Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

e

[ocr errors]

volume of the oxygen. The reason why there is a little too to such a white heat as to produce one of the most brilliant of much hydrogen is that oxygen is more soluble in water than lights—the oxy-hydrogen light. The best arrangement is the hydrogen, and as the gases rise through the water more oxygen one sketched in Fig. 29. In this manner it is used for magicis retained than hydrogen.

lanterns; the stand sliding into the bottom of the lantern, the It was said in the last lesson that the escape of hydrogen handles, D and c, remaining outside. Instead of hydrogen, ordifrom the surface of zinc when in acidulated water was really nary coal-gas is generally used. The greatest care must be due to galvanic action. It is a most difficult thing to taken after each exhibition to empty the bags, H, 0, lest, when get zinc perfectly pure; in the ordinary metal, the sur they are re-filled, the oxygen should by any chance be put into

- face is com- the hydrogen-bag, when a very violent explosion would be the

posed of par- consequence.
ticles of pure The gases mix in B, a brass tube, which is packed with fine
and of impure wire gauze. The cylinder of lime, L, is supported on a wire
zinc. If now which is threaded with a screw which passes through a coller
any two differ- soldered between the two tubes. By this wire the lime can be
ent metals be turned or raised, for after a time the jet burns a hole in the
acted upon by lime.
dilute acid, a For a further precaution it is well to have a differently shaped

current of elec. handle, c, for the oxygen. It is possible to burn the gases mixed tricity will be developed, so that from one bag, through Hemming's Safety Jet, which is simply a over the zinc surface there are brass tube packed with discs of fine wire gauze; but the fame thousands of "galvanic couples." has been known to pass down through forty of these discs before A particle of pure metal and its it was extinguished by their cooling action. It is therefore neighbour of impure metal form- more safe to burn the gases from separate bags.

| If we follow water in passing through its three states, we a current begins to circulate, and shall discover many strange properties. If a piece of ice be as it passes the water is decom. | placed in a vessel over a fire, with a thermometer, the thermoposed--the hydrogen escapes from meter will rise or fall until it reaches 0° Cent., when the ice will one particle and the oxygen at begin to melt. Although heat is continually passing from the fire tacks the other.

into the vessel, yet the thermometer will remain at 0° until the If zinc be amalgamated—that last particle of ice has disappeared. Where, then, has all this is, if the surface be rubbed with heat gone? It has gone to do a certain work, to turn the soluk mercury — these particles are into a liquid, and because this heat does not affect the thermoformed into a paste, and inti. mately mixed, so that the whole

surface becomes impure, and Fig. 27.

therefore amalgamated zinc will not liberate hydrogen. For this reason the zinc plates in gal. vanic batteries are always amalgamated.

The other method of getting hydrogen in large quantities will suggest at once another means of analysing water. If the porcelain tube and its contents, the iron turnings, be carefully weighed, and also the water in the flask, and then the tube, after the whole of the water has been sent over the red-hot

Fig. 29. turnings, be also weighed, the difference will evidently be the weight of the oxygen, which has combined with the iron, or the meter it is called “latent heat." To measure this " latent weight of the oxygen which was in the water; the difference heat” we must have some standard. We cannot speak of a between this and the whole weight of the water will give the mètre or a litre of " calorio;" therefore the unit of heat, or the hydrogen.

measure of heat, is that amount of heat which is required to raise It will at once occur to the student that the “ reduction” of a unit of water 1o Cent. The latent heat of water is 79 of these black oxide of copper by hydrogen offers a fourth means of thermal units; that is to say, to melt a kilogramme of ice, determining the constitution of water. By weighing the which is at 0° Cent., requires as much heat as it does to raise "reduction tube" and its contents before and after the ex- | 79 kilogrammes of water 1o. periment, the weight of oxygen given off by the cupric oxide Every solid upon assuming the liquid condition renders latent will be ascertained, and also the weight of the water formed a certain quantity of heat; and every liquid becoming a soud be known. It will also be found that 88.89 parts of oxygen gives out its latent heat.

by weight unite Let sodium sulphate be added to boiling water until the water
with 11:11 parts will dissolve no more, and then allow the water to cool; if un-
of hydrogen to disturbed the salt will not crystallise, but upon stirring it with
form 100 of water, a thermometer, a large quantity of the Glauber salt will assume
The oxygen and hy. the solid state, and a rise in the temperature will be indicated
drogen, in entering by the thermometer.
into combination to The fact that a solid cannot pass into a liquid without heute
form water, pro- dering “latent” a certain quantity of heat, has been taken advies
duce a very high de. tage of to form freezing mictures. Whenever a solid is so acted
gree of heat. This upon by another solid or a liquid as to be compelled to assume a
has been taken | liquid condition, heat must be taken from surrounding bodice
advantage of in Snow, or powdered ice, and salt liquefy each other, and produce
the "oxy-hydrogen the temperature of Fahrenheit's zero. Ammonium nitrate and an
blow-pipe.” Two equal weight of water will offer an example of a freezing mixture

strong india-rubber in which one of the bodies is already in a liquid condition. Fig. 28.

bags are filled with either of these mixtures be made in a test tube, moisture pui

the gases, which are first condense on the outside and then freese. If ice be require carried by separate tubes to the burner. The mixed gases issue in some quantity, a thin dish containing water is placed in through a fine nozzle, and when lit they burn with a pale non mixture. luminous fame, which has a very high temperature: wire, In the raising of the temperature of water from :

red. rings, etc., are melted immediately, and in many remarkable exception to an otherwise universal law is obser "he metal scintillates beautifully.

All bodies expand when heated; but upon heating water jet is directed on a piece of lime, the lime is raised 0° Cent. it contracts until it reaches 40 Cent., and from this p

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

it again obeys the law; 4o Cent. is therefore the point of mari. | is increased. The water, surrendering all its own heat to mum density of water—that is, at this temperature a given produce the vapour, begins to freeze. weight of water occupies the smallest volume. If this exception A limited space can only contain a certain quantity of vapour. to the law did not exist, it is evident that ice would be heavier | When it cannot hold any more it is said to be saturated. than water, and therefore would sink; the ice of winter would Whether there be air or not in the space does not affect the then rest in the beds of the rivers and lakes, and the summer quantity of vapour; but if the space be a vacuum-as Torri. eun wonld not be able to melt it. Thus in a few years our celli's vacuum-it is immediately filled; whereas if there be air island would be as uninhabitable as an Arctic region !

in it, the evaporation goes on Throughout the wide domain of science there is no fact slowly; and just as hot water which more distinctly indicates that an all-wise God overrules can contain more salt than cold and directs the laws which are the offspring of his own great water, so hot air can contain mind. If this deviation carried with it all other consequences of more steam than cold. Hence an altered density, we might have thought it was only the when the cold east wind meets natural result of some undiscovered law; but here it stands a warmer current, the moisture isolated, and the effects which in other cases would follow as which this latter contains is natural consequences are deterred.

condensed, and we have rain. For instance, when light passes through a transparent medium, The less moisture the air conit is diverted from its path, or "refracted.” If the density of tains—that is, the “dryer" the this body be increased, its power of refraction increases. We air—the more rapid will be the should expect, therefore, that as water increases in its density evaporation. Around the body from 0° to 4°, its refractive power would likewise increase, but there is an atmosphere containArago and Fresnel have proved that such is not the case. ing much moisture, which is con

When water freezes a sudden expansion takes place; 1 volume stantly evaporating from the of water becomes 1.099 of ice. This is the reason why water- skin. If we blow upon any

Fig. 30. pipes burst during a frost. If the pipes will not stretch they part of the body we remove this crack, and when the thaw melts the ice the damage appears. atmosphere loaded with moisture, and replace it by a much This is the great geological agent in disintegrating rocks. dryer one; therefore we increase the rate of evaporation, and

When water is heated the thermometer steadily rises until it consequently more heat is demanded from that part, and we feel reaches 100° Cent., when the liquid enters into ebullition. The “cold.” heat still passes into the vessel, but it does not affect the ther-| Bodies have different “capacities for heat," or their “specific mometer; as in the case of the melting ice, it becomes " latent” heats” vary. If, for example, we place at the same distance in turning the water into steam. The latent heat of steam is from the same fire, for the same time, a glass of mercury and a said to be 536 units of heat; that is, in condensing a kilo- glass of water, we shall find that although each of the liquids gramme of steam at 100° into water at 100°, as much heat is has received the same quantity of heat, yet the mercury has a given out as will raise 536 kilogrammes of water 1o.

very much higher temperature than the water. The water, Evaporation is the turning of water into steam at the surface having absorbed the heat, gives very little out; whereas the only, and it is carried on at all temperatures. Even ice and mercury, being capable of containing only s of the heat taken snow evaporate.

in by the water, gives off a much larger quantity, and therefore Ebrillition, on the other hand, is the turning of water into has a much higher temperature. steam throughout the mass of the liquid.

Water has the highest specific heat of any solid or liquid, The surface of the water sustains the weight of the atmosphere hence the "specific heat of water" is taken as the standard, 1. -760 mm. : if, therefore, a particle of water be converted into This fact is of great service in the economy of Nature. The steam within the mass of the liquid, it must have a force suffi- seas are great reservoirs of heat, and during the hot times they cient to lift up the superincumbent pressure of the atmosphere; cool the countries whose shores they wash, and during the therefore ebullition is said to take place when the “tension" of nights and the winters they give out their heat, and thus equalise the steam is 760 mm., or when the steam has a force capable of the temperature. lifting 14:67 pounds on every square inch of the surface of the In perusing the following examples the subject of “latent Tessel in which it is confined.

heat” will be rendered clearer. At all temperatures steam has some “ tension.”

If I place 5 kilogrammes of ice at 0° in 60 kilogrammes of

water at 100° Cent., what will be the resulting temperature ? At 0° its tension is 4:600 mm.

Let m = the required temperature; the ice in melting into 91.982 mm.

water at 0° would require
1000

760.000 mm.
1500
3581.23 mm.

79 5 kilogs. = 395 units of heat.
11688.96 mm.

This water would now be raised from 0° to æ°, and would require If at any temperature the tension of the steam equal the for this

5 kilogs. 20 = 5x units of heat. pressure to which the water is subjected, it will boil.

Make some water in a Florence flask boil ; while the steam is That is, to turn ice at 0° into water at 29, 395 + 5x units of escaping cork it tightly. Now the flask contains no air, only heat are required. This heat is supplied from the cooling of water and its vapour. Invert the flask, so that the hot water the 60 kilogrammes of water from 100° to æ°, that is, through fills the neck; pour cold water on the flask. The steam inside 100 – 2o. is condensed, and therefore the pressure on the water greatly This heat would bediminished, whereupon it will again boil. It will be found that

60 kilogs. ~ (100 — x) = 6000 — 60x units of heat. when the flask is suddenly jerked the water strikes the glass

erefore like a solid body, because there is no air to cushion the blow. The This is the

395 + 5x = 6000 - 60. philosopher's hammer."

65x = 5605 Whenever a liquid becomes a vapour it can only do so by

5605 absorbing a large amount of heat. By exhausting the air from a vessel containing water or ether, the liquid is made to evapo. rate very rapidly. To effect its evaporation it abstracts heat that is, the temperature of the water after the ice is melted and from all the bodies in its neighbourhood. By this means, as we the mixture has become of uniform temperature, is 86.2o. shall afterwards find, we can produce great cold. Water may be made to freeze by its own evaporation. A

How much steam at 100° must be passed into a tank contain. shallow dish of water, A (Fig. 30), is supported on a wire

| ing 400 kilogrammes of water at 15° Cent, in order to make the triangle over a vessel containing a little sulphuric acid, and

water boil? both placed under the receiver of an air-pump. Upon exhaust- Let x = the kilogrammes of steam required. In condensing ing the air, the water evaporates, and the acid absorbs the this steam will give off Vapour as soon as it is formed, and thus the rate of evaporation

536 x x units of hent.

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

2000

[ocr errors]

volume of the oxygen. The reason why there is a little too to such a white heat as to produce one of the most brilliant of much hydrogen is that oxygen is more soluble in water than lights--the oxy-hydrogen light. The best arrangement is the hydrogen, and as the gases rise through the water more oxygen | one sketched in Fig. 29. In this manner it is used for magic. is retained than hydrogen.

lanterns; the stand sliding into the bottom of the lantern, the It was said in the last lesson that the escape of hydrogen handles, D and c, remaining outside. Instead of hydrogen, ordifrom the surface of zinc when in acidulated water was really nary coal-gas is generally used. The greatest care must be due to galvanic action. It is a most difficult thing to taken after each exhibition to empty the bags, , o, lest, when get zinc perfectly pure; in the ordinary metal, the sur- they are re-filled, the oxygen should by any chance be put into

- face is com- the hydrogen-bag, when a very violent explosion would be the

posed of par. consequence.
ticles of pure The gases mix in B, a brass tube, which is packed with fine
and of impure wire gauze. The cylinder of lime, L, is supported on a wire
zino. If now which is threaded with a screw which passes through a collar
any two differ- soldered between the two tubes. By this wire the lime can be
ent metals be turned or raised, for after a time the jet burns a hole in the
acted upon by lime.
dilute acid, a For a further precaution it is well to have a differently shaped

current of elec handle, c, for the oxygen. It is possible to burn the gases mired
tricity will be developed, so that from one bag, through Hemming's Safety Jet, which is simply a
over the zinc surface there are brass tube packed with discs of fine wire gauze; but the flame
thousands of " galvanic couples.” | has been known to pass down through forty of these discs before
A particle of pure metal and its it was extinguished by their cooling action. It is therefore
neighbour of impure metal form- more safe to burn the gases from separate bags.
ing a "couple," between the two If we follow water in passing through its three states, te
a current begins to circulate, and shall discover many strange properties. If a piece of ice be
as it passes the water is decom. placed in a vessel over a fire, with a thermometer, the thermo-
posed—the hydrogen escapes from meter will rise or fall until it reachez 0° Cent., when the ice will
one particle and the oxygen at begin to melt. Although heat is continually passing from the fire
tacks the other.

into the vessel, yet the thermometer will remain at 0° until the If zinc be amalgamated—that last particle of ice has disappeared. Where, then, has all this is, if the surface be rubbed with heat gone? It has gone to do a certain work, to turn the solid mercury — these particles are into a liquid, and because this heat does not affect the thermoformed into a paste, and inti.

mately mixed, so that the whole Fig. 27

surface becomes impure, and

therefore amalgamated zinc will not liberate hydrogen. For this reason the zinc plates in gal. vanic batteries are always amalgamated.

The other method of getting hydrogen in large quantities will suggest at once another means of analysing water. If the porcelain tube and its contents, the iron turnings, be carefully weighed, and also the water in the flask, and then the tube, after the whole of the water has been sent over the red-hot

Fig. 29. turnings, be also weighed, the difference will evidently be the weight of the oxygen, which has combined with the iron, or the meter it is called “latent heat." To measure this "latent weight of the oxygen which was in the water; the difference heat” we must have some standard. We cannot speak of 3 between this and the whole weight of the water will give the mètre or a litre of "caloric ; " therefore the unit of heat, or the hydrogen.

measure of heat, is that amount of heat which is required to raiss It will at once occur to the student that the reduction" of a unit of water 1o Cent. The latent heat of water is 79 of these black oxide of copper by hydrogen offers a fourth means of thermal units; that is to say, to melt a kilogramme of ice, determining the constitution of water. By weighing the which is at 00 Cent., requires as much heat as it does to raise “reduction tube" and its contents before and after the ex- | 79 kilogrammes of water 1o. periment, the weight of oxygen given off by the cupric oxide Every solid upon assuming the liquid condition renders laten will be ascertained, and also the weight of the water formed a certain quantity of heat; and every liquid becoming a solid be known. It will also be found that 88.89 parts of oxygen gives out its latent heat.

by weight unite Let sodium sulphate be added to boiling water until the water
with 11:11 parts will dissolve no more, and then allow the water to cool; if il-
of hydrogen to disturbed the salt will not crystallise, but upon stirring it with
form 100 of water. a thermometer, a large quantity of the Glauber salt will assume
The oxygen and hy. | the solid state, and a rise in the temperature will be indicated
drogen, in entering | by the thermometer.
into combination to The fact that a solid cannot pass into a liquid without the
form water, pro- dering “latent” a certain quantity of heat, has been taken adtak
duce a very high de- tage of to form freezing mixtures. Whenever a solid is so acteu
gree of heat. This upon by another solid or a liquid as to be compelled to assume
has been taken liquid condition, heat must be taken from surrounding bones.
advantage of in Snow, or powdered ice, and salt liquefy each other, and proud
the “oxy-hydrogen the temperature of Fahrenheit's zero. Ammonium nitrate ana di
blow-pipe." Two equal weight of water will offer an example of a freezing mutu

strong india-rubber in which one of the bodies is already in a liquid condition. Fig. 28.

bags are filled with either of these mixtures be made in a test tube, moisture

the gases, which are | first condense on the outside and then freeze. If ica be required carried by separato tubes to the burner. The mixed gases issue in some quantity, a thin dish containing water is placed in the through a fine nozzle, and when lit they burn with a pale non. mixture. luminous flame, which has a very high temperature: wire, In the raising of the temperature of water from 0°, a vez watch-springs, etc., are melted immediately, and in many | remarkable exception to an otherwise universal law is obse" instances the metal scintillates beautifully.

All bodies expand when heated; but upon heating water al When the jet is directed on a piece of lime, the lime is raised 0° Cent. it contracts until it reaches 4o Cent., and from this post

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

Iture

mill

it again obeys the law; 4° Cent. is therefore the point of maxi. | is increased. The water, surrendering all its own heat to maum density of water—that is, at this temperature a given produce the vapour, begins to freeze. weight of water occupies the smallest volume. If this exception A limited space can only contain a certain quantity of vapour. to the law did not exist, it is evident that ice would be heavier When it cannot hold any more it is said to be saturated. than water, and therefore would sink ; the ice of winter would Whether there be air or not in the space does not affect the then rest in the beds of the rivers and lakes, and the summer quantity of vapour ; but if the space be a vacuum-as Torri. sun would not be able to melt it. Thus in a few years our celli's vacuum-it is immediately filled; whereas if there be air island would be as uninhabitable as an Arctic region !

in it, the evaporation goes on Throughout the wide domain of science there is no fact slowly; and just as hot water which more distinctly indicates that an all-wise God overrules can contain more salt than cold and directs the laws which are the offspring of his own great water, so hot air can contain mind. If this deviation carried with it all other consequences of more steam than cold. Hence an altered density, we might have thought it was only the | when the cold cast wind meets natural result of some undiscovered law; but here it stands | a warmer current, the moisture isolated, and the effects which in other cases would follow as which this latter contains is natural consequences are deterred.

condensed, and we have rain. For instance, when light passes through a transparent medium, The less moisture the air conit is diverted from its path, or “refracted.” If the density of tains—that is, the “dryer" the this body be increased, its power of refraction increases. We air—the more rapid will be the should expect, therefore, that as water increases in its density evaporation. Around the body from 0° to 4°, its refractive power would likewise increase, but there is an atmosphere containArago and Fresnel have proved that such is not the case.

ing much moisture, which is conWhen water freezes a sudden expansion takes place; 1 volume stantly evaporating from the of water becomes 1.099 of ice. This is the reason why water-skin. If we blow upon any

Fig. 30. pipes burst during a frost. If the pipes will not stretch they part of the body we remove this crack, and when the thaw melts the ice the damage appears. atmosphere loaded with moisture, and replace it by a much This is the great geological agent in disintegrating rocks. dryer one; therefore we increase the rate of evaporation, and

When water is heated the thermometer steadily rises until it consequently more heat is demanded from that part, and we feel reaches 100° Cent., when the liquid enters into ebullition. The “cold.” beat still passes into the vessel, but it does not affect the ther. Bodies have different" capacities for heat,” or their “specific mometer; as in the case of the melting ice, it becomes “latent” heats” vary. If, for example, we place at the same distance in turning the water into steam. The latent heat of steam is from the same fire, for the same time, a glass of mercury and a said to be 536 units of heat; that is, in condensing a kilo- glass of water, we shall find that although each of the liquids gramme of steam at 100° into water at 100°, as much heat is has received the same quantity of heat, yet the mercury has a given out as will raise 536 kilogrammes of water 1o.

very much higher temperature than the water. The water, Evaporation is the turning of water into steam at the surface having absorbed the heat, gives very little out; whereas the only, and it is carried on at all temperatures. Even ice and mercury, being capable of containing only s of the heat taken snow evaporate.

in by the water, gives off a much larger quantity, and therefore Ebullition, on the other hand, is the turning of water into has a much higher temperature. steam throughout the mass of the liquid.

Water has the highest specific heat of any solid or liquid, The surface of the water sustains the weight of the atmosphere hence the “specific heat of water" is taken as the standard, 1. –760 mm. : if, therefore, a particle of water be converted into This fact is of great service in the economy of Nature. The steam within the mass of the liquid, it must have a force suffi- seas are great reservoirs of heat, and during the hot times they cient to lift up the superincumbent pressure of the atmosphere; cool the countries whose shores they wash, and during tho therefore ebullition is said to take place when the "tension” of nights and the winters they give out their heat, and thus equaliso the steam is 760 mm., or when the steam has a force capable of the temperature. lifting 14:67 pounds on every square inch of the surface of the In perusing the following examples the subject of “latent Vessel in which it is confined.

| heat” will be rendered clearer. At all temperatures steam has some “ tension.”

If I place 5 kilogrammes of ice at 0° in 60 kilogrammes of

water at 100° Cent., what will be the resulting temperature ? At 09 its tension is 4:600 mm.

Let .= the required temperature; the ice in melting into 91.982 mm,

water at 0° would require
760.000 mm.
3581 23 mm.

79 ~ 5 kilogs. = 395 units of heat.
200° , , '11688.96 mm.

This water would now be raised from 0° to æ°, and would require If at any temperature the tension of the steam equal the for this pressure to which the water is subjected, it will boil.

5 kilogs. * 2° = 5x units of heat. Make some water in a Florence flask boil; while the steam is That is, to turn ice at 0° into water at *°, 395 + 5x units of escaping cork it tightly. Now the flask contains no air, only heat are required. This heat is supplied from the cooling of water and its vapour. Invert the flask, so that the hot water the 60 kilogrammes of water from 100° to 2°, that is, through fills the neck; pour cold water on the flask. The steam inside 100 - 0°. is condensed, and therefore the pressure on the water greatly This heats diminished, whereupon it will again boil. It will be found that

60 kilogs. X (100 — x) = 6000 — 60x units of heat. when the flask is suddenly jerked the water strikes the glass like a solid body, because there is no air to cushion the blow.

Therefore This is the “philosopher's hammer."

305 + 5x = 6000 — 60x

65x = 5605 Whenever a liquid becomes a vapour it can only do so by

5605 absorbing a large amount of heat. By exhausting the air from a vessel containing water or ether, the liquid is made to evaporate very rapidly. To effect its evaporation it abstracts heat that is, the temperature of the water after the ice is melted and from all the bodies in its neighbourhood. By this means, as we the mixture has become of uniform temperature, is 86-2°. shall afterwards find, we can produce great cold.

How much steam at 1000 must be passed into a tank contain: Water may be made to freeze by its own evaporation. A shallow dish of water, A (Fig. 30), is supported on a wire

ing 400 kilogrammes of water at 15° Cent, in order to make the triangle over a vessel containing a little sulphuric acid, and" both placed under the receiver of an air-pump. Upon exhaust- Let a = the kilogrammes of steam required. In condensing ing the air, the water evaporates, and the acid absorbs the this steam will give off vapour as soon as it is formed, and thus the rate of evaporation

536 x x units of heat.

[graphic]

500 1000 1500

ho

[ocr errors]

in

He went

He went

loro

up

by

The water, in rising from 15° to 100°, will use

The facility of combination afforded by these uncombined (100 -- 15) 400 = 34000 units of heat.

suffixes may be exemplified in this verb went. These are supplied by the steam, therefore

abaft the binnacle

amongst the scholars

aboard the ship 536x = 34000

before the picture aloft in a balloon

behind the door 34000

aback suddenly

into the house 536 = 63.4 kilogs.

afar from his country

out of the church If the water was to have been raised to 80° instead of 100°, back in a carriage

upuards to the ceiling then the condensed steam must have cooled from 100° to 80°

forucard in good works

round the monument that is, 20°; thus it would have contributed

backward in morality

to see his friends

sideward to avoid a nuisance out to take a walk 20x units of heat more,

sideways between the posts

high in the air which would have been added to the 536x.

amidst the crowd

in pocket below the floor

along the highway above the roof

over the seas LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XX.

apart from the mass

across the meadow UNCOMBINED SUFFIXES.

ashore from the boat

under the archway through the folding doors

far to prove it The suffixes of which we have spoken enter into the structure

on
successfully

wrong in bis mind of the words with which they are severally connected. Thus

altogether

right into the theatre the ment in amendment forms an essential part of the term. If

aright in all he undertook

the stairs ment is sundered from amend, the word amendment ceases to near the place intended

within the enclosure. exist; and instead of a noun, there arises a verb, the verb to

the church amend.

Here are forty-one different acceptations of the word went. Other words are appended to roots without entering into In no other language known to me is this multiplying power union with them. For instance, we say, cast down and cast up. exceeded, if indeed it is equalled, even in the German ; while Here down and up form no part of cast. Cut off down and up, in most languages, as in Latin, in French, and in Spanish, the and cast remains the same. Yet down and up modify the facility of combination is very much less. meaning of cast, and they modify it in a very important way. So familiar, however, are Englishmen with the import and And down and up come after cast. In some sort, then, they are the application of the uncombined adverbs, that I have no need suffixes. They perform the part of suffixes in regard to to go through them in detail. It may be more useful to give meaning, and they differ from suffixes chiefly in not combining two or three instances of the way in which they modify the verb with the root as do the suffixes already considered. Hence to which they are subjoined. they appear to be uncombined suffixes. Putting the two

VERBS.

SUFTIXES, together, I may designate suffixes, properly so called, combined suffixes, and those that do not enter into the composition of

back words, uncombined suffixes.

down

forwards The uncombined suffixes down and up are adverbs. Adverbs

in, into form one class of uncombined suffixes. Another class consists

along of prepositions ; for instance, we say, I speak to, and I speak of.

near Here to and of are prepositions. These uncombined suffixes,

Run, throw, strike, bring

over, on you see, very materially modify the meaning of the verb to

across speak. Consequently, the right employment of prepositions as

up suffixes is a matter of great consequence.

under If you carefully follow me in what immediately ensues, you will see that there is good reason to believe that the English is

backwards. a very flexible and a very rich language, and that it owes these Here are fifty-six words made out of four with the aid of qualities largely to the existence in a free and uncompounded suffixes, which being common property may enter into union state of many of its words. Let me explain what I mean by with many other verbs. In Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's “a free and uncompounded state.” Suppose that fall and down Dictionary, sixty-two different applications of the verb to cust had coalesced into one word : thus, to falldown; then falldown are given and exemplified; and this variety is owing mainly to would be a compound, and neither fall nor down would be free, the efficacy of the uncombined suffixes. The diversity of being absorbed in the new term. Indeed, we have in the shape meaning given by these suffixes is no less remarkable. To run of a noun this very compound, only the terms are inverted as up an account is a very different matter from running down an in downfall. Now down and fall thus combining, you cannot enemy's vessel. By blowing up a citadel, a revolt may be put modify fall by using other prefixes ; you cannot, for instance, down. You may enter into a cave, and you may enter into Fay outfall in the sense of a quarrel, although the term is used Milton's conception of Samson Agonistes. If you have money, for the opening from which the water of a canal, sewer, or yon may set up your carriage; if you are liberal, you may, at drain escapes. But with down, as an uncombined prefix, you the same time, set up a friend ; and if you have also a proper can say fall out equally well with fall doun; and as you can spirit, you will not fail to set down the impertinent. Edgar, say fall out, so can you also say fall in. Indeed, the power of having run through his fortune, enlisted as a common soldier, expression thus acquired is almost endless. The greater is the and was run through in battle. To laugh with one's friends pity that some writers, ignorant of the treasures of the Saxon agrecable; to be laughed at by them is very unpleasant. element of our language, and misled by false views of elegance,

“So long as nature should have given preference to Latinisms, and frowned on the

Will bear up with this exercise, so long idiomatic diction which ensues from the employment of our un

I daily vow to use it."-Shakespeare. combined suffixes.

"It shows a greatness of soul for persons in distress to bear sp UNCOMBINED SUFFIXES.

against the storms of fortune."- Broome. 1. Adverbs.

“They are content to bear with my folly."-Sidney. Aback,

"With such alacrity they bore away."-Dryden. "Away there ! lower the mizen yard on deck,"

" Whose navy like a stiff-stretched cord did shew, He calls, and, "brace the foremost yards aback."

Till he bore in and bent them into flight." --Dryden. Falconer, " Shiprerock."

As a lion bounding in his way Abaft, on the aft or hind part.

With force augmented bears against his prey."-Dryden. "Let all bands go abaft." - Anon.

“The weight of the body doth bear most upon the knee joints." Aboard, on board ship.

Wilkins. "Resolved, he said ; and rigged with speedy care,

“I doubted whether that occasion could bear me out in my com A vessel strong, and well equipped for war;

fidence."- Temple. The secret ship with chosen men he stored,

"An eagle fluttereth over her young and beareth them on her And, bent to dia or conquer, went aboard."

| (Deut. xxxii, 11.)

out

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »