Εικόνες σελίδας

Biunt, n. pound. Ungefähr',aboat, near. Viertel, n. quarter. had? 4. To whom will you send this gold watch? 5. I shall send it Procent', per cent., Verhei'rathen, to marry Worun'ter, under to the same man who sent it to me. 6. How much money does this Seth'ziger, m. one Verzin'sen, to pay in- which, among

old soldier require? 7. He requires much, because he is always ill,

8. Is he the person who was here yesterday? 9. No, that one is very sixty years of age. terest.

I which.

lame to-day. 10. To whom do you send the beautiful ring? 11. I RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

send it to the man whom you have praised so much. 12. Have you Der Elephant' mirt (Sect. XXXIV. The elephant lives (becomes)

praised my brother's friends? 13. Yes, I have praised them. 14.

Have you not loved them ? 15. I have a little sister whom I love; do 1) ungefähr' hundert Jahre alt. about a hundred years.

you love her ? 16. The uncle loves his nephew, but he is unthankful. Dieser Brunnen ist zwanzig Fuß tief. This well is twenty feet deep.

17. The father loves his little son because he is good. 18. Why are so Dieser Matro'se bat drei Paar This sailor has bought three

many troops in the town ? 19. Because they have come from the Stiefel und ein Paar Schuhe ges pair of boots and one pair war. 20. Why do our parents love us ? 21. Because we are their fauft'. of shoes.

children. 22. To whom are you going ? 23. I am going to my Gr war vor'gestern zum ersten Male He was for the first time, the nephew. 24. With whom are you going? 25. I go with my brother. im Thea'ter. day before yesterday, in the

EXERCISE 36 (Vol. I., page 198). theatre.

1. Ist Ihr Bruder zu Hause? 2. Ja, aber er ist franf. 3. Wo Die Frau faufte vier Ellen Kattun'. The woman bought four ells of haben Sie diese Uhr gekauft? 4. Ich habe sie bei dem Uhrmacher gekauft.


5. Diese Ringe sind schön, wollen Sie mir einen derselben geben? 6. Die Dies ist jab'riges Fohlen fünf. This colt is a yearling. | Truppen, welche nach Leipzig gingen, fehrten gestern zurüc. 7. Der Lehrer Um ein Viertel auf acht früh'stüden At a quarter past seven we liebt ben Sinaben, weil derselbe schon schreibt. 8. Gehen Sie zu Ihren wir. breakfast.

Eltern? 9. Ich gehe mit meinem Bruder. 10. Diese Kinder lieben ihren Ilm halb Zehn brach in der Vorstadt At half-past nine a fire broke Lehrer, weil derselbe gut zu ihnen. 11. Gebrauchen Sie meine Bücher noch Feuer aus. out in the suburbs.

länger ? 12. Ich werde Ihnen dieselben morgen zurtidgeben. Zehn Minuten nach zehn Hörte ich Ten minutes past ten I heard

EXERCISE 37 (Vol. I., page 211). Kano'nenschüsse. the report of cannons.

1. Will you go with me to Mannheim ? 2. I cannot (i.e., I am not Gr ist ein Achtziger. He is an octogenarian.

able), I have no time. 3. When can you go? 4. I shall go (the) next EXERCISE 116.

week, if you can wait so long. 5. Will your teacher go with you to

the field, or to the town? 6. He will not go to the field, and cannot go 1. Ich bin neunzehn Jahre alt, und in meinem drei und zwanzigsten

und zwanzigsten to the town. 7. What do these children want ? 8. They want some Jahre gehe ich mit meinem Vater nach England.


2. Mein ältefter Bruder

2. Mein ältester Bruder apples and cherries; but they can buy none, for they have no money. hatte fünf und zwanzig Personen eingeladen, worunter ungefähr die Hälfte 9. What do you wish, sir? miss ? madam P 10. Will you have verheirathete Leute waren. 3. Um drei Viertel (Sect. XXIV. 9) auf the kindness to give me a glass of water ? 11. Can you tell me what gwelf hat und die Gesellschaft verlassen. 4. Columbus entdedte im Jahre o'clock it is? 12. I cannot tell you, I have no watch with me. 13. (1492) vierzehn hundert zwei und neunzig Amerifa. 5. Gin Dußend bat | What was the merchant going to sell you ? 14. I could find nothing ztrolf Stüd, und ein Pfund hat breißig Loth. 6. Wir fauften drei Faß Del,

at his shop that I wished to buy. 15. We shall have bad weather tozitei Baar Schuhe und Fieben Ellen Tuch. 7. Tausende von Deutschen

morrow. 16. It may be, that it will still rain to-day. 17. Can you

read the German handwriting? 18. No, I have enough to do with mantern nach Amerifa qus. 8. Ich habe hundert Fetern für einen halben

the print. 19. The envious man will not praise his friend. 20. A Thaler verkauft. 9. Der drei und zwanzigste April ist Shafspeare's Geburt

learned woman is not always a good housewife. 21. Patience is a dif. ftag. 10. Ludwig der Vierzehnte war ein Liebhaber von Künsten und Wissen

ficult attainment; many can teach it, but not learn it. 22. A good haften. 11. Zwanzig Minuten nach eilf Uhr starb der Kaiser. 12. Id teacher must have patience. 23. Every good scholar will be attentive. war erst zwei Mal in Amerifa, aber das vierte Mal in England. 13. Die Deutschen hatten zu verschiedenen Malen Krieg mit den Franzosen. 14. Die Bier und Neun haben dreifach gewonnen. 15. Den achtzehnten Juni 1815

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXI. war die Solacht bei Waterloo. 16. Wissen Sie, wie alt jener Mann ist? | SECTION XXXIX.-COMPOSITÆ, OR COMPOSITE-FLOWERED 17. Er ist ein Sechziger. 18. Dieses hübsche Pferd ist dreijährig, und

PLANTS (continued). jene größere ist sechsjährig. 19. Was ist dies für Wein? 20. Es ist

PASSING on now to the radiate sub-tribe of the natural order Vietundbreißiger (1834). 21. Ich verzinse dieses Capital zu fünf Procent. 22. Ciebt es Hiriche in diesem Walde ?

Compositæ, let us first direct our attention to the cosmopolite but

23. Ja, der Jäger hat vorgestern einen Sechszehner geschossen.

modest daisy (Bellis perennis), which spreads on the verdure its

yellow disc surrounded with white rays tipped with pink, springEXERCISE 117.

ing up at the earliest dawn of spring, and gladdening our sight 1. My brother has a hundred books, and my uncle, the pro- until the winter blasts return. The pretty daisy (Fig. 176) is assofessor, has more than a thousand. 2. He rose generally at half. ciated with our earliest recollections of fields and flowers; it has past five in the morning, and worked till a quarter to eleven inspired the pastoral bards of many lands, and formed the subject o'clock. 3. I have spent seven months with him. 4. I have of many beautiful verses. Every one knows how ornamental sold two dozen of pens and seven quires of paper. 5. The half are daisies to the green turf of meadows; but only the intelliof a hare did he eat at his breakfast. 6. This beautiful horse is gent farmer knows how dear is the price paid for the ornament. five years old. 7. The third part of this money belongs to me. The daisy, unostentatious as it is above ground, encroaches 8. I forgave you once. 9. You did it twice. once. 8. Tou did it twice. 10. This piece sadly, with its rhizomes and spreading roots, on the grass tribe,

10. This piece contains about twenty-two ells. 11. My sister died in the

which is the special object of culture; hence the grazier should sixteenth year of her age. 12. Thousands died of the cholera in

extirpate our little daisy friends by all means in his power; to Poland in the year 1852. 13. The wine of the vintage of 1832 him they are rather foes than friends. The chrysanthemums is sold at one thaler a bottle. 14. My sister bought three ells are all beautiful species, many of which are cultivated in Engof ribbon. 15. Rome was founded by Romulus seven hundred land. The Indian chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum Indicum), and fifty-two years before the birth of our Saviour.

as it is called, is a native of China, where it is a great favourite.

It flowers very late in the year, thus furnishing us with a floral KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Christmas ornament. Its compound flowers grow to the size of EXERCISE 34 (Vol. I., page 197).

three or four inches in diameter.

The asters are sturdy perennials, which, by their large and 1. 3ft 3hre Schwester, welche mir diese Blumen gab, zu Hause ? 2. highly tinted componnd flowers, contribute much to the embellishNein, fie ist auf das Land gegangen. 3. Es ist Jemand in dem Garten

ment of a flower-garden. Most of the exotic asters have been gewesen. 4. Wohnen Sie in Berlin ? 5. Nein, ich wohne in Dresden.

introduced from America; nevertheless, that of greatest beauty, 6. Die Königin ist von Belgien zurüd gefonimen. 7. Rennen Sie den

the China aster (Callistephus Sinensis), originally came from Kaufmann, welcher von Wien fam? 8. Ja, ich fenne ihn. 9. Sie haben

China. The extensive genus, Gnaphalium, which is divided into wenig Vergnügen auf Ihrer Reise gehabt ; Sie sind nicht weit gewesen. 10. Sie hatten mehr Bergnügen, als wir hatten, abir wir sind ebenso

many secondary genera, comprehends many ornamental plants,

known under the general designation of Everlastings. The Vergnügt geivesen ald Sie.

greater number of these species are indigenous to Afrier EXERCISE 35 (Vol. I., page 197).

America. But of all the radiate sub-genera of 1. Where is the lead that you have bought ? 2. It is still in the esteemed for the beauty of their flowers, the me shop where I bought it. 3. Have you the same pen which I have the most cherished, the most beautiful, is the dal

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description of which we shall terminate this notice of the family embryo straight; cotyledons oblong, exceeding in length the Composite.

radicle. The Valerianaceæ are, for the most part, inhabitants of The genus dahlia is characterised by having an involucrum, of the ancient continent, being chiefly restricted to Central Europe which the exterior bracts, about five in number, are reflexed, and the Mediterranean region, and the Asiatic district of the and the internal ones, from twelve to twenty in number, arranged Taurus and Caucasus, from which a few species have wandered in double series, are membranous at their summit, thick and to Nepan), and Siberia, and Japan. In the tropios they are unfleshy at their base. The achænia, or fruit, are surmounted by known, except in certain mountainous regions. In Chili and two short points. The stem is herbaceous; leaves opposed and Magellan several species are not unfrequent; but North America pinnatifid.The species most cultivated in our gardens, which only possesses one. it embellishes during the autumn, is the Dahlia coccinea, or The Valerianaceæ are a natural order, concerning the medicinal ordinary scarlet dahlia. It is a native of Mexico, whence it was qualities of which all persons are agreed. The active principles transported to Spain about 1790, and a specimen was sent from are a volatile oil, and an acid termed the valerianic acid, which Madrid to France in the year 1802. At first the French gardeners chemists now make artificially. The perennials are more effi. cultivated it as a greenhouse plant, but they soon discovered the cacious than the annuals, probably because in the latter the dahlia to be capable of flourish

active principles have not had ing in the open air. From this

sufficient time to develop them. time the plant was rapidly dis

selves. The smell of the valerian seminated, and many varieties

is very peculiar; some people began to appear. The flowers of

think it agreeable; a far greater the primitive species were all

number, however, are of a consimple, the disc yellow, the rays

trary opinion. Amongst cats arranged in two series, dark

there is no such difference of scarlet and velvety in appear.

sentiment. These animals are ance. In 1810 varieties sprang

very partial to the odour of the up, having lilac, rose-coloured,

valerian, and eagerly scratch up and saffron-yellow rays. In

such plants of it as they meet 1818 double-flowered varieties

with in their rural explorations, were obtained, possessing cornet

Valerian is now employed by shaped tubular florets, consti

physicians in the cure of spasms; tuting an imbricated rose. Since

formerly its employment 88 then so many varieties have

directed to the core of the far sprung up, that their mere enu

graver disease, epilepsy. Report meration would be impossible.

- states that a Neapolitan noble, SECTION XL.-VALERIANA.

who lived in the sixteenth cene CEÆ, OR VALERIAN WORTS.

tury, being a great sufferer from

epileptic attacks, and deriving Characteristics : Calyx adhe

no advantage from physicians, rent to the ovary; corolla mono

set about learning botany, in petalous, epigynous; stamens

order that he might discover the ordinarily less numerous than

medicinal properties of vegetthe lobes of the corolla, and

ables, and thus become his own non-adherent.Ovary three-celled,

doctor. Notwithstanding the two of which cells are barren,

common proverb, that the man the third containing one seed;

who is his own doctor has a fool ovule pendant; seed, dicotyle

for his patient, the Neapolitan donous; radicle superior.

did not study botany in rain. The Valerianacer, which de

After trying a host of plants, he rive their name from the valerian,

at length alighted on valerian, one of the principal genera, are

and cured himself of epilepsy. either herbs, with slender roots,

Without intending any dispaor perennials, having an almost

ragement to the skill and persewoody rhizome, generally con

verance of this resolute gentletaining odorous matter. The


178. - man, it may be permitted to radical leaves are taft-like,

hazard a doubt whether the dispetiolate, simple, opposed, and

ease which afflicted him was

really epilepsy. com The flowers of most of the 176. THE FLOWERS. LEAVES. AND ROOT OF THE DAISY. 177. Let us now proste

Let us now proceed to an Valerianacece contain both pistils


Valerianacem, commencing with members are moncecious, others

the Valeriana officinalis, which diccious. Usually the inflorescence is a cyme, sometimes a ) is the species most commonly employed. This plant is generally corymb. The tube of the calyx is attached to the ovary; the distributed throughout Europe, where it frequently grows limb of the calyx divided into three or four parts. The corolla, humid meadows, rarely in dry and sandy places ; its stem inserted into the margin of a disc crowning the ovary, is tubular, furrowed, its leaves pennisecate and covered with down. and shaped like a funnel. Its tube is often spurred at the base, Valeriana phu is a German species, cultivated in our gardens, its limb generally divided into five lobes, and sometimes irregular, the radical leaves of which are simple and lanceolate, the lower The stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla alternate with white. Valeriana Sichensis is a North American species, and the divisions of the latter. Their number is rarely five, more valued beyond every other by the Russians. The ancia frequently four, the fifth, or internal one, being suppressed; / vaunted the medicinal qualities of the Celtio and Indian nan. sometimes three, by the suppression of the lateral stamens. The former (Valeriana Celtica) grows on the mountain suda Lastly, in certain cases only the innermost stamen becomes mits of Styria and Carinthia; the latter is a native of the developed. The anthers are bent inward ; the ovary inferior, Alps. Both are still the objects of a very considerable com, composed of three carpels, forming three ledges, two of which merce, large quantities being sent every year to Turkey add are empty, the third alone fertile. The ovule is reflexed, and Egypt from Trieste, whence they find their way to the interior hangs from the cell; the style is simple filiform, terminated by of Africa and India. two or three stigmas, which are sometimes coherent into one. The Indian nard, or spikenard of the ancients, was in die The fruit is dry, indehiscent, ordinarily unilocular by disappear. | favour; not that it was exactly a medicine, but it was thou ence of the barten cells; never containing more than one seed; I to secure the affections of any lady or gentleman to the oppos

without stipules.

party giving it. The plant to which the ancient term refers is and delicately-scented plants, are general favourites as orna. supposed by botanists to be the Nardostachys Jatamansi, which mental members of the vegetable world. Nor is ornament their is in high repute among the natives of India as a perfume and only quality; many of them have another claim to our regard as & remedy for epilepsy. However well attested by ancient testi- medicinal agents. The berries of the common honeysuckle are mong the efficacy of spikenard may be, still, in our times, it eminently purgative, although but rarely employed in medical may be doubted whether the mineral kingdom be not more practice. The symphorine (Symphoricarpus parviflora), a small potent than the vegetable in securing the affections of young North American species, bearing small flowers and bright-red ladies

berries, which, appearing towards the end of summer, form such The chief ornamental plant furnished to our gardens by this an agreeable ornament in our gardens, is also useful as a medinatural order is the Centranthus ruber, or crimson centranthus cine. Its root is astringent, and is employed by the people of (Fig. 179), remarkable for its

North America as a febrifuge. floral panicles. The corolla

The Linnæa Borealis is an is purple, red, white, or lilac,

herbaceous evergreen planti, furnished with a spur-like

very prevalent in the forests projection at its base, and

of Sweden, which being the

abona only containing one stamen.

native country of Linnæus, Its root possesses the usual

the plant has been dedicated odour of the valerian tribe.

to him. Like the common

honeysuckle, it is a creeper, SECTION XLI.-CAPRIFO

but its infloration is different, LIACEÆ, OR CAPRIFOILS.

each stem terminating with Characteristics : Calyx ad.

two campanulate or bell. herent to the ovary; corolla

shaped flowers, rose-coloured epigynous; stamens inserted

within, white externally. This upon the corolla ; ovary in.

plant, also, is employed by ferior, two or more celled,

the Swedes as a medicine. containing one or more

In addition to the Loniceseeds; seed dicotyledonous,


racece already mentioned, albuminous; leaves

there are many without stipules.

beautiful species | The Caprifoliacere

cultivated in our are generally trees

gardens. Among or shrubs, some

the honeysuckles of them climbers.

we have the everThe leaves are

green honeysuckle opposite; stipules

(Caprifolium sentabsent, or repre

pervirens), a native sented by hairs

of North America, or glands situated

the stem of which at the base of the

is climbing, the petioles. The flow

leaves yellow or ers are complete,

white below, the regular, or almost

flowers bright-red irregular, disposed 179.

externally, beautiin a head or ter

ful, but inodorous. minal corymb

Then we have the springing from

honeysuckle of anillary peduncles.

Japan (Lonicera The limb, or free

Japonica), a climbpart of the calyx,

ing species, termed is cleft, or five

in its native coun. dentated. The co

try gold and silver rolla is tubular, or

tree, because its infundibuliform, or

flowers are first rotate, having a

white, then yellow. five-partite limb,

Finally, we have ordinarily regular,

the Tartarian hoimbricated in æsti.

neysuckle (Lonicera vation. The star

Tartarica), which mens are in number

is not a climbing equal to that of the

plant. It has leaves divisions of the 179. THE CRIMSON CENTRANTHUS (CENTRANTHUS RUBER). 180. THE ELDER (SAMBUCUS NIGRA). of a bluish-green; corolla with which 181. THE GUELDER ROSE (VIBURNUM OPULUS).

flowers rose-cothey are alternate.

loured externally, A very familiar example of a member of this natural family is white internally; and ruddy fruits. Passing on to the considethe common elder (Fig. 180).

ration of the elder tribe, the common elder tree (Sambucus nigra) The natural order of Caprifoliacece is usually sub-divided by first comes under our notice. It is quite a cosmopolite, known botanical writers into two tribes, Loniceracece and Sambuceæ. almost everywhere, and consecrated by ancient traditions. Every

The Caprifoliaceae chiefly belong to temperate or cool regions part of this tree diffuses, when bruised, a disagreeable odour, and of the northern hemisphere. They are more abundant in Central a bitter acrid juice exudes. Its berries are familiar in England Asia, in the north of India, and in America, than in Europe. as the basis of elder wine. In many parts of Germany they are Certain species pass beyond the limits which seem to be imposed boiled, and in that state eaten as a favourite article of food. by nature to the family, and penetrate into tropical climes; but The guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), an illustration of which is not being able to support the full rigour of a tropical sun, they given in Fig. 181, partakes to some extent the properties of the take refuge on mountain elevations. A small number of the common elder. The Viburnum Lantana, or “wayfaring tree,” elder genus, that truly cosmopolitan family, is met with in Chili possesses berries and leaves which are slightly astringent, but and in Australia.

the external bark is so acrid that in some countries it is employed The Loniceracee, or honeysuckle sub-tribe, those beautiful as a blister.




EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (continued). THE following piece affords scope for “ force” of utterance. In the second, third, and fourth stanzas, it rises to what is distinguished, in elocution, by the designation of " impassioned force"

the fullest vehemence of voice, bordering on the shout, and sometimes passing into it. This style is found chiefly in lyric poetry; but it is sometimes exemplified in the vehement energy of prose, on exciting occasions.

Bird of the heavens! whose matchless eye

Alone can front the blaze of day,
And, wandering through the radiant sky,

Ne'er from the sunlight turns away ;
Whose ample wing was made to rise

Majestic o'er the loftiest peak,
On whose chill tops the winter skies,

Around thy nest, in tempests, speak,-
What ranger of the winds can dare,
Proud mountain king! with thee compare ;
Or lift his gaudier plumes on high
Before thy native majesty,
When thou hast ta'en thy seat alone,
Upon thy cloud-encircled throne ?

My native land! my native land !

To her my thoughts will fondly turn; For her the warmest hopes expand,

For her the heart with fears will yearn, Oh! may she keep her eye, like thee,

Proud eagle of the rocky wild, Fixed on the sun of liberty,

By rank, by faction unbeguiled ; Remembering still the rugged road Our venerable fathers trod, When they through toil and danger pressed, To gain their glorious bequest, And from each lip the caution fell To those who follow'd, “Guard it well." -Thomson,

Bird of the cliffs ! thy noble form

Might well be thought almost divine; Born for the thunder and the storm,

The mountain and the rock are thine : And there, where never foot has been,

Thy eyrie is sublimely hung, Where low'ring skies their wrath begin,

And loudest lullabies are sung By the fierce spirit of the blast, When, his snow mantle o'er him cast, He sweeps across the mountain top, With a dark fury naught can stop, And wings his wild unearthly way Far through the clouded realms of day.

Bird of the sun! to thee-to thee

The earliest tints of dawn are known, And 'tis thy proud delight to see

The monarch mount his gorgeous throne Throwing the crimson drapery by

That halt impedes his glorious way;
And mounting up the radiant sky,

E'en what he is,-the king of day !
Before the regent of the skies
Men shrink, and veil their dazzled eyes;
But thou, in regal majesty.
Hast kingly rank as well as he;
And with a steady, dauntless gaze
Thou meet'st the splendour of his blaze.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXI. THE LATIN VERB: ITS SEVERAL TERMINATIONS. The student is already familiar with case-endings and the way in which they modify the signification of nouns. He must now pass on to consider certain endings in the verbs which in a similar manner affect their import. Referring him back to what has already been said respecting the verb, we here take up the subject, and ask his attention to voice-endings, personendings, tense-endings, and mood-endings.

As preliminary to the whole, we must recall to mind what has been said respecting the stem of words. Having reviewed in his thoughts what has gone before, the reader will find our present statements easy. The endings, then, to which we have just adverted, are added to the stem of the verb, and being so added, vary the meaning. The stem of a verb is that part to which these endings are added. If the endings have been already made, they must be removed. When you have gone through these instructions, you will know what they are. Take lego, I read, as an instance. You are already aware that the o at the end is the sign of the first person singular, indicative mood, present tense, active voice. Cut off that o, and you have leg; leg is the stem. Now in English, if we want to make I read passive, we insert another word, and say I am read. Instead of inserting another word, the Romans added an r to the active form, making the verb stand thus, legor, I am read. Hencer, you see, is here the sign of the passive. In verbs, r at or near the end is generally the sign of the passive voice; thus in legar. I may be read; and legerer, I might be read, the r is the sign of the passive; for the corresponding active forms are legain, I may read; legerem, I might read. The voice-endings vary with the persons; thus, as the active endings are o, is, it, so the passive endings are or, čris, ítur. Thus voice-endings and person-endings combine, as you see, in this example of THE VOICE-ENDINGS AND PERSON-ENDINGS OF THE PRESENT

TENSE, INDICATIVE MOOD. Active. Lego, legis, legit; legimus, legitis, legunt. Passive. Legor, legěris, legitur ; legimur, legimini, leguntar.

To the voice-endings and person-endings must be added the tense-endings. In English we form the past tense, for instance, of the verb I love, by adding to love the consonant d, I loved. Something like this takes place in Latin. Thus, as amo is I love, amabam is I loved; the bam performing in Latin the part which the d performs in English. This bam, in the active voice, is made passive by being changed into bar, r taking the place of m. Putting these three endings together, we have an example of VOICE-ENDINGS, PERSON-ENDINGS, AND TENSE-ENDINGS OF

THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. Active. Legebam, legebas, legebat; legebamus, legebatis, legerunt. Passive. Legebar, legebaris, legebatur; legebamur, legebamini, legekanter.

Another variation is introduced by the mood-endings. The examples given are in the indicative mood. We subjoin ani instance of the change in the endings, by which the subjunctive mood is indicated. In the subjunctive mood rem is added to the stem, instead of bam; thusVOICE-ENDINGS, PERSON-ENDINGS, TENSE-ENVINGS, MOOD-END

INGS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, IMPERFECT TENSE. Active. Legerem, legeres, legeret; legeremus, legeretis, legerunt. Passive. Legerer, legereris, legeretur ; legeremur, legeremini, legerentur. The endings will be more clearly seen, if they stand by themselves, as in the following example :

Bird of Columbia ! well art thou

An emblem of our native land:
With unblenched front and noble brow.

Among the nations doomed to stand;
Proud, like her mighty mountain woods :

Like her own rivers, wandering free: And sending forth from hills and floods.

The joyous shout of liberty !
Like thee, majestic bird! like thee.
She stands in unbought majesty,
With spreading wing, untired and strong,
That dares a soaring far and long,
That mounts aloft, por looks below,
And will not quail though tempests blow.
The admiration of the earth,

In grand simplicity she stands ;
Like thee, the storms beheld her birth,

And she was pursed by rugged hands :
But, past the fierce and furious war,

Her rising fame new glory brings, For kings and nobles come from far

To seek the shelter of her wings. And like thee, rider of the cloud, She mounts the heavens, serene and proud, Great in a pure and noble fame, Great in a spotless champion's name, And destined in her day to be Mighty as Rome-more pobly free.

VOICE-ENDINGS, PERSON-ENDINGS, TENSE-ENDINGS, MOOD | You thus see that there is a present stem, an imperfect stem, a ENDINGS, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.

perfect stem, an infinitive stem, and a supine stem. Of these, SINGULAR NUMBER.

the imperfect and the infinitive are nearly the same. Properly Act. Pass. Act. Pass. Act. Pass. speaking, the present stem in amo is the same as the imperfect 1 Por. 1 Per. 2 Per. 2 Per. 3 Per. 3 Per.

and the infinitive, for the second a is a part of the root. Hence Present Indicative. 0 -or i s -ěris .it -itur.

amo is a contraction of ama-o.
Present Subjunotice. -am -ar -as -aris -at -atur.
Imperfect Indicative. -bam -bar - bas -baris -bat -batur,
Imperfect Subjunctive. -rem -rer -res -reris -ret -retur,


(Vol. II., p. 210.) Some tenses in the passive voice are formed as in English, by

EXERCISE 73.—LATIN-ENGLISH. the addition not of an ending, but of another word. Thus, as

1. God is present in all places. 2. Arms are of little avail abroad, we say, I have been loved, so the Latins say, amatus sum. unless there is deliberation at home. 3. Those are despised, who benefit Amatus sum is a form made up of parts of two separate words ; | neither themselves nor another. 4. As the laws preside over the namely, amatus, the passive participle of amo; and sum, the magistrates, so the magistrates (preside over) the people. 5. Reason indicative mood, present tense, first person singular of the verb and speech unite men to one another, and in nothing are we further to be. This is, in effect, to declare that the Romans cannot be from the nature of wild beasts. 6. I am joyful; thou art sad. 7. If said to have a perfect tense of the passive voice. The idea

you are contented with your lot, you are happy. 8. While we were which that tense conveys they express by combining parts of

in school, our sisters were in the garden. 9. When Charles was at

our house yesterday, I was abroad. 10. As long as you and your the verb sum with the passive participle. In this way, however,

brother were at our house, you were joyful, but your brother was sad. the perfect passive has peculiarities of its own. We subjoin an

11. As long as you were absent, I was sad. 12. Why were you not in example of

school yesterday? 13. Because I was abroad with my father, 14. ENDINGS OF THE PERFECT TENSE INDICATIVE, ACTIVE AND How long have you and your father been absent from home? 15. We PASSIVE.

have been absent six months. 16. Why were not our soldiers present Actine. Legi, legisti, legit; legimus, legistis, legērunt, or legēre.

at the fight? 17. Because they were too far away. 18. Where had Passive. Lectus sum, lectus es, lectus est; lecti sumus, lecti estis, lecti sunt. / you been yesterday, when I was at your house? Where observe that, instead of bam, bas, bat, etc., of the im.

EXERCISE 74.- ENGLISH-LATIN. perfect. yon have i. isti, it, etc. Observe, also, that in the l. 1. Ego prosum tibi. 2. Tu prodes mihi. 3. Pueri matribus non passive parts of the verb, sum, etc., denote the persons; the

prosunt. 4. Cur puellæ patribus non prosunt? 5. Quum tu aberas, participle lectus undergoes, however, one change in the plural

ego eram tristis. 6. Quamdiu pater tuus abfuit? 7. Carolus pugnæ

interfuit. 8. Erasne heri domi nostræ ? 9. Ero hodie tuæ domi. 10. lectus becomes lecti. Now, if you wanted to put the passive

Nisi domi es beatus, non es lætus foris. form just given into the subjunctive mood, you have only to substitute the subjunctive sim, sis, sit, etc., for the indicative sum,

EXERCISE 75.–LATIN-ENGLISH. es, est, etc. Other forms of sum may stand in combination with

1. So long as you are (shall be) happy, you will have many friends. the past participle, as, lectus eram, I had been read; lectus

2. The fight was most frightful, because the soldiers of each army were

very brave. 3. We had been in the city before the beginning of the E3EEM, I might have been read; lectus ero, I shall have been read.

war. 4. There were many great and illustrious orators in the age of Also the endings of the perfect indicative active change to suit

Demosthenes, and had been before, nor did they fail afterwards. 5. corresponding changes in the meaning; they become, in the This thing was not useful to us, but injured (us). 6. If any one is singular, erim, eris, erit, and in the plural, erimus, eritis, erint, in (shall be) endued with virtue, he will always be happy. 7. So long as the perfect tense subjunctive mood; and in the pluperfect tense I am (shall be) contented with my lot, I shall be happy. 8. The action subjunctive, they pass into essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent. will not be right, unless the will has (shall have) been right. 9. If

There is yet another source of variation in these endings, we have (shall have) been good, the praise of men will not fail. 10. That source is in the conjugations. There are, you know, four

Scholars, be attentive. 11. Let men be mindful of death. 12. Be ye

contented with your lot. 13. O my son, be always mindful of the conjugations, or general models for the formation of verbs. All

| precepts of virtue! 14. The prudent man not only takes care of the Ferbs which follow these models are called regular. Such as

present, but also in mind seeks again the past, and foresees the future deviate from these models are called irregular. Confining our.

from the past. 15. Good men endeavour to be useful to the good. Belves, at present, to the regular verbs, we find the endings of

EXERCISE 76.-ENGLISH-LATIN. the present tense indicative mood active and passive voices vary, as already (Vol. 1., pp. 38 and 70) shown.

s! 1. Milites nostri in pugnā fortissimi fuerunt. 2. Cur milites nostri

In the next lesson fuerunt in pugnâ fortiores quam vestri. 3. Quamdiu felix eris, non we shall give a general view of the tense and person-endings deerunt amici. 4. Miseris amici desunt. 5. Ante belli initium in of the four regular conjugations of the active and passive voices. urbe fueram. 6. Fortes fortibus semper proderunt. 7. Inimici mihi In order to get the full forms, you must prefix for the first con- obsunt. 8. Si eritis virtutis compotes, felices eritis. 9. Quamdiu jugation am or ama; doc, or doce, for the second ; leg for the sorte mea contentus ero, felix ero. 10. Discipuli, in scholā attenti este! third; and aud for the fourth. Am is the stem to be prefixed 11. Illi student esse fortissimi. 12. Mi fili, fortis esto. 13. Prudentes in the present tenge; ama, in the imperfect and future, and | futura ex præteritis provident. amay in the perfect; as appears in this view of the

EXERCISE 77.LATIN-ENGLISH. STEMS OF THE CHIEF PARTS OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 1. I am not ignorant of what your disposition is toward us. 2. I Conj. Present. Imp. and Fut. Infinitive. Perfeot. Supine.

know what your feeling has always been toward us. 3. I am not ig. 1. &m (a).

norant of what your disposition both was before, and now is, toward ama.

amay amat.

us. 4. I was not ignorant of what your feeling was toward us. 5. I

docu- doct.

now how uncertain are the minds of men. 6. Think how short is lege

lege leg (i). lectaud (i).

life! 7. Of what kind the mind is, the mind itself knows not. 8. audieaudi. audiv. audit

Think how much good examples are useful to us. 9. I am uncertain These chief parts are commonly exhibited thus :

where my brother is now. 10. I am uncertain where my friend both Conj. Present. Infinitive. Perfect. Supine.

has been and now is. 11. I am uncertain where you were yesterday. Amo amare amavi amatum.

12. Tell us (narrate) where you were yesterday.
Doceo docere docui doctum.

Lego legere legi lectum,
Audio audire audivi

1. Narra mihi ubi sis. 2. Narra mihi ubi tui pater et mater sint. auditum.

3. Nescio ubi soror mea sit. 4. Scisne quantum boni pueri suis pa

rentibus prosint? 5. Scio ubi filius sit. 6. Mi fili, ubi es ? 7. Scie. o 19 the sign of the present tense; re, of the infinitive mood; 1, bam ubi filius esset. 8. Incertus sum ubi hostes sint. 9. Estne dux of the perfect tense; and um, of the supine. In other words, nescius ubi exercitus sit ? 10. Scio qua mente tu in regem sis. by adding o to am, yon form the present tense indicative mood first person singular ; by adding bam to ama, you form the cor

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XXI. responding imperfect tense ; by adding i to amav, you obtain the perfect tense; by adding re to ama, you get the infinitive

CONIC SECTIONS—THE ELLIPSE. mood; and finally, by adding tum to ama, you make the supine; The three curves respectively known as the ellipse, the parabola, thus :

and the hyperbola, are called conic sections, because they r Am.)

be displayed by cutting a cone in different directions. P 's bam amabam, amavi, ama Samara ama

Samatum. tum

however, we explain the directions in which the cone mus


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