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PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. -I. ANTIQUITY OF FREEDOM. effects do hold a real relation to each other. We spoke of [Marked for Rhetorical Pauses, in poetry.]

LAH passing (by change of movement) from the "abandonment" Here are old trees, tall onks | and gnarléd pines,

of sorrow to the "abandonment" of joy. We have now seen That stream' with gray-green mosses; here | the ground

the mental effect of DOH, ME, and son passing from the "digWas never trenched by spade; and flowers / spring up! nified and solemn" to the "bold and decisive," and, by using a Unsown, and die ungathered. It is sweet |

yet quicker movement still, we may find these same notesTo linger here, among the flitting birds,

never, mark you, passing into that emotional character which And leaping squirrels, wandering brooks, and winds

belongs to TE, RAY, FAH, and LAH, but-expressing that bold That shake the leaves, and scatter, as they pass,

hearty laughter “holding both its sides," of which Milton A fragrance from the cedars, thickly set!

wrote and Handel sung.
With pale blue berries. In these peaceful shades,
Peaceful, unpruned, immeasurably old, -

KEY F.
My thoughts go up the long 'dim' path of years,
Back ' to the earliest days of Liberty.

O FREEDOM ! thou art not, as poets 'dream,
A fair young girl, with light and delicate limbs.'
And wavy tresses | gushing from the cap i

di : s m With which the Roman master crowned hs slave ||

: When he took off the gyves. A bearded man,

Haste thee, nymph!
Armed to the teeth, art thou; one mailed hand ||
Grasps the broad shield, and one the sword; thy brow,
Glorious in beauty | though it be, is scarred ||
With tokens of old wars; thy massive limbs
Are strong with struggling. Power | at thee has launched
His bolts, and with his lightnings 'smitten thee;

:1. t di : d : 1 They could not quench the life thou hast from heaven.

thee, nymph, and bring with thee
Merciless power | has dug thy dungeon deep,
And his swart armourers, by a thousand fires,
Have forged thy chain ; yet, while he deems thee bound,
The links are shivered, and the prison walls!
Fall outward; terribly thou springest forth,
As springs the flame' above a burning pile,

S.S :1.tld? :

:S And shoutest to the nations, who return

Jest and youth - ful jol · li

And Thy shoutings, while the pale oppressor flies.

Thy birthright was not given ' by human hands :
Thou wert twin-born ' with man. In pleasant fields,
While yet our race was few, thou sat'st with him,
To tend the quiet flock | and watch the stars,
And teach the reed to utter simple airs.
Thou | by his side, amid the tangled wood,

8.8 :8.8 s.m:d .d?: d'.d'ld.s:m Didst war upon the panther and the wolf,

langh-terbo His only foes; and thou' with him ' didst draw

• • The earliest furrows' on the mountain side, Soft ' with the deluge. Tyranny himself,

The laughter having thus commenced with the last phraze, Thy enemy, although of reverend look,

which is repeated in the other parts " also, next changes to Hoary' with many years, and far obeyed,

another key (that of the sub-dominant), but still keeping DOH, Is later born' than thou; and I as he meets

SOH, ME, as its accented notes. It afterwards falls into laughter The grave defiance of thine elder eye,

of a different style, which is more musical, perhaps, but not 30 The usurper / trembles | ic his fastnesses.

open and hearty. Enough of the example is given to show the Oh! not yet!

character of DOH, ME, and son in rapid movements. May'st thou unbrace thy corslet, nor lay by

We trust that our pupils will study all these examples with Thy sword; nor yet, О Freedom ! close thy lids: In slumber; for thine enemy | never sleeps,

great care, and practise them well. They could not have better And thou 'must watch and combat || till the day

exercises for voice or ear. An earnest endeavour to study the Of the new earth' and heaven. But wouldst thou rest

mental effect of notes will very greatly increase the power of Awhile from tumult' and the frauds of men,

singing those notes with accuracy. These old ' and friendly solitudes | invite

1. The most perfect consonance (or sounding together) of any Thy visit. They, while yet the forest trees

two notes, is that of two which are octaves to one another 45 Were young' upon the unviolated earth,

DOH and DOH', son and son', etc. The notes agree so " per And yet the moss-stains' on the rock were new,

fectly" as to be constantly regarded as the same. The 001Beheld thy glorious childhood, and rejoiced.-Bryant.

sonance which stands next in the order of agreement is that of

the fifth-DOH with soh, RAY with LAH, ME with TE, SOH with LESSONS IN MUSIC.-X.

RAY', and lay with ME TE with Fall is an imperfect fifth. MENTAL EFFECT-CONSONANCE OF NOTES, ETC.

Approaching to this in “perfectness" of concord, is the fourth

DOI with FAH, RAY with soH, ME with LAH, SOH with DOH', THE peculiar character of the note Me in connection with a

LAH with RAY', and TE with MEP FAR, TE, is an augmented rather quick movement is strikingly illustrated by the opening fourth. But it is not the most "perfect" consonance that is the of the song in the Messiah, “He was despised," in which the

most pleasing. For the production of pleasure and beauty in singer does not, for the moment, express sympathy with the

music, as in all other fine arts, there is needed a certain variety despised one, but rather seems passingly to personate the in unity-a certain difference blending with agreement. Hence despiser. As you sing, lessen the accent to DOH, and throw a

it is that the most pleasing consonance of the scale is that of fuller force of voice on ME.

the third-DOH with ME, RAY with FAH, ME with son, etc. The KEY EV. M. 52. Quickly.

first, third, and fifth of the scale-DOH, ME, SOH-form, when sounded together, the most delightful union of sounds that is known. A consonance of three or more notes is called & “ chord.”

2. Try each of the above consonances in order, either by the

help of a friend or with some musical instrument. You will d:-1-:ti m ir

thus be aided in forming a kind of personal acquaintance with was de - spis - ed

the notes. You will be enabled to individualise them, and to W. remarked in the last lesson the striking change in the recognise by the ear their mental effect. | effect of a note produced by rapidity of movement, and 3. The ancient and well-known tune, “Prospect," is intro,

that, though seemingly opposed, these double mental duced to illustrate still further the qualities of DOH, ME, and

He

SOH. The pupil will notice that it has a soft and gentle opening, softer expression again. As the pupil learns to appreciate these which exhibits the properties of ME, relieved by those of FAH, points, and to notice them for himself, his taste will insensibly and enlivened by son. In the fifth line there is a most beauti- improve, and with his taste his "execution.” Study in every ful awakening to bolder and brighter sounds, in which son and possible way the various points of beauty and expression of upper Dou play their part, and then the music returns to the which your music is capable.

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“OH, MAKE AND KEEP ME THINE!” WORDS TO BE SUNG TO THE TUNE “PROSPECT." 1. Lord, who hast bled and died for me,

2. Oft have I vowed that I would give 3. Yet turn, oh, turn me, gracious God! I thankfully resign To thee my mortal days;

And leave me not to die;
All that I am and have, to be
That to thine honour I would live,

From the vile paths which I have trod
Now and for ever thine.
And, dying, speak thy praise.

I would for ever fly.
Take thou possession of my soul,
But ah! how oft my vows I broke,

And here again I give to thee
And all its sin subdue ;
My best resolves forgot!

This guilty soul of mine;
Its pride abase, its lusts control,
And though my dying Saviour spoke,

In timo and through eternity
And fashion all things new.
My heart regarded not.

Oh, make and keep me thine!

in 1:2 SD s taken from the "Hymns for Infant the potential mood, and even the optative mood; but these are Sin'' in i ;08 and her sister, Mrs. Gilbert, a work, mere figments; they have no corresponding reality in the lan

s . Bis Else authors, of priceless value in aid of edu- guage. Another form of the verb has a better claim to be 62. L a family. But for the sake of those who termed a mood; I allude to what is called the infinitire, as * ' ! Ince to a sacred hymn, we add the exquisite legěre, to read. This, however, might probably be more rightly NOI !!.,. .. this tune by the late Thomas Rawson described as the verb in its abstract form. If, however, it is ... W. 2 Yorkshire-hitherto treasured, like his acknowledged to be a mood, then we must say that the Latins VI. ' J4 *ILIPUT & Hoot circle, but henceforth, we trust, more have four moods, the indicative, the subjunctive, the imperative, *4. IR L.L . This tune must be thoroughly sol-faed and the infinitive. The infinitive, however, must stand in the .. leurs d e rest, and the pupil must point to the notes class of dependent modes of utterance, since it makes no senso OL s tu r be thus sol-faes.

unless when joined to a verb in another mood. Thus, vult Our prom ukt expect no explanation, at this stage of legere, he wishes to read. Here legere has meaning by being $ courze, of the sharps, or flats, or clefs, introduced at the united with vult. Vult is said to be a finite word, as legere is

giming of the old notation staff. A proper explanation now said to be an infinitive; finite and infinitive are the opposites wo w leogthy and out of place. They are introduced thus of each other. The two words come from the same Latin word early for the sake of those who play on instruments. It is finis, end or limit; the former, therefore, means the limited; enown for the singer that the square mark shows him the place the latter, having the prefix, in, not, means the unlimited; that of the key-note.

is, the definite and the indefinite mood.

Another form in which the verb appears is the participle. In

Latin there are four participles; 1, the active, ending in ns, 23 LESSONS IN LATIN.—XIX.

amans, loving ; 2, the passive, ending in tus, as amatus, loved; THE LATIN VERB.

3, the future, ending in rus, as amaturus, about to love; and 4,

the corresponding passive participle, which ends in dus, as IN form, the Latin verb has two chief divisions—1, active; 2, amandus, to be loved—that is, he who ought to be loved. The guessive. Thus, lando is I praise, in the active voice, and laudor, usages connected with these participles will be set forth hersI am praised, in the passive voice. There are some verbs which, after. The Latins have no active participle of past time; they thongh passive in form, are active in signification; as hortor, cannot by means of a participle say having loved. But the I encurrage. The ending in r shows that hortor is of the passive past participles of their deponent verbs have an active signifiform. This form the verb, so to say, lays down, or lays aside, cation, since the verbs themselves have an active signification; and hence it is called deponent (from de, down, and pono, I thus, hortatus means having exhorted. put). Deponent verbs, then, are verbs which, disregarding the Connected in form with the passive participle in dus, is what claims of their form, have an active import, just as if they were in Latin is called the gerund; as, amandum, which wears the active in form. As these verbs have an active meaning, their appearance of being the neuter singular of the participle past participle has an active meaning : thus, hortatus, the past amandus. The gerund exists in the nominative as amandum, participle of hortor, is not being encouraged, but having en in the genitive as amandi, and in the dative and ablative as couraged. This past participle joins with parts of the verb amando. It is not easy to set forth the distinctive meaning sum, I am, to form the perfect tense: thus, hortatus sum means of the gerund in one English term. Its proper and full force I hare encouraged. There are deponent verbs in all four con.. must be learnt in reading Latin prose. I place before you a jugations.

few instances of its use. The tenses of the verb in Latin are pretty much the same as

GERUND. in other languages. Thus we have PRESENT, amo, I love, or I am loving; DMPERFECT, amabam, I was loving, or I did love;

Scribendum est, one must write. PERFECT, amavi, I loved, or I have loved; PLUPERFECT, ama

Scribendi ars, the art of writing. veram, I had loved ; FIRST FUTURE, amabo, I shall or will love;

Scribendo aptus est, he is ready at writing.

Inter seribendum, during writing. SECOND FUTURE, amavero, I shall have loved.

Scribendo exerceor, I am exercised in writing. The present tense denotes either an action continued in the present time, or an habitual action. The imperfect tense denotes Hence, you see that the gerund denotes under certain circum. an action continued in past time. The perfect tense has two stances the whole act implied in the verb, as here the act of meanings : first, it signifies an action done and completed in writing. Yet is it nearly connected in meaning as in form with past time indefinitely, and from the period in past time being participles. Similar, indeed, is the case with our word writing; indefinite or undefined, it is called an aorist, or is said to have and generally our active participles in ing, besides having & an aorist import (aorist is a Greek word, denotes a tense of participial force, assume now & verbal, and now a substantra the Greek verb, and signifies undefined or indeterminate); in the force; a verbal, as in writing the letter, say, etc.--that is, rkile second place, the perfect tense indicates an action which in you write, or when you write; a substantive force, as, the conting itself, or in its consequences, continues from the past to the is bad. present, being somewhat the same as our phrase, I have dined As in form the gerund, so also the supine is peculiar to the that is, I have just dined ; in contradistinction to the aorist I Latin tongue. There are two supines, one ending in uit, as dined—that is, yesterday, or some time in the past.

amatum, in order to love; the other ending in u, as amatu, to The Latin has three moods, the indicative, or the mood of love or to be loved; the former is called the first or active supine; reality, the mood of simple statement; the subjunctire, or mood | the latter, the second or passive supine. The former is used after of dependence; and the imperative, or mood of command. Mood verbs of motion; the latter is used after certain adjectives; is a Latin word (modus), signifying measure or manner. It is

thus:found in the French term mode, sometimes used in English.

SUPINES, The term mood, therefore, denotes the modes or manners in

1st. Venio rogatum, I come in order to ask. which a statement is made. All propositions may be reduced

2nd. Jucunda andītu, pleasant to hear or to be heard. to two general classes; they are either independent or dependent. You may see here an illustration of the propriety of my ques. The independent are in the indicative mood ; that is, the mood tioning whether the infinitive should be designated a mood. which simply indicates or points out. The dependent are in the If it is a mood, is not the supine equally a mood? And if you subjunctive. The word subjunctive (Latin, sub, under or to, and admit the claims of the supine, can you deny the claims of jungo, I join) signifies that which is subjoined; that which is gerund? But if the gerund is a mood, equally is the partiapie connected in the way of dependence. The subjunctive mood, | a mood. Properly there can be no mode or manner of utterance consequently, is the mood which is dependent on the indicative. where there is not a complete utterance; that is to say, mood The imperdie mood, though differing in form from the other imply propositions, for withont a proposition there is no mo two, may logically be considered as a subdivision under the sub. If so, the infinitive can be called a mood only by some latitud jundliwe, How closely the subjunctive and the imperative are of expression. id may halon in the fact that the subjunctive is often used. These, then, are the forms of the verb which you have

it is so used when a kind of softened com- understand, to recognise, to construe, to form, and to employ in in the older Latin grammars, you will find Latin. I will here recapitulate them ;

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TWO VOICES.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.—XVIII. 1. Active. 2. Passive.

EXERCISE 69.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Deponent belonging to the passive in form and to the active in meaning.

1. There is no firm friendship among the bad. 2. I hasten to death.

3. The Gauls dwell beyond the Rhine. 4. We have no weapons against SIX TENSES.

death. 5. A generous man is mild toward the conquered. 6. Comets 1. Present; 2. Perfect; 3. Imperfect ; 4. Pluperfect; 5. First Future ;

are admirable on account of their rarity and beauty. 7. Slaves obey

on account of fear, the good from a regard to duty. 8. Sailing along 6. Second Future, or Future Perfect.

the shore is often dangerous. 9. No one is happy before death. 10. THREE MOODS.

On what account dost thou laugh ? 11. Below the moon all things 1. The Indicative. 2. The Subjunctive. 3. The Imperativo.

are perishable. 12. Thou dwellest many years among barbarians. 13.

The kingdom of Pluto is placed under the earth. 14. The government FOUR OTHER FORMS.

of nations is in the power of kings. 15. Fish die out of water. 16.

The thing happened contrary to expectation. 17. The camel bears 1. The Infinitive. 2. The Participle. 3. The Gerund. 4. The Supine,

hatred to horses. 18. Painted garments are mentioned with (in) In all, fifteen varieties of expression enter into the Latin verb. Homer. 19. Many animals congregate and fight against other animals. You are not to suppose from this that every verb has all these 20. The hippopotamus feeds on the corn-fields around the Nile, forms. · Even when the Latin was a living language, many

EXERCISE 70.- ENGLISH-LATIN. verbs were defective, that is, lacked some of the ordinary 1. Inter malos nulla est firma societas. 2. Contra mortem nulla forms. We, however, are bound to write the language as we habet homo arma. 3. Ultra mortem est vita. 4. Ad Rhenum pro. find it written in the remains of Roman literature, and so are peramus. 5. Ante domum sunt amici. 6. Apud me sunt filii mei. restricted to forms which actually occur in extant Latin writings;

7. Apud te suntne filii vestri? 8. Mitis erga victos est rex. 9. Post

mortem boni sunt felices. 10. Quid est infra terram? 11. Deus est and as poetry has its licences, so are we obliged, in order to be

super omnia et per omnia. 12. Infra nubes habitant homines. 13. correct, to confine ourselves to the usages of the best prose

Penes me mei sunt liberi. 14. Apud Ciceronem sunt multa pulchra writers. In general, the Latin of Cicero is the model to be

| dicta. 15. Rus propter te amo. 16. Intra muros sunt milites. followed. Verbs which have been above described as active, may also

EXERCISE 71.–LATIN-ENGLISH. be called transitive; that is, active in voice, and transitive in

1. Poison is for (acts as) a remedy sometimes. 2. An infant has no

power without another's aid. 3. Eagles do not build in trees. 4. import; thus, laudo puerum, I praise the boy, is a transitive

The cuckoo lays in the nests of other birds. 5. By old age our senses verb, because the action of the verb passes over (trans, across,

grow dull. 6. Some men are born with teeth. 7. Xerxes fled from over, and eo, I go) to the object, puerum. As some verbs are

Greece with very few soldiers. 8. Metellus leads elephants in triumph. transitive, others are intransitive or not transitive. Such is 9. The traveller sings in presence of the robber. 10. The stars move dormio, I sleep, in which no action passes over to an object. from the east (rising of the sun) to the west (setting of the sun). 11. Intransitives are sometimes called neuters; that is, neither Britain was discovered by the Phæniciang. 12. Bees cannot exist active nor passive. When they have a passive form, they bear

without a queen, 13. It is sweet to die for one's country, the name of neuter passives; as, ausus sum, I have ventured;

EXERCISE 72.-ENGLISH-LATIN. gavisus sum, I have rejoiced. Sometimes a verb, in the passive 1. Estne aliquando venenum pro remedio ? 2. In Græciā pugnat form, has a reflective force, and may be Englished by a neuter

Xerxes. 3. In senectute visus et auditus hebescunt. 4. Paritne in or intransitive verb; as, moveor, I move myself, or simply, I

alieno nido coccyx ? 5. Soror tua coram multis cantat. 6. Ab ortu

solis ad occasum properant. 7. Græciā proficiscens exercitus in Italiam move. A few active forms have a passive signification; as,

properat. 8. Metellus cum multis militibus est in Britannia. 9. Papulo, I am beaten; veneo, I am sold. Somewhat similar is

Filius meus sine dentibus est natus. 10. Estne exercitus sine ele. fio (factus sum, fieri), I become, I pass from one state into another; phantis ? 11. Elephanti in triumpho a duce ducuntur. 12. Dulcene I am made.

est pro patriâ mori? 13. Quid sine Dei ope sunt mortales ? 14. The tenses may be divided into three classes; thus :

Omnesne aves in arboribus nidificant ? 15. Clam patre est puer in

domo. 16. Infantes in gremio matris felices est dulce videre. 17. the action incomplete PRESENT TIME

Present,

Tecumne est soror tua ? 18. Sine patre nihil potest puer. 19. Mecum the action complete Perfect.

est filia mea. 20. Quot liberi tecum sunt ? 21. Quot homines sunt II. PAST TIME. the action incomplete Imperfoct.

in Britannia ?
the action complete Pluperfect.
III. FUTURE TIME

the action incomplete First Future.
I the action complete Second Future.

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XIX. You thus see that there are three forms of complete action, and The following method of constructing a regular pentagon three of incomplete :

involves the use of the circumscribing circle, on the circumference (1 scribo, I vrite or am writing

of which the angular points of the pentagon may be marked.

PRESENT. INCOYPLETE 2 scribebam, I did urite or was writing

We have added this to the modes of construction given in the 3 scribam, I shall rcrite or shall be writing FUTURE.

last lesson to show the student that there are many ways of (1 scripsi, I have written

PERFECT.

constructing each of the regular polygons, and to urge him to COMPLETE 2 scripseram, I had written

PLUPERFECT. exercise his ingenuity in finding out other methods for the con(3 scripsero, I shall have written

SECOND (or struction of the hexagon, heptagon, etc., than those we are

PERFECT) FUTURE. | about to give him in this and the following lessons. The natural sequence of our ideas requires a corresponding se.

PROBLEM L.—To construct a pentagon on a given straight quence of tenses. We do not in thought suddenly pass from line another way). the present to the past in the same sentence, or in the same

Let A B (Fig. 68) member of a sentence. Consequently, we must avoid doing so be the given straight in the employment of the tenses. The tenses may be divided line on which the re. into pairs—namely, similar and dissimilar; for example:

quired regular pen

tagon is to be deSIMILAR TENSES.

DISSIMILAR TENSES.

scribed. At the point Present Present. Present Imperfect.

A, in the straight Present Perfect present. Perfect present Imperfect.

line A B, draw A C, Imperíect Imperfect. Pluperfect Perfect present.

of indefinite length, Imperfect Ploperfect.

perpendicular to A B, Now similar tenses should follow each other, and not dissimilar and produce a Binde.

A DB oneg. That is, if you use one present, use another; if you use finitely both ways to

Fig. 68. a present, do not let an imperfect immediately follow.

wards x and y. Bisect Observe, however, that the present infinitive may come after A B in D, and along A C set off A E, equal to AD. Join B E, and a finite verb in the imperfect tense, as solebat scribere, he was produce it indefinitely to F, and set off E G along E F, equal to E A wont to write. The rule I have now given relates to what is or AD. Then from A as centre with the distance A G, describe the called the consecutio temporum, or sequence of tenses. Compare semicircle x G H, and from B as centre, with a distance equal to Exercise 75 (Latin-English), in the next lesson.

A G, describe the semicircle KLY, and let the semiciral

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The first song is taken from the “Hymns for Infant | the potential mood, and even the optative mood; but these are Minds," by Jane Taylor and her sister, Mrs. Gilbert, a work, mere figments; they have no corresponding reality in the lanlike all by the same authors, of priceless value in aid of edu- guage. Another form of the verb has a better claim to be cation in school or family. But for the sake of those who termed a mood; I allude to what is called the infinitive, as would sing this tune to a sacred hymn, we add the exquisite legěre, to read. This, however, might probably be more rightly words composed for this tune by the late Thomas Rawson described as the verb in its abstract form. If, however, it is Taylor, of Bradford, Yorkshire-hitherto treasured, like his acknowledged to be a mood, then we must say that the Latins other poems, by a select circle, but henceforth, we trust, more have four moods, the indicative, the subjunctive, the imperative, widely to be known. This tune must be thoroughly sol-faed and the infinitive. The infinitive, however, must stand in the " by heart," like the rest, and the pupil must point to the notes class of dependent modes of utterance, since it makes no senso on the modulator as he thus sol-faes.

unless when joined to a verb in another mood. Thus, vult Our pupils must expect no explanation, at this stage of legere, he wishes to read. Here legere has meaning by being the course, of the sharps, or flats, or clefs, introduced at the united with vult. Vult is said to be a finite word, as legere is beginning of the old notation staff. A proper explanation now said to be an infinitive; finite and infinitive are the opposites would be lengthy and out of place. They are introduced thus of each other. The two words come from the same Latin word early for the sake of those who play on instruments. It is finis, end or limit; the former, therefore, means the limited; enough for the singer that the square mark shows him the place the latter, having the prefix, in, not, means the unlimited; that of the key-note.

is, the definite and the indefinite mood.

Another form in which the verb appears in the participle. In

Latin there are four participles; 1, the active, ending in ns, as LESSONS IN LATIN.—XIX.

amans, loving ; 2, the passive, ending in tus, as amatus, loved; THE LATIN VERB.

3, the future, ending in rus, as amaturns, about to love; and 4,

the corresponding passive participle, which ends in clus, as In form, the Latin verb has two chief divisions-1, active; 2, amandus, to be loved that is, he who ought to be loved. The passive. Thus, laudo is I praise, in the active voice, and laudor, usages connected with these participles will be set forth hereI am praised, in the passive voice. There are some verbs which, after. The Latins have no active participle of past time; they though passive in form, are active in signification; as hortor, I cannot by means of a participle say having loved. But the I encourage. The ending in r shows that hortor is of the passive past participles of their deponent verbs have an active signifi. form. This form the verb, so to say, lays down, or lays aside, cation, since the verbs themselves have an active signification ; and hence it is called deponent (from de, down, and pono, I thus, hortatus means having exhorted, . put). Deponent verbs, then, are verbs which, disregarding the Connected in form with the passive participle in dus, is what claims of their form, have an active import, just as if they were in Latin is called the gerund; as, amandam, which wears the active in form. As these verbs have an active meaning, their appearance of being the neuter singular of the participle past participle has an active meaning: thus, hortatus, the past | amandus. The gerund exists in the nominative as amandam, participle of hortor, is not being encouraged, but having en in the genitive as amandi, and in the dative and ablative as couraged. This past participle joins with parts of the verb amando. It is not easy to set forth the distinctive meaning sum, I am, to form the perfect tense: thus, hortatus sum means of the gerund in one English term. Its proper and full force I have encouraged. There are deponent verbs in all four con- must be learnt in reading Latin prose. I place before you a jugations.

few instances of its use. The tenses of the verb in Latin are pretty much the same as

GERUND. in other languages. Thus we have PRESENT, amo, I love, or I am loving; IMPERFECT, amabam, I was loving, or I did love;

Scribendum est, one must write. PERFECT, amavi, I loved, or I have loved; PLUPERFECT, ama

Scribendi ars, the art of writing.

Scribendo aptus est, he is ready at writing. veram, I had loved ; FIRST FUTURE, amabo, I shall or will love;

Inter scribendum, during writing. SECOND FUTURE, amavero, I shall have loved,

Scribendo exerceor, I am exercised in writing. The present tense denotes either an action continued in the present time, or an habitual action. The imperfect tense denotes Hence, you see that the gerund denotes under certain circum. an action continued in past time. The perfect tense has two stances the whole act implied in the verb, as here the act of meanings : first, it signifies an action done and completed in writing. Yet is it nearly connected in meaning as in form with past time indefinitely, and from the period in past time being participles. Similar, indeed, is the case with our word writing; indefinite or undefined, it is called an aorist, or is said to have and generally our active participles in ing, besides having a an aorist import (aorist is a Greek word, denotes a tense of participial force, assume now a verbal, and now a substantate the Greek verb, and signifies undefined or indeterminate); in the force; a verbal, as in writing the letter, say, etc.--that is, thile second place, the perfect tense indicates an action which in you write, or when you write; a substantive force, as, the writing itself, or in its consequences, continues from the past to the is bad. present, being somewhat the same as our phrase, I have dined- As in form the gerund, so also the supine is peculiar to the that is, I have just dined ; in contradistinction to the aorist I Latin tongue. There are two supines, one ending in wa, 49 dined—that is, yesterday, or some time in the past.

amatum, in order to love; the other ending in 2, as amatu, to The Latin has three moods, the indicative, or the mood of love,

| love or to be loved; the former is called the first or active supine; reality, the mood of simple statement; the subjunctive, or mood | the latter, the second or passive supine. The former is used after of dependence; and the imperative, or mood of command. Mood / verbs of motion ; the latter is used after certain adjectives; is a Latin word (modus), signifying measure or manner. It is thus:-found in the French term mode, sometimes used in English.

SUPINES. The term mood, therefore, denotes the modes or manners in

1st. Venio rogatum, I come in order to ask. which a statement is made. All propositions may be reduced

2nd. Jucunda audītu, pleasant to hear or to be heard. to two general classes; they are either independent or dependent. You may see here an illustration of the propriety of my ques: The independent are in the indicative mood ; that is, the mood tioning whether the infinitive should be designated a moru which simply indicates or points out. The dependent are in the If it is a mood, is not the supine equally a mood? And if you subjunctive. The word subjunctive (Latin, sub, under or to, and admit the claims of the supine, can you deny the claims of the jungo, I join) signifies that which is subjoined; that which is gerund? But if the gerund is a mood, equally is the participe connected in the way of dependence. The subjunctive mood, I a mood. Properly there can be no mode or manner of utterale consequently, is the mood which is dependent on the indicative. | where there is not a complete utterance; that is to say, moods The imperative mood, though differing in form from the other | imply propositions, for without a proposition there is no mau two, may logically be considered as a subdivision under the sub. If so, the infinitive can be called a mood only by some launde junctive. How closely the subjunctive and the imperative are of expression. allied, may be seen in the fact that the subjunctive is often used. These, then, are the forms of the verb which you have for the imperative; it is so used when a kind of softened com- understand, to recognise, to construe, to form, and to employ mand is desired. In the older Latin grammars, you will find Latin. I will here recapitulate them :

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