« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
25 now take an illustration of this rule, by an example connected | Debtor to my Customer, for what I receive, and Robert Brown with the former : Feb. 15th, 1863, Robert Brown, a customer of becomes my Creditor for what he has given away. I must mine, paid me, or I received from him, £100 for Cotton sold to accordingly enter his name and an account of this transaction in him on the 15th of January last. Here, I the Merchant become my books, that is, in the Cash-book, in the following manner:-
This entry in the Cash-book would be transferred to the Journal, at the time when it was made up, as follows:-
Again, this entry in the Journal would be posted into the Ledger, as in the following examples :(Folio 2.)
Dr. 1863. do Feb. 15 To Robert Browa.
In the first entry here from the supposed Ledger, the form of book called the Cash-Book ; but this system we would by no the account and the entry itself are exactly the same as in the | means recommend. Cash-Book. Nor can this be otherwise ; for the Cash-Book is In the second entry above from the supposed Ledger, we have merely an abstraction of the Cash Account from the Ledger as combined the former transaction with the present, in order to kept on the old Italian system, for the sake of the division of show how matters are settled between the Merchant and his labour; so that the Cashier may have only this Account to Customer. The account of Robert Brown in the Ledger is now attend to in a large establishment; while the Bookkeeper attends considered closed or balanced ; and may be considered as struck to the other Accounts. In small concerns, the Cash Account may off, unless he renews transactions with the Merchant by fresh still be kept in the Ledger, instead of being kept in a separate / purchases and subsequent payments.
READING AND ELOCUTION.—XVI. | effect of song, as differing from speech. The resemblance is
owing solely to the brevity of sound, in such cases, which does ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued).
not afford time for broad and marked distinctions to be drawn IX. JUST STRESS.
by the ear. The next characteristic of good reading and speaking is just The modes of voice which constitute speech, or are exemplified "stress." This word is meant to designate a peculiar modifica- in reading, are the following:tion of force, which distinguishes speech from music. A long. I. RADICAL STRESS.--This form of force includes two modes drawn musical sound has its most forcible part-in consequence - " explosion" and "expulsion.” of “gwell” and “ diminish”--at the middle portion of the note. 1. Explosion” is an abrupt and instantaneons barst of voice The tones of speech, on the contrary-although, in a few cases, --as, for example, in violent anger. they approach to this mode of voice-usually have the chief This being an instinctive, unconscious, involuntary, impulsive force of eacb sound at the opening or the closing part. In music, emotion, does not allow time or disposition for any intentional the increase of force is comparatively gradual; in speech and or deliberate effect, but makes the creation of vocal sound seem reading, it is frequently abrupt. To these distinctive modes of an irrepressible, spontaneous, electric production of nature, voice the term "stress" is applied.
lying equally out of the reach of the understanding and the To understand the application of this term in detail, it be- will. This tone has its contrast in the deep, calm, and regular comes necessary to advert to the mode of creating vocal sounds. swell of the tone of reverence, or the ample volume, and deliberate In vocal music the result is obtained by full "inspiration force of conscions authority and command, in which the speaker (inbaling or drawing in the breath), and comparatively slight is self-possessed and self-directed, and controls his vocal effects expiration" (giving forth the breath). In this mode, much for purposes understood or felt. breath is drawn in, much retained or withheld, and little given
Contrast, for instance, the following angry shout of Douglas out at a time; and thus are produced those smooth, pure, and when enraged by the defiance of Marmion, with the 'examples gradually-increasing tones which are appropriate to music--all of reverential invocation and authoritative command which occur the breath that is given forth being converted into sound, and in the subsequent paragraphs. bone escaping that is not vocalised. In notes of very short duration, singing and speech are, it is true, brought nearer to
Example of " Explosion." a resemblance. But this resemblance is more apparent than I UP DRAWBRIDGE ! GROOM! What, WARDER, HO'!
Let the PORTCU'LLIS FALL! real; as may be observed in the execution of every good singer, which, in the most rapid passages, still produces the genuine The sounds of all the accented vowels, in this style, fall upon
the car with an instantaneous, clear, scarp. arp, eng mas, in the tone of surprise, which is syke by force, at the initial or "radical part of each.
“upward slide," beginning very low, and ending very big, the 2. “ Expulsion”-a consmoas, intentional, and deberate voice strikes with peculiar force on the first and last year force, coming upon the ear with grea: pomer; as, for exampie. the side, in order to stamp it more distinctly on the se, s te in the language of authoritate cu d.
Tehicle of intense emotion. A striking example aga on Erame of * E.-. 'sion."
the language of Queen Constance, in the situation stand Vanguard! to right and left the front wnfold! **
before, when overwhelmed with astonishment at the pets ske In this style, bold and forcible as it is, and even sudden as
has just received. is its commencement, the accented vowels do not startle the
Example of " Compound Stress." (ar with the abrupt shock of the tone of anger, exemplified
Gone to be married! gone to swear a peace! above. There is a partial, thoazh Tery brief, swell, perceptible
Gone to be friends! in the “ radical,” or initial part of each sound. Both of the V. THOROUGH STRESS.—This designation is appled to that preceding examples are classe undor the head of radical species of force which marks all the forms of "stress" — radical," stress: as their chief force lies in the radical” or first part of "medial," and " vanishing”—with intense power, on the same each sound
sound, so as to cause the character of all to be deeply felt, a II. MEDIAL STRESS.--This mode of force is exhibited in in a bold shout, or any other very impressive form of voice.
1. “ Effusion”-a moderate, gentle, and gradual swelling of which indicates intense emotion. tone-as, for example, in the calm and tranquil utterance of
Example of " Thorough Stress." reverential feeling, in which no disturbing impulse agitates or
Awakel arise ! or be for ever fallen! forces out the breath, but the voice, somewhat as in music, 1 In this shout of the arch-fiend to his fallen host, the tone, it glides out, with a smooth effusive stream of sound, enlarging as will be perceived, is not that of mere volume or quantity, of it flows, but never bursting out into irregalar violence.
mere loudness or physical force, as in the mechanical act of Example of "Fusion."
calling, or the voice of a public crier. It has the wide “falling But chiefly Thon, 0 Spirit! that dost prefer,
inflection” of authority and command, and the forcible “ radical" Before all temples, the upright heart and pure,
stress and “expulsive" utterance of courage; and to preserve Instruct me, for thou knowest
the effect of all these, it must not only begin and close riid,
but exhibit a "medial ” “ swell,” and a distinot “vanish." It The "offusivo" stylo avoids everything abrupt or sudden in the formation of sound, and swella gradually to its "aomé”
must, in other words, give distinctive force and character to the
beginning, the middle, and the end of each accented sound. (chief point), at the middle of each sound in the manner of
VI. INTERMITTENT STRESS, OR TREMOR.—The “tremor, musio; and from this point " diminishes," or decreases, to the clone. This species of "stressis sooordingly denominated
(trembling) or “intermittent” stress, takes place in the atter
ance of all those emotions which enfeeble the voice, by their "medial," from the Latin worl medious, the middle
overpowering effect on feeling; as, for example, in feer and 2. "Suppression"- a powerful force of "explosion" or "ex.
This mode of utterance
grief, and sometimes joy, when extreme. pilnion," kept down in the very w of giving forth the voice,
characterises also the feeble voice of age, or the tone of a and converted into the "modial" form, as in the case of a
| person shivering with cold. person communioating, in great carnostness of foeling, with
Examples of the former will be found in the section of another, standing at a distance, and yet exceedingly anxious
“Expressive Tones.” Of the latter we have instances in the not to be heard by a third person, still further off; or, as in
language both of the old woman and the farmer in Wordswortis the tone of extremo oarnostness, uttered by the watcher in the ballad. * Goody Blake and Harry Gill.” chamber of a wiok person.
She prayed, her withered hand uprearing,
While Harry held her by the arm-
S“God! who art never out of hearing, John to hear what I am maying!
2 Oh! may he never more be warm!" Stop softly! sponk low ! make no noise !
No word to any man he utters,
Abed or up to young or old; This modo of voice may be termed a "half whisper;" it is
But ever to himself he mutters, the "aspiratod" and "impore" tone, which lies half way be
"Poor Harry Gill is very cold!" tween the ordinary tone of the voice and a whisper. It is caused by allowing a vast quantity of broath, not * vocalised," to rush out along with the sound of the voice. It is, in fact,
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY-XVI. "explosion," or "expulsion," merged, as it were, or drowned in a stream of "axpiration," and made to assume the style of PROBLEM XXXVIII.-To describe a circle which shall touch “modial stress."
three given straight lines. III. Vanishing Stress.--Besides the "radical," or initial, Let x, y, z (Fig. 57) represent the three given straight lines ; and the "modial," or middlo, "stross," there is also a "vanish- it is required to draw a circle ing,” or final "stress," which begins softly, swells onward, and touching the three given bursts out suddenly, and loaves off abruptly, at the very close of straight lines X, Y, Z. If the a sound, as in the jerking termination of the tone of impatient given straight lines do not feeling.
form a triangle, let them be Thus, in the language of maddened impatience, as uttered by produced both ways, if nemnen Constance, in her frenzy of grief and disappointment, atcessary, until they form the Byer overthrow of all her hopes for her son, in consequence of triangle A B C, as shown by to po prace formed between France and England :
the dotted lines in the figure.
Bisect the angle A B C by the
straight line BD, and the B
angle A C B by the straight
Fig. 57. Fibong of this class the voice withholds its force, and delays | line CD, and let these lines ** Wideruar tre expulsion till the last moment of the emphatic intersect in the point D. Then from the point o draw De per
hunt throws it out with an abrupt, wrenching force, pendicular to BC, and from D as a centre, with the radius DE,
that of a stone suddenly jerked from the hand describe the circle EFG. The circle EFG touches the given
BPT , ha it lies at the “ vanish," or last point of straight lines x, y, z in the points E, F, G. The resnlt would be olding the "Vanishing stress.”
the same no matter what two angles of the triangle are biserted ERA, --The designation of "compound in order to obtain the point D, or to what side of the triangle à
**** mode of forming tones which throws perpendicular is drawn from d in order to obtain the radius di hoppas
ha in such a manner as to mark, with of the required circle, as shown in the figure.
"wical" and the “ vanish," or the begin in the way they, MT Amaly sanontod or emphatic sound, Marial" and the “ vanish,” or the begin. By this problem we are taught how to inscribe a circle in any
given triangle, the construction adopted being precisely the
pt 4 mode of forming tone
in ons in such a manner as
same as that which has been described above; and by Problem | D E F on the right of the straight line x y that passes through XXXVI. in the last lesson (page 49), which teaches us how to their centres. The dotted lines G L, HD, D a, and AG show draw the circumference of a circle through any three points how the tangent may be drawn to the left of the straight line that are not in the same straight line, it is plain that we are xy. The straight lines A D, B E, with the arcs A X B, D Y E, shown how to describe a circle about any given triangle ; for to show the position of an endless band passing over the wheels do this the circle must pass through the three points in which or drums A B C D E F. the three straight lines (which form the sides and angles of the Now let it be required to draw a tangent to the given circles triangle) meet.
| A B C D E F, crossing the indefinite straight line x y that passes In making drawings of machines and machinery, the geome- through their centres G and H. From the point c in the direc
trical draughtsman will find it necessary tion of y, set off along c y the straight line C N equal to F H,
to know how to draw circles of different the radius of the circle D F E. The straight line G N is then A radii touching each other with the manifestly equal to the sum of the radii of the given circles,
utmost nicety externally and internally, / being made up of G C, the radius of the circle A B C, and on, and to draw tangents to two circles, which has been made equal to FH, the radius of the circle as when it is desired to represent in D F E. From the centre G, with the radius G N, describe the section the course of an endless band or arc O N P, and from , the centre of the circle D F E, draw 1 O
belt of leather which passes round two touching the arc ON P in the point o. Join G o, cutting the x wheels or drums, and transmits motive circumference of the circle A B c in the point Q; and through
power from one to the other. This the point o draw Q R parallel to ho. The straight line Q R is brings us to the next two problems. a tangent to the two given circles A BC, D E F. The same result
PROBLEM XXXIX.—To draw a circle may be obtained by drawing I R through the point n, parallel with a given radius touching another to Go, and joining the points Q and R. The straight line Q e given circle externally or internally in a has been drawn as a tangent to the given circles A B C D E F, given point.
crossing the straight line x y that passes through their centres, TK
Let ABC (Fig. 58) be the given circle; from left to right; the dotted lines 1 P, P G, ST, and T I show Fig. 58. it is required to draw two circles with how the tangent may be drawn crossing x y from right to left.
the given radius x, one touching the The straight lines Q R, S T, with the arcs Q A BS, T DE R, show given circle A B C internally in the given point a, and the other the position of a crossed endless band passing over the wheels externally in the given point c.
or drums A B C D EF. First, let us take the circle that is to touch the given circle The effect of crossing the endless band is to make the wheels internally in the point A. Find D, the centre of the given circle or drums over which it passes revolve in contrary directions. In A BC. Join AD, and produce it, if necessary, to meet the cir- the first case, when the band forms tangents to the wheels on cumference of the given circle A Bc in the point E. Along A E both sides of the line that joins their centres, the wheels revolve set off AF equal to the given radius x, and from the centre F, in the same direction, that is to say, by the action of the band the at the distance FA, describe the circle A G H, which touches the wheels revolve, so that a point B, on the circumference of the given circle A BC internally in the given point A.
wheel A B C, is carried round towards A, and a point E on the cirTo describe a circle with the given radius x, touching A B C cumference of the wheel D E F is carried round towards D, the externally in the point c. Find D, the centre of the given strap being supposed to move in the direction of the arrows circle A BC. Join Dc, and produce it indefinitely towards K. placed near the letters A, D, E, B. In the second case, when Set off along c k the straight line CL equal to x, and from the band forms tangents to the wheels crossing the line that as centre, with the distance L c, describe the circle CMN, which joins their centres, a point o in the circumference of the wheel
touches the given circle A B C A B C would be carried round towards 8, and a point r in the externally in the given point c. circumference of the wheel D E F would be carried round towards
PROBLEM XL. – To draw a R, the strap being supposed to move in the direction indicated tangent to any two given circles. by the arrows placed near the letters Q, R, T, s.
A straight line may be drawn The circles K L M, D E F are called concentric circles because touching any two given circles they are described from the same centre, H, and for the same either on one side of the straight reason the arcs A C B, O N P are called concentric arcs. line that passes through and Fig. 59 suggests the method of drawing a circle of a giver. joins the centres of the circles, radius to touch two given straight lines. Let LG, MG, proor crossing this line. First, let duced indefinitely to a and b, represent the two given straight us take the case in which the lines, and z the radius of the required circle. In ga take any tangent to the given circles is point u, and through u draw u w at right angles to G a. required to be on one side of Bisect the angle a qb formed by the straight lines G a, Gb the straight line that joins their (produced to meet in g if necessary) by the straight line G Y, centres.
and set off along the straight line u W, U V equal to z. Then Let A B C D E F (Fig. 59) be the through v draw v u parallel to G a, and meeting Gy in 1. given circles. Draw an indefinite Then from the point as centre, with a radius equal to z, straight line x y, passing through describe the circle K L M. This circle touches the given straight
and joining the centres, G and lines G a, Gb in the points M and L. TY a
H, of the given circles, and also PROBLEM XLI.-To draw a tangent through any point in a
passing through the point c in given arc, when it is inconvenient to determine the centre of Fig. 59.
the circumference of the circle the circle of the circumference of which the given arc is a part.
ABC, and the point F, in the cir. Let ABC (Fig. 60) cumference of the circle D E F. From the point F in the straight be the given arc, and c line X y, set off F K equal to G C, the radius of the circle A B C. the given point through The remainder K 1 of the straight line Fu, the radius of the which it is required to circle D E F, is manifestly the difference of the radii of the draw a tangent to the given circles. With K as radius, from the point I as centre, arc A BC. Through c des ribe the circle K L M, and from the point a, the centre of the draw any straight line circle A B C, draw the straight line GM touching the circum-or chord c A, cutting
Fig. 60. ference of the circle K L M in the point M. Join um, and the arc in the points A prodace it to cut the circumference of the circle D F E in the and c. Bisect Ac in D, and through a draw Dr at right angles point E, and through E draw E B parallel to GM. The straight to A C. Join B C, and at the point B in the straight line c B line E B is a tangent to the two given circles A B C D E F. The make the angle C B E equal to the angle DC F or E C B. Then same result may be obtained by drawing G B through the point g, through a draw the straight line x 1 paralel to B E. The parallel to I E, and joining the points B and E. The straight line straight line x y is a tangent to the arc A B C, and it is drawn B E has been drawn as a tangent to the given circles ABC, through the given point c, as required.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
acquittal of the innocent, and vouchsafed to them the greatest
friendship. 9. The enemy (say, enemies) stormed the town and Det hot verrathë an'geklagt, entging' Accused of high treason, he laughed at the supplicants, who besought them to have pity on e bem Kerfer nur durch die escaped the prison only by them. Flucht.
flight. Beleb're mich eines Bessern, wenn du Teach me (convince me of) a fannst. better, if you can.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Sie bemach'tigten fich deß Räubers, They seized the robber who had ter den Saufmann seines Geldes robbed the merchant of his
EXERCISE 11 (Vol. I., page 68). beraubt' yatte. money.
1. Is your friend, the captain, still a young man? 2. Yes, he is Gr befann sich eines Bessern, um He bethought himself of a
still young, but his good friend, the Dutchman, is old. 3. Have you nicht einer Un'wahrheit bezüch'tigt better course in order not to
a beautiful great dog? 4. No, I have a beautiful great horse. 5. Has
your little child my new knife ? 6. No, but your good son has your zu werden. be accused of an untruth.
new stick. 7. Has the butcher a fat sheep? 8. Yes, and his good Mein Sohn hat mich alles Geldes My son has stripped me of all
son has a beautiful white lamb. 9. Is your friend, the young Dutch. entblößt'.
man, rich or poor? 10. He is not rich, but he is contented. 11. Gutbe bet mich dieser trau'rigen Relieve me of (from) this sad A contented man is also rich. 12. A rich man is not always a Bflicht! duty.
contented man. 13. Your great house has a steep roof and a deep Der Gerech'te erbarmt sich seines The righteous (man) is merciful cellar. 14. From whom have you your new sofa? 15. I have it from Sicbea. to his beast.
a good friend, 16. The pig is a lazy fat animal. 17. A true friend is Grinnere dich der vielen Wohl'thaten, Remember the many good deeds
a strong protection. tie ich dir erwies'. (favours) that I have shown
EXERCISE 12 (Vol. I., page 94). you. Geben te beines Freundes selbst in Remember thy friend even in
1. Have you my ripe fruit? 2. No, I have your silver fruit-knife,
and your old friend, the teacher, has the ripe fruit. 3. Have you my weiter Ferne! remote distance.
silver pencil? 4. No, the good teacher has it. 5. Has the old cook Drobc, wie du willst, ich lache deiner. Threaten as thou wilt, I will
my wooden table? 6. No, the joiner has it, but the cook has a laugh at thee.
marble table. 7. Has he also a wooden cask ? 8. Yes, and this diliNach gesche bener Arbeit fam man After completed (taken place) gent scholar has a beautiful leaden inkstand. 9. Has he also a silver ter Kuhe pflegen.
toil, we can indulge in (the) cup? 10. Yes, and he has also a copper kettle and an iron mortar. repose.
11. Have you my young friend's new knife ? 12. No, I have a new Biele tühmen sich großer Thaten, die Many boast themselves of great
knife from the good merchant. 13. Has this diligent scholar the old fie niemals vollbracht haben. deeds which they have never
friend's good book, or his good cousin's silver pencil? 14. He has
neither a good book nor a silver pencil-he has only a wooden pencil. accomplished.
15. Where is the cook's copper kettle? 16. The poor man has only an leberlebe mich der Noth'wendigkeit, Exempt me from the necessity
iron kettle. sich zu ftrafen. of punishing thee.
EXERCISE 13 (Vol. I., page 94). The ich mich eines Schlages verseh'en Before I had expected a blow,
hatte, lag ich schon zu Boben ges I was already felled (lay 1. Hat sie mein reifes Obst? 2. Der alte Koch, hat meinen filbernen ftredt'.
stretched) to the ground.' Bleistift. 3. Hat er auch ein neues Messer ? 4. Der gute Kaufmann hat Er war so ftolz, daß er mich feines He was so proud that he did einen alten marmornen Tisch. 5. Er hat weber ein golrenes Obstmeijer, Blides wür bigte.
not youchsafe to me a look. noch einen silbernen Becher. 6. Der Sommer ist eine goldene Zeit. 7. Der
| fleißige Tischler hat den eisernen Kessel des Koch. EXERCISE 96.
EXERCISE 14 (Vol. I., page 94). 1. Sie erinnern (5 86. 1, 2) fich wohl noch des jungen Mannes, ber
1 1. Is this young lady's young sister in Germany?
2. No, she is in tur vorigen Jahre tes Raubes angeklagt war. 2. Er war beschuldigt, einen France, but her brother is in America. 3. Where is my new gold pen? reichen Biebhändler auf der Lantstrafe seines Geldes beraubt zu haben. 4. Your young friend Miss S. has it. 5. Has your mother the beautiful 3. Man fonnte ihn jedoch dieses Verbrechend nicht überführen. 4. Gr hatte silk of your aunt? 6. Yes, and also the beautiful fine linen. 7. Where fio bereits aller Hoffnung einer Freisprechung begeben, und sich des Getan. are [ist] your gold spectacles? 8. I have no gold spectacles. 9. Have fend entschlagen, für unschultig erklärt zu werden. 5. Der Richter jet och you a silver or gold watch? 10. I have a silver watch. 11. Is it a enthob ihn aller Sorge. 6. Nachdem er den Angeklagten aufgefortert hatte,
good watch? 12. Yes, but it is not very beautiful. 13. Where is your nur gutes Muths zu sein, und sid, alles Kummers zit entschlagen, erklärte
watch? 14. It is in my watch-pocket. 15. Has your sister a gold tr: Jó bin der vollen Meinung, daß man diesen jungen Mann nicht des
watch? 16. Yes, and she has also a beautiful gold chain, 17. Where
are my new scissors? 18. I have them, but they are not very sharp. Raubes bezüchtigen kann. 7. Denn nicht jeder, der sich tes Betterns
19. Where is your sister? 20. She is with her mother in the library. sämt, und aller Mittel entblößt ist, wird ein Räuber. 8. Ich fann seines
"* | 21. Where is my glass lamp? 22. I have it. 23. Who has my new Betragens lobend erwähnen, denn er hat sich immer eines ordentlichen Lebens opera-glass? 24. I have it, and your new spectacles. beflijjen. 9. Id erinnere euch aber an seine Thaten im leßten Kriege, beren er sich mit Recht rühmen fann. 10. Freuet euch seiner Freisprechung,
EXERCISE 15 (Vol. I., page 94). und mirtiget ihn eurer Freundschaft. 11. Spottet seiner nicht, weil er im
1. Die Mutter dieser Dame ist in Franfreich. 2. Hat die schöne Todter Kerter war, sondern erbarmt euch vielmehr seiner, und gebenfet seiner Leiden. 12. Jeder, der seiner lacht, schäme fich seines cigenen Betragens.
3. Mein fleißiger Bruter hat weder der guten Tante eine goldene Uhr?
13. Alle Anwesenden freuten sich dieser Rebe, und man entledigte augenblidlich
eine geltene Uhr noch ein gutes Opernglas. 4. Meine gute Schwester bat ten Ungeklagten seiner Fesseln.
5. Mein feine feine Leinwant, aber sie hat eine neue gläserne Lampe. 14. Leber und deine Wege, o Herr! und beraube uns nicht beiner Gnade!
schönen Bruder in der Better mit der goldenen Brille ist bei meinem 15. Ich bin Willens ($ 128), im näch. filen Sommer ein Bab - zu besuchen. 16. Ich kann durchaus nicht ter
Bibliothek Ansiót sein, daß man nach Tische der Ruhe nicht pflegen sollte. 17. Wer
EXERCISE 16 (Vol. I., page 102). fic des Lebens freut, soll sich auch des Sterbens erinnern. 18. Als General
1. Has the Frenchman the German's wine? 2. Yes, and the GerTitiy fich der Stadt Magteburg bemächtigt hatte, lachte er der Flehenden, man has the Frenchman's cloth. 3. What has the Russian? 4. He welche ihn baten, sich ihrer zu erbarmen.
has the country of the Pole. 5. This Greek is no friend of the Turk.
6. Who has the sharp knife of this boy? 7. The friend of this Greek EXERCISE 97.
has it. 8. Have you your nephew's writing-desk? 9. No, I have my
father's writing-desk. 10. Have you this boy's book, or his ne 1. In former times the people knew not how to read, much paper ? 11. I have the boy's book, and my niece has the nephew's less to write. 2. I am willing to visit next summer the baths of
| paper. 12. Is our friend, the captain, a Frenchman or a Greek? 13. Homburg and Laubach. 3. When Louis Philippe, King of the
Ho is a Frenchman, and a great enemy of the Russian. 14. Is this French, had abdicated his throne, he went with his whole family
child a son of our neighbour, the merchant ? 15. No, he [it] is the
son of a Jew, and his father is the neighbour of a Christian. 16. A to England. 4. Some kings have little reason to boast of their
lively countenance is not always the sign of a quiet conscience. 17. reigning. 5. The Emperor Charles V. gave up his crown and went
Have you the count's book? 18. No, but the prince has the book, into a convent. 6. It becomes a man better to be studious of 19. Tho life of a soldier is fatiguing and unsafe. 20. Have you a his actions, than to boast of his abilities. 7. I will relieve my-monarchy or a republic? 21. America has no prince, but liberty. self of all business, and enjoy a quiet life. 8. He rejoiced at the 22. I have a gold watch, and you havo a silver pencil.