositions govern either one case, two cases, or πατηρ τον υιον αγαπα, the father loves the son.

three cases, and may accordingly be classified thus:5. The Vocative, the case of invocation, or direct address; as,

PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING ayata, TaTEP, TOV úlov, father, love thy son.

One Case.

Two Cases. In Greek there is no ablative case; the functions of the abla

Three Cases. tive case are discharged, partly by the dative, and partly by the

Genitive.
genitive. The nominative and the vocative are called recti, Avti, in presence of, Ala, through. Aubi, about.
direct; the other cases are called obliqui, indirect.

instead of.
Kato, down.

Eti, upon.
Substantives and adjectives of the neuter gender have the Ato, from

'Trep, for.

Meta, with. nominative, the accusative, and the vocative alike, in the singu- | Ek, out of.

Tapa, from. lar, the plural, and the dual.

Eveka, on account of.

Nepi, concerning. The dual has only two case-endings; one for the nominative, Tipo, before, for the

Npos, with or from. accusative, and vocative, the other for the genitive and dative. I good of.

| 'TTO, by.

Dative.
DECLENSION.
Ev, in.

| Aupi, around. Declension is the classification of nouns and adjectives agree- uv, with.

Emi, on. ably to the variations of their case-endings. There are, in

Meta, amidst. Greek, three declensions ; called severally, the first, the second,

Mapa, by, near (of and the third declension. The learner will do well in regard to

rest). every noun and adjective, to ask himself, What is its nomina

TIepi, around. give? What is its case? What is its number? What is its

Ilpos, at (of rest). gender? What is its declension ? For instance, Tparecais is

Tro, under (of rest). from the nominative tpaneca, a table, is in the plural number,

Accusative. dative case, feminine gender, and of the first declension. In

| Audi and Nepı, about order to practise and examine himself fully, he should also form Ava, up.

Ara, because of.

En, to. or "go through” every notin, adjective, tense, mood, and indeed Eis, into.

Kata, down, through. Meta, after. every word capable of declension or conjugation, according to l'os, toward. 'Trep, over.

Tlapa, by the side of. the several models or paradigms given in the successive lessons.

Ilpos, to (of motion). THE ADJECTIVE.

'TTO, under (of moAn adjective denotes a quality. This quality may be con

tion). sidered as being connected with, or as being in an object, as "the A glance at this table will show that the case wh Ted rose;" or as ascribed to an object, as "the rose is red. In example a preposition is connected with, has much to do in both cases the adjective in Greek, as in Latin, is made to agree modifying its signification. Only by constant practice can the in form, as well as in sense, with its noun. A change takes exact meaning and application of the several prepositions be place in the adjective, conformably to the change in the signifi-known. The Latin student will, in this list, recognise words cation, thus, a good man is ayalos arnp, but a good woman is with which he is familiar; thus ek is the Latin ev; ev is the ayaon yurn. Observe the os of the masculine is for the feminine Latin in; apo is the Latin pro; ato is the Latin ab; Útep is the changed into n. Not only in gender, but in number and in case Latin super; and úro is the Latin sub. does the adjective in Greek, as in Latin, conform to its noun: Before I treat of the declension of nouns, I must give the 6.9., d ayatos arpatos, Latin, bonus homo, the good man; ó definite article, as it is so intimately connected with nouns that a OPWHOS EGTIY ayados, homo bonus est, the man is good; ý kalon the latter cannot well be set forth without the former; and as Movea, pulchra Musa, the beautiful Muse; ý Movoa erti kann, the article is often used as indicative of the gender of the noun. Musa pulchra est, the Muse is beautiful; to kalov cap, pul

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, 8, , to, the. chrum ver, the beautiful spring ; To çap erti kalov, ver pulchrum est, the spring is beautiful.

Singular. The adjective, then, like the substantive, has a threefold

Fem. Neut. English. gender—the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter. But many Nom.

the. adjee ives, such as compound and derivative, have only two ter Gen.

του της

of the. mirations ; one for the masculine and feminine, and another for Dat.

TW

τω

to or by the the neuter ; e.g.:

Aco.

την
Masculine
Feminine.
Neuter.

Plural.
Nom.

τα ο ήσυχος ανηρ, η ήσυχος γυνη, το ήσυχον τεκνον,

Gen. Twy των των

of the. the quiet man. the quiet woman. the quiet child.

Dat.

τοις

to or by the Here jouxos remains the same with amp, man, and yuun, I Acc.

τας

the.

Mas.

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του

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Dual.

Mont Cenis, the trains go along a series of zigzags, which are Nom. Aoc. Tota T

tbe.

really a succession of inclined planes, and thus the mountain Gen. Dat roo o

71 cf up to the chain is crossed. A driver, too, in driving a heavy load up & There is so fare for Tessite: . .ch is conmonly , steep incline will frequently cross from side to side of the road. used, is aa terject 1 Tarton tre arte i as well as

si as he goes up a less steep incline, and thus spares the horses. as the adjecate i se

p
harly, ,

How comes it, then, that this advantage is gained, and what Tw. . -. 2.2 SC

14 . , 73. Eat you

son proportion does the load bear to the power that raises it? We

? are perfecti

W ye ting you

a will try and solve these questions. Let A c represent a plane Dane stered USB TIT

T S - What is mcmned at me angle CAB; W 222 4. 4.2 e 21. 3. - * 23 tce Domin...,

is a weight resting on the plane ITO E . & c

. den you bare given an

D a sisen . and fastened to a cord which
"
ZEIT ZDE.
Be book, to ascertain

passes over the pulley D, and BNI TIS

- T

e sie in full 18 kept stretched by a power, From:UKT. S TULE : U : Le Toossei master

master P. The cord we will first sup. AL 2 ATE

U

strise sinca pose to be parallel to the sur2013.SLIS IL 30 Se sue as the

he face of the plane, and the

Fig. 77. power therefore acts in this

direction. Friction has, in practice, a great influence in a D: 43.335 3

33 33ZEK-II.

, case like this ; as, however, we shall speak about that shortly, IZ :

we will neglect it now, and suppose that the plane is per.

-252. - ,

fectly smooth, and that the weight is just kept in its position *2

:
SFL

by the action of P. We found in our third lesson that, if we

draw a line, G E, downwards from G, the centre of gravity of W, a "

e
** tuter. Toe are not

and make it of such a length as to represent the weight of w,
- 22 L S
2016 media in Il We fee 14

and then through E draw EF parallel to G D, and just long Bu ar m a t erialet

B. 15. I enough to meet the line G F, which is perpendicular to the vreme sve ovo i

a

- 10 " you in al sarface of the plane, that then EF represents in magnitude the : 4 4 . y We 2. 2 * i Smut ve] to power P. We have, in fact, a triangle of forces, the three sides u l.

10 pisu do out of which represent the three forces which act on the weight and .

: t. r her 2 Dime & If keep it at rest. But the angles of the triangle E F G are equal - -2. km

5. m3 sul 3 to those of the triangle C BA. This is easily seen, for the

angle E F G is equal to CBA, each being a right angle. GEF

is also equal to A CB; for, if we continue E F till it meets w wh

e re pedesaan 3 k ereta BC, we shall have a parallelogram, and these will be opposite che

press - W enko nadien ACB. angles, and so must be equal ; the third angles are equal too, a L. Sans See leser inte det 15. Es since G F and E G are perpendicular to A c and A B. The angles * Je ne

senas puses. Son about my moments a n d of one triangle are equal, then, to those of the other, and thereT his is in die

warm *mum 3 WA.X . tae . The fore the sides of the triangle E F G bear the same proportion to * mine on web wa s then

we wantin 24 one another that those of CBA do. Of this you can satisfy

yourself by actual measurement, and you will find the rule always hold good. The proper mode of proving it, you will

learn from Euclid. VOCH VIS-II.

The three sides of A B C represent, then, the three forces which

act on w; A c representing the weight, b c the power, and A B I UN'IN MEI

#
IS Z W .

the resistance of the plane, or the part of the weight which is ve taken te wees en el v te

l er supported by it. Hence we see that if the incline be 1 foot in wonder who wa si wi den

ind plaze, 20, a man in rolling a weight up will only have to support $ vegale sind be wen t a nto delle wil be found of it. who wants to wieder ve Wallstick what you wabukitus or We can easily arrive at this result in another way. Suppose

Ut wishes t uwa W ana mume useir, we & person wants to lift a weight of 200 pounds to a height at n d Westhuan' X y uit mond de tu terte, manely, one foot, he will have to exert a force of that amount if he lift it u pude en bu

1 straight up, and will then move it through just one foot. But w ww bhw w usta i no Aminal powers; if, instead of this, he moves it up this incline, when he has mund and bar we may all of your own 23, 20- passed over one foot in length of its surface, he will only have una venda bahay bao Ala r i and the ruised it of a foot, and will have to move it over the whole we wan t this and moni

*1.5 twenty feet of the plane in order to raise it the one foot. bead whawa ta '

to w turn That is, he will have to move it twenty times the space be en und wie bere shus M a yer i s as a would if he lifted it direct, and will therefore sustain only $ ww w bath

, ! 8 use of the weight at any moment. Still, he must sustain this wimbo what we way that's not

Y

ike portion twenty times as long. This supplies us with another c he anime we did re

i ns illustration of the law of virtna! velocities which we explained wa If there was no lotil sin n at eae in the last lesson.

Com e ushis wat ini sang?! t herla? The general rule for the gain in the inclined plane when the win d hu a

' Wat'l level power a 'ts in a direction parallel to it, may be stated as follows:uitend

du w tum in R . W peak of The power bears the same ratio to the weight it will sustain www box wil..

p of that the perpendicular elevation of the plane does to the lengte hawa baba n a

mna of its surface. me i wa Ma

t of one If the power, instead of acting along the plane, acts at an angle e fo r post to length to it, whether it be parallel with the base or in any other direcals th a t row

fimot. tion, as G K, we have merely to draw Eh parallel to the line of A LA WARE U indisation of the force, instead of parallel to the plane, and, as

before, we shall obtain a triangle of forces, the three sides of Samuoliai. Mamed by the which represent the three forces, and thus we can calculate the drva

. Pea 4*** *hery power required to support the weight. i, pia i rekawily, for If we have two inclined planes meeting back to back, like the u are ! Bil. Vt prank, letter V inverted, and a weight resting on each, the weigues ha bort stehen barned up being connected by a cord which passes over a fixed pulley af w a bww fwrmed oror the summit, we can see, from this principle, that there will be

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equilibrium when the weights bear the same proportion to each cord upon it, we shall have a screw, the spiral line traced out other as the lengths of the inclines on which they rest : for by the cord being called its thread. It is easy to see that the it is clear that, the steeper the plane, the less is the portion of thread has at every point the same inclination as the inclined the resistance borne by it. If, for example, one incline is 15 plane, and that a particle in travelling up the screw will pass inches long, and the other 21 inches, a weight of 5 pounds over the same distance as if it moved up the plane. on the former will balance one of 7 pounds on the latter. A screw, then, is a cylinder with a spiral ridge raised upon it; For, supposing the vertical height of the summit to be 6 inches, this ridge is sometimes made with a the portion of the force of 5 pounds which acts downwards, and square edge (Fig. 79 a), and then has tends to raise the other, is i of 5 pounds, which equals 2 more strength; but usually it is pounds; while the portion of the other which acts downwards is sharp, as seen in a common screw, of 7 pounds, which is also equal to 2 pounds.

and this way of making it reduces *This system of two inclines is often used in mining districts, | friction. a train of loaded trucks running down from the pit's mouth to | To use the screw, it is necessary | the staith, being made to drag a train of empty ones up the to have a hollow cylinder with a 10 incline. Many familiar instances of the use of the inclined groove cut on the inside of it (Fig. plane are met with every day, though they often escape notice, 79 b), so that the thread of the screw unless we are specially looking for them. Our knives, scissors, (Fig. 79 c) exactly fits into it, and the bradawls, chisels, needles, and nearly all cutting and piercing screw will rise or fall according to 1 tools, act on this principle. Those immense blocks of stone which way it is turned. This hollow placed across the top of upright pillars, which excite the surprise cylinder is called the nut or female of all visitors to Stonehenge, are believed to have been raised in screw. this way, by making an inclined plane and pushing them up on It is evident that, if we are to gain / rollers.

any power, the nut must not be al.

Fig. 79.
THE WEDGE.

lowed to turn together with the screw; We pass on now to notice the wedge, which essentially con

and hence we have different modes of using the screw, according sists of two inclined planes of small inclination placed with

as the screw itself or the nut is fixed. When used to fasten the their bases one against the other.

beams of a house together, or to strain the wire of a fence, the Sometimes one side only of the wedge is sloping, and it is

screw is prevented from rotating, and the nut turned by a then simply a movable inclined plane. In using this, it is so

wrench; the screw is thus drawn forward, and the required placed that it can only be moved in the direction of the length,

strain applied. In a carpenter's vice, on the other hand, the and the weight to be raised is likewise prevented from moving

nut is fixed, and the pressure applied by turning the screw. in any direction except vertically. If

The gain is in each case just the same, the difference being pressure be applied to the head of the

merely one of convenience in applying it. wedge, the weight will be raised. The

Now we shall easily be able to see the amount of power gain is the same here as in the in.

gained. If a particle be placed at the point of a screw and clined plane.

prevented from turning with it, it will, after one revolution of The wedge, however, usually con

the screw, have been raised through a distance equal to that sists of a triangular prism of steel,

between two threads of the screw, while any point in the cir. or some very hard substance, and is

cumference of the screw will have passed through a space equal used as shown in Fig. 78. The point

to that circumference. If, then, the power be applied at the is inserted into a crack or opening,

surface of the screw, it will bear the same proportion to the and the wedge is then driven, not by a

resistance that the distance between two threads of the screw constant pressure, but by a series of

does to its circumference. Fig. 78. blows from a hammer, or some similar

In practice, however, the power is nearly always applied at instrument. It is usual to consider

the extremity of a lever, as at d in Fig. 79 a, so that it becomes a the wedge as kept at rest by three forces--first, a pressure

combination of the lever and inclined plane. In a thumb-screw acting on the head of the wedge, and forcing it vertically down.

the flattened part acts as a lever, and when a screw is driven by wards, as at P; secondly, the mutual resistance of it, and the |

a screwdriver we usually grasp it at the broadest part, and obstacle which acts at right angles to the surface of the wedge,

thus gain a leverage. More commonly, however, a long lever is as at Rr; and thirdly, the force which opposes the motion, and P

put through the head of the screw. acts at right angles to the direction in which the object would

In all such cases we can easily ascertain the gain from the

fundamental principle of virtual velocities. Hence, we have the move, as at c. As, however, the resistance to be overcome varies very much

following rule :-Measure the circumference of the circle defrom moment to moment, both in direction and intensity, and as

scribed by the power, and divide this the force is usually supplied by impact or blows, and not by

by the distance between two threads pressure, such calculations afford very little help towards deter

of the screw; the result will be the mining the real gain.

mechanical gain. The other mechanical powers are usually employed in sustain.

Thus, if the power describe a circle ing or raising a weight, or offering a continuous resistance; a

whose circumference is 10 feet, and continuous force is therefore used with them. In the wedge,

the distance between two threads be the resistance to which it is applied is usually one which, when

inch, we have a gain of 10 feet Orice overcome, is not again called into play. In splitting timber,

divided by 4 inch, or 480. There is, for instance, when the wedge is driven in, the particles of timber

however, a difficulty here. We canare forced apart, their cohesion is overcome, and they do not

not easily measure the actual space join again. So in dividing large stones, when once a crack has

through which the power passes, nor been made through them, no continued application of force is

can we calculate it with absolute needed to keep them from re-uniting. When continuous force is

accuracy. It is, however, usually required, the wedge having been driven forward is kept from

near enough if we take the circum- 38 slipping back by friction.

ference as 37 times the diameter. As, then, we cannot calculate the force generated by a blow,

The fraction is more exactly 3:14159,

Fig. 80. we must be content with the general statement that the smaller

but you may always use 3without the angle of the wedge the greater is the power gained.

being far wrong. Thus, if the radius of a circle be 2 feet 6

inches, its diameter is 5 feet, and its circumference 37 times 5. THE SCREW.

feet, or about 15 feet 8 inches. We see then, now, how to This is the last of the mechanical powers, and, like the wedge, work a question like the following :-In the screw of a book. acts on the principle of the inclined plane. If we stretch a cord binder's press there are 3 threads to an inch, and a force of 10 Fo as to represent the slope of an inclined plane, and then, hold. pounds is applied to a lever 14 inches long. What force ar ing a ruler, or some cylindrical body, vertically, we roll up the the books pressed with ? The gain is 14 X 2 X 34 divideo

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SESS F IN ENGLISH.—XVI.

SUTYTIES (continued).
...- t wil help more to form an English heart
. . Mi l iers than the study of the English lan-

5 w rzeiy receive a single lesson on the growth
= =

= , V 23 scarcely follow up one of its - Tot is having unawares a lesson in English

LES Ict merely falling on some curious fact - 15:00 Se bat learning also how the great ...

K centre of that life was gradually

T a i thus grow, too, in our feeling 2T 1 Tc gratitude and reverence to it; we .

2. therefore more highly, what it

bequeathed us, all that it has - =

3s something for the children - - - - - - Canaan to enter upon the wells -- -- : 32 rineyards which they had not I.

ect sowed, and houses which they -TI grester a boon, how much more

SST De generation to enter upon the . -1° other generations by their

.: =. L a receptacle of choicest trea-
. . . . . D

o es vious wisdom, a fit organ
-
m

e distinctions, the most tender
5 - 2*3 ani the loftiest imaginations,
.

. . = can conceive. #
e
n

cupru larrel), cooper, coopery;
m .
**

, , smithy; and you see that
. -

my- wote a place where a certain . .

?

L i ar is the force of the ending ary * * ". 123. Ibinu), a bird-room; dormitory media

in-room; granary, a place for

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w omal tiger with an easy curiosity, as , ad we menigeria of the Tower."-Burke, “Regi

i

M egan the French menage, which is the origin

i are from the Latin manu, with the hand,

inz en tame, to keep in order. sosis

is formed the third person singular 20 mi of nouns; as, I read, he reads; ship, Vh 8 Wen an apostrophe precedes the s, as in

Prve case is intended-e.g., man's book; God's

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nation derived from the Latin iscus, through 10 ani de French esque, is found in grotesque and

te imtesque means distorted, unnatural, and hetero" ween the strange and extravagant figures which were 11 e gruttos or crypts of the ancient Romans.

**hii leous figure of their foes they drew,

Xines, por looks, nor shades, nor colours true,
Lad this gretera design exposed to public view."

Dryden. term is that which makes a picture, or may enter into a

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was Rana

semw properly means what is done in the style and with the per yazabar, Stewart, “ Philosophical Essays."

reberite from the Latin ix, the feminine of or; as adjator, a Boia: sintris, a female helper, converts masculins nouns

02 2203 abbot, abbess; actor, actress; prince, princess. na verda sutfix, forming the second person singular of the

a parte: as read, readest. It finds corresponding termina****0% thes of the Latin, as legis, thou readest; and the st of w Service s bærnst, thou burnest. This suffix is rapidly be

Ro ete, since the second person singular of the verb i

• Trench “On the Study of Words,“ pp. 25, 26.

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