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l'abri, to shelter; mettre à l'ombre, to put in the shade; mettre yesterday? 14. We sat down to table at six o'clock. 15. Do un habit à l'endroit, à l'envers, to put on a coat right side out, you intend to commence boarding ? 16. I intend to board with wrong side out, etc.

Mr. L. (chez M. L.). 17. When do you commence your journey ? Nous l'avons mis à même de con- We enabled him to know the truth. | 18. We commence our journey to-morrow morning. 19. Did naitre la vérité,

your son commence laughing ? 20. No, Sir, he commenced Il a mis cet insolent à la porte, He turned that insolent person out weeping. 21. Why do you not commence working ? 22. Be

of doors.

cause I am going to commence reading. 23. Does that lady 2. Mettre conjugated reflectively, i.e., se mettre, means to dress after the English fashion ? 24. She dresses after the place one's self, to dress one's self; se mettre à table, to sit down Italian fashion. 25. Are those ladies well dressed ? 26. They to table; se mettre en colère, to become angry, to put one's self are extremely well dressed. 27. Will you not place yourself in into a passion,

the shade ? 28. I will place myself in the sun, I am very cold. Il se met à l'ombre, au soleil, Ho piaces himself in the shade, in 29. Is your coat inside out? 30. No, Sir, it is right side out.

the sun.

31. Is this the right side of this cloth (l'endroit)? 32. It is 3. Se mettre, followed by an infinitive, means to commence, to the wrong side (l'envers). 33. Are you not dressed after the begin.

English fashion ? 34. I am dressed after the Italian fashion? Ils se mirent à pleurer,

They commenced weeping.

35. You are well dressed. À l'anglaise, à la française, are used elliptically for à la mode française, à la mode anglaise, after the French fashion, after the

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. English fashion.

ExercISE 36 (Vol. I., page 175).
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

1. Votre beau-frère qu'a-t-il à faire ? 2. Il a des lettres à écrire. Ce cavalier a mis pied à terre. That horseman is come down from 3. A-t-il besoin de travailler ? 4. Oui, Monsieur, il a besoin de tra

his horse.

vailler. 5. A-t-il l'intention de lire mon livre ? 6. Il n'a pas l'intenVous n'osez mettre le pied chez You dare not set your foot inside his tion de lire votre livre, il n'a pas le temps. 7. Votre seur a-t-elle lui, house.

honte de marcher ? 8. Ma sæur n'a pas honte de marcher, mais mon Mettez ces enfants à l'abri de la Shelter those children from the rain, frère a honte de danser. 9. Votre cousine a-t-elle quelque chose à pluie.

dire ? 10. Ma cousine n'a rien à dire, elle a peur de parler. 11. Est-il Vous avez mis votre manteau à You have put your cloak inside out. tard ? 12. Non, Madame, il n'est pas tard, il est de bonne heure. 13. l'envers.

Avez-vous envie de lire la lettre de ma spur? 14. Avez-vous le Ce monsieur se met toujours à l'an. That gentleman always drosses after courage d'aller à la guerre ? 15. Je n'ai pas le courage d'aller à la glaise, the English fashion.

guerre. 16. Votre s@ur a-t-elle raison d'acheter une robe de soie ? Hier nous nous mimes à table à dix Yesterday we sat down to table at ten 17. Oui, Monsieur, elle a raison d'en acheter une. 18. Cet enfant heures.

e'clock.

a-t-il besoin de dormir ? 19. Non, Monsieur, cet enfant n'a pas besoin Pourquoi vous mettez-vous à l'om. Why do you go into the shade? de dormir, il n'est pas fatigué. 20. Le jardinier de votre frère a-t-il bre?

envie de travailler dans mon jardin ? 21. Il a envie de travailler dans Ces enfants se mirent à rire. Those children commenced laughing. le mien, 22. Quel âge cet enfant a-t-il ? 23. Cet enfant a dix ans. Pourquoi ne vous mettez-vous pas Why do you not set yourself to work ? 21. Quel jour du mois avons-nous ? 25. Nous avons le neuf mars. 26. à l'ouvrage ?

Avez-vous pour de marcher ? 27. Je n'ai pas peur de marcher, mais Je sais ne mettre en pension. I will commence boarding.

je suis fatigué. 23. Avez-vous le temps de lire le livre de mon frère ? Nous allons nous mettre en voyage. We are going to commence our journey. 29. J'ai le temps de lire son livre. 30. Le menuisier a-t-il envie de

parler ? 31. Il a envie de travailler et de lire. 32. Votre fils a-t-il VOCABULARY.

peur de tomber ? 33. Il n'a pas peur de tomber, mais il a peur de À l'italienne, after the Défend-re, 4, to forbid. | Étudi-er, 1, to study. travailler. 34. Quelle heure est-il ? 35. Il est midi (noon) or minuit Italian fashion. Effets, m. p., things. Mise, f., mettre, dressed.

sed.(midnight). À merveille, exceedingly Entr-er, 1, to come in. Pluie, f., rain.

EXERCISE 37 (Vol. I., page 182). sell.

Etourdi, -e, giddy per: Rire, 4, ir., to laugh. 1. Who wants bread ? 2. Nobody wants any. 3. Do you not want Couvert, m., table-cloth. ' son.

Tablier, apron.

your servant? 4. Yes, Sir, I want him. 5. Does your gardener take

care of your garden? 6. Yes, Madam, he takes care of it. 7. Does EXERCISE 131.

he take good care of his old father ? 8. Yes, Sir, he takes good care 1. Avez-vous défendu à cet homme de mettre le pied chez of him. 9. Is your boy ashamed of his conduct ? 10. Yes, Sir, he is vous ? 2. Je le lui ai défendu. 3. Avez-vous mis ces effets à ashamed of it. 11. Are you afraid of this horse or of that? 12. I l'abri de la pluie ? 4. Je les ai mis à l'abri de la pluie et du am neither afraid of this nor of that. 13. Does our servant take care vent. 5. Avez-vous mis votre frère au fait de cette affaire ? of your things ? 14. He takes good care of them. 15. Are you afraid

of speaking or reading ? 16. I am afraid neither of speaking nor of 6. Je ne l'en ai pas mis au fait. 7. Ne l'avez-vous pas mis à

reading. 17. Are you astonished at that affair? 18. I am not méme d'étudier ? 8. Je l'ai mis à même de s'instruire, s'il

astonished at it. 19. Are you sorry for it? 20. Yes, Sir, I am very désire le faire. 9. Voulez-vous mettre cela de côté ? 10. Je

sorry for it. 21. Do you want that boy? 22. Yes, Madam, I want vais le mettre au soleil. 11. Votre ami n'a-t-il pas voulu entrer ? him. 23. Do you not want his book ? 24. I do not want it. 25. 12. Il n'a point voulu mettre pied à terre. 13. Votre teinturier Have you a wish to work or to read ? 26. I neither wish to work nor n'a-t-il pas mis son tablier à l'envers ? 14. Non, Monsieur, il to read, I wish for rest, for I am tired. l'a mis à l'endroit. 15. N'avez-vous pas mis cet étourdi à la porte ? 16. Nous lui avons fermé la porte au nez (in his face).

EXERCISE 38 (Vol. I., page 182). 17. À quelle heure vous mettez-vous à table ? 18. Aussitôt

1. Avez-vous besoin de votre domestique ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai que le couvert sera mis [Sect. LX. 5]. 19. Cet homme se

besoin de lui. 3. Votre beau-frère a-t-il besoin de vous ? 4. Il a met-il bien ? 20. Il se met toujours à l'anglaise ou à l'italienne.

besoin de moi et de mon frère. 5. N'a-t-il pas besoin d'argent ?

6. Il n'a pas besoin d'argent, il en a assez. 7. Votre frère est-il 21. Ces enfants ne se mirent-ils pas à pleurer? 22. Au lieu de

onduite ? 8. Il est bien faché de sa conduite, et bien se mettre à pleurer, ils se mirent à rire. 23. Pourquoi ne vous

fâché contre vous. 9. A-t-il bien soin de ses livres ? 10. Il en a mettez-vous pas à écrire ? 24. Il est temps de se mettre à

bien soin. 11. Combien de volumes a-t-il ? 12. Il en a plus quo table. 25. Ces Siciliennes sont-elles bien mises ? 26. Elles vous, il en a plus de vingt. 13. De quoi le jeune homme a-t-il sont mises à merveille.

besoin? 14. Il a besoin de ses effets. 15. Avez-vous besoin de EXERCISE 132.

vous reposer? 16. Votre frère n'en est-il pas étonné ? 17. Il en

est étonné. 18. Avez-vous envie de lire les livres de votre frère ? 1. Did the gentleman alight this morning ? 2. No, Sir, he 19. J'ai envie de les lire, mais je n'ai pas le temps. 20. Avez-vous would not alight, he had no time. 3. Have you put that in- le temps de travailler ? 21. J'ai le temps de travailler, mais je solent person out of doors? 4. No, Sir, but I forbade him to n'ai pas le temps de lire. 22. Le jeune frère a-t-il soin de ses effets ? set his foot in my house. 5. Did you shelter those little 23. Il en a bien soin. 24. Ce petit garçon a-t-il peur du chien ? 25. Il children from the rain? 6. I sheltered them from the rain and n'a pas peur du chien, il a peur du cheval. 26. Avez-vous besoin de the wind. 7. Have you enabled your son to study medicine (la

pain ? 27. Je n'en ai pas besoin. 28. Etes-vous content de la conmédecine) ? 8. I have enabled him to study medicine, if he

duite de votre frère ? 29. J'en suis content. 30. Votre frère a-t-il

envie de lire mon livre ? 31. Il n'a pas envie de lire votre livre, il est wishes to do so. 9. Have you put on your coat inside out ?

fatigué. 32. Ce jeune homme est-il fâché contre vous ou ca 10. I have not put it on inside out, but right side out. 11.

amis ? 33. Il n'est fâché ni contre moi, ni contre ses amie Did you put yourself in a passion ? 12. No, Sir, I did not be vous besoin de mon dictionnaire ? 35. J'ai besoin de come angry. 13. Did you sit down to table at four o'clock | naire et de celui de votre frère.

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EXERCISE 39 (Vol. I., page 183).

| Ocean ; on the south, by the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of 1. Does your mother like reading ? 2. Yes, Miss, she likes it much Marmora, the Black Sea, the Sea of Azof, and the chain of better than her sister. 3. What hat does your nephew wear? 4. He Mount Caucasus ; on the east by Asia, which is separated from wears a silk hat, and I wear a straw hat. 5. Does that lady love her it by the chain of the Ural or Oural Mountains, the river children? 6. Yes, Sir, she cherishes them. 7. Do you furnish those Ural, and the Caspian Sea ; and on the west by the North merchants with goods ? 8. I furnish those merchants with goods, Atlantic Ocean. and they give me money. 9. Do your companions like fine clothes ? Extent. Length. Breadth, etc.-This continent extends from 10. Our companions like fine clothes and good books. 11. Are you looking for my brother? 12. Yes, Sir, I am looking for him, but I do

lat. 36° 2' N. to lat. 71° 10 N., and from long. 9° 32' W. to not find him. 13. Does your brother lose his time 14. He loses his long. 68° E. Its greatest length, from Cape St. Vincent, in time and money. 15. Do we always lose our time? 16. We lose it Portugal, to the north-eastern extremity of Russia in Europe, very often. 17. Do you owe much money ? 18. I owe enough, but I is about 3,500 miles ; while its greatest breadth in a straight do not owe much. 19. Do you sell your two houses to our physician ? line from North Cape, in Norway, to Cape Matapan, the 20. I sell only one, I keep the other for my sister-in-law. 21. Do you southern extremity of Greece, is about 2,450 miles. The most receive money to-day? 22. We receive but little. 23. Does your northerly point of Europe is usually considered to be the North joiner finish his work early ? 24. He finishes it late. 25. At what

Cape, in lat. 71° 10' N. and long. 26° 1' E.; the most southerly hour does he finish it? 26. He finishes it at half-past twelve. 27. We finish ours at twenty minutes to ten.

point is Tarifa Point, near Gibraltar, in lat, 36° 6' N, and long,

5° 21' W.; the most easterly point is the head of Kara Bay, EXERCISE 40 (Vol. I., page 183).

the southernmost extremity of the Kara Sea, which lies to the 1. Votre compagnon aime-t-il la lecture ? 2. Mon compagnon south of Nova Zembla, very nearly in lat. 68° N., long. 68° E.; n'aime pas la lecture. 3. Votre père aime-t-il les bons livres? 4. n and the most westerly point is Cape Roca, near Lisbon, in lat. aime les bons livres et les bons habits. 5. Devez-vous plus de vingt 38° 47' N. and long. 9° 31' W. dollars? 6. Je n'en dois que dix, mais mon frère en doit plus de

The surface of the land in Europe contains, according to the quinze. 7. Avez-vous tort de finir votre travail de bonne heure ? 8.

latest estimate, more than 39 millions of square miles, or more J'ai raison de finir le mien de bonne heure, et vous avez tort de ne pas finir le vôtre. 9. Recevez-vous beaucoup d'argent aujourd'hui ?

exactly 3,812,200 square miles; and its population is upwards

10. Je n'en reçois guère. 11. Donnons-nous nos meilleurs livres à ce petit

of 280,000,000, or more exactly 283,000,000. This number, enfant ? 12. Nous ne les donnons pas, nous le gardons parceque nous

however, must be taken only as an approximation, on account en avons besoin. 13. Vendez-vous vos deux chevaux ? 14. Nous ne of the constant increase, day by day, owing to the excess of vendons pas nos deux chevaux, nous en gardons un. 15. Finissez the births over the deaths in every 1,000 of the population. vous votre travail ce matin ? 16. Oui, Monsieur, je le finis ce matin Hence, there are in this continent on an average about 73 de bonne heure. 17. Votre beau-frère aime-t-il les beaux habits ? 18. inhabitants to every square mile; but as Russia in Europe is Oui, Madame, il aime les beaux habits. 19. Cherchez-vous mon neveu ?

reckoned to contain above two millions of square miles, or more 20. Oui, Monsieur, nous le cherchons, 21. Perd-il son temps ?

than half of the continent, and to have a population of about 22. Il perd non-seulement son temps, mais il perd son argent. 23. ) Combien d'argent a-t-il perdu aujourd'hui ? 24. Il a perdu plus de dix

64 millions, or less than one-fourth of that of the whole condollars. 25. Votre menuisier finit-il votre maison ? 26. Il finit ma

tinent, it follows that in Russia there are on an average about maison et celle de mon frère. 27. Vendez-vous de bons chapeaux ? 30 inhabitants to every square mile, and in the rest of the coll28. Nous vendons des chapeaux de soie, et les chapeaux de soie sont tinent on an average about 122 inhabitants to every square bons. 29. Quel âge votre compagnon a-t-il ? 30. Il a douze ans et sa mile. scur en a quinze. 31. Votre frère aime-t-il la viande ? 32. Il aime la | The surface of the inland seas belonging to Europe is estiviande et le pain. 33. Recevez-vous vos marchandises à deux heures ?

mated at nearly 11 millions of square miles, or more accu. 34. Nous les recevons à midi et demi. 35. Nous les recevons à une

rately at 1,370,000 square miles, distributed in the following heure moins dix minutes.

proportions :- The White Sea, in the North of Russia, 45,000; EXERCISE 41 (Vol. I., page 207).

the Baltic, lying between Sweden and Russia, having Germany 1. Where are you going, my friend ? 2, I am going to your on the south, and Denmark at its entrance, 135,000; the Mediterfather's; is he at home? 3. He is this morning. 4. Whence do you ranean Sea, lying south of Europe, 870,000; the Black Sea, south come? 5. We come from your house and from your sister's. 6. of Russia, 180,000; and the Caspian Sea, or Great Inland Lake, Who is at our house? 7. My neighbour is there to-day. 8. Where 140,000. The part of the Atlantic Ocean which flows between do you intend to tale these books ? 9. I intend to take them to the Great Britain and the continent, is called the German Ocean or house of the physician's son. 10. Are you wrong to remain at home? North Son

North Sea ; its passage on the south is called the English 11, I am not wrong to remain at home. 12. Has the watchmaker good watches at home? 13. He has no watches at his house, he has some

Channel, and at the narrowest part the Strait of Dover, which in his warehouse. 14. To whose house do you take your books ? 15. is about 20 miles across, and is reckoned 200 feet at its greatest I take them to the binder's. 16. Do you go to the Dutch captain's ? depth. The entrance to the Baltic, or East Sea, is by a channel 17. We do not go to the Dutch captain's, we go to the Russian of which the part between Norway and Denmark is called the major's. 18. Is he at your house or at your brother's ? 19. He lives Skager-Rack, and the part between Sweden and Denmark the at our house. 20. Do we not live at your tailor's P 21. You do. 22. | Cattegat. In the latter part there are three straits called the Whence does your painter come ? 23. He comes from his partner's Sound. between Sweden and the Danish island of Zealand, house. 24. Where do you take my shoes and my waistcoat ?

about 21 miles wide; the Great Belt, between Zealand and am taking your shoes to the shoemaker's and your waistcoat to the

Fünon, about 8 miles wide; and the Little Belt, between Fünen tailor's.

and the peninsula of Jutland, or Continental Denmark, about

three-quarters of a mile wide. In the northern part of the LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXII. Baltic are the Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, and Riga. On the

west of France and north of Spain, lies a part of the Atlantic EUROPE.

called the Bay of Biscay. South of Spain, between Europe and Position on the Earth's Surface. The continent of Europe Africa, lies the entrance to the Mediterranean, called the Strass forms the north-western part of the Old World, or great triple of Gibraltar, which is about 13 miles broad in the narrowest continent in the eastern hemisphere, and lies wholly within part, and about 1,000 feet deep. the northern hemisphere, to the north-east, east, and south-east The length of the Mediterranean is estimated to be about of the British Isles. It is situated almost wholly within the 2,300 miles, and its greatest depth upwards of 6,000 feet, or north temperate zone, with the exception of some of the more than a mile and a furlong. Its waters are more salt than extreme northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Russia, which those of the Atlantic, from which a strong current runs collie within the north frigid zone. The small map of the world | tinually into the former. The tides in the Mediterranean, owing on the plane of the horizon of London (see page 197) will show to its narrow entrance, are very small, and in many places we how favourably Europe is situated for commercial relations ebb and flow are scarcely perceptible. The Gulf of Venice, with the rest of the world, as it lies almost in the centre of the or the Adriatic Sea, is an arm of the Mediterranean which lies hemisphere which contains the greatest part of the land on the east of Italy and south of the Austrian dominions; and we earth's surface, and is thus conveniently placed for carrying on | Archipelago (anciently the Ægean Sea), another arm between an active export and import trade with all other parts of the Greece and Asia Minor, studded with islands famous in and

history. The waters of the Archipelago communicate with - laries.-Europe is bounded on the north by the Arctic those of the Sea of Marmora (anciently the Propontis) througa

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a narrow channel or strait called the Dardanelles (anciently LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC. _XXXI. the Hellespont), about half a mile in width at its narrowest

SHORT METHODS OF REDUCTION WITH REFERENCE TO part; those of the Sea of Marmora with those of the Black

MONEY Sea (anciently the Euxine Sea) by the Strait of Constantinople

We proceed to explain two or three artifices which are often of (anciently the Thracian Bosphorus), which is still narrower than the former; and those of the Black Sea with those of the Sea

considerable use. of Azof or Azov (anciently the Palus Mæõtis, the Mæotian Fen)

9. To find out how much a Given Sum per Day amounts to in by the Strait of Yenikale (anciently the Cimmerian Bosphorus,

a Year. j.e., the Cimmerian Ox-Ford), about a mile and a half wide.

There are 240 pence in a pound, and 360 = 240 + 120, or The eastern part of the Mediterranean adjoining Turkey in Asia

240 + 249; and therefore one penny per day amounts to one is called the Levant (from the French, levant, rising), because

pound and half a pound in 360 days. to the inhabitants along the northern and southern shores of the

Hence, to find how much a given sum per day amounts to in Great Sea the sun appears to rise in that quarter of the horizon.

360 days, we have only to reduce the sum to pence, and add half The waters of the Caspian Sea or Lake are not superficially

the number of pence to the result. This will give the number (that is, on the surface of the land) connected with those of the

of pounds to which the sum will amount in 360 days. To find Mediterranean, being separated from them by the Caucasian

the amount in one year (365 days), we must add 5 times the chain of mountains. Owing to the indentation of the continent

sum per day to the pounds found by the first part of the process. of Europe by seas, bays, and gulfs, it has a greater line of sea

Thus 6d. a day is £9 28. 60. a year; coast, in proportion to its size, than any other continent on the For 6d. + 3d. = 9d., and therefore 6d. a day amounts to £9 in 360 days, face of the globe; and lying almost wholly within the north

and therefore to £9 2s. 6d. in 365 days. temperate zone, it is better adapted for the health, convenience, Observe that since a penny (after half of the number of pence and commercial intercourse of its inhabitants. Hence its has been added) corresponds to a pound for 360 days, a halfsuperiority in point of power, intelligence, and wealth to all the penny corresponds to 10s., and a farthing to 5s. other continents. The total length of its sea-coast is estimated

Thus 7d. a day will amount to £10 10s. in 360 days, at about 17,000 miles, or rather more than two-thirds the cir.

and therefore to £10 12s. 11d. in 365 days. cumference of the globe.

For 78. + (1 * 70.) = 10;., which corresponds to £10 10s, for the In the north of Europe there are only two peninsulas worthy

360 days. Adding 5 * 7., or 2s. lld., we get £10 128. lld. of particular notice, namely, the Great Scandinavian Peninsula,

for a year. which includes Sweden and Norway, and lies between the

| EXAMPLE.-Again, to find how much 25. 6}d. a day amouats Baltic Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean; and the Peninsula

to in a year. of Jutland, which includes Continental Denmark, and lies

28. 6 . = 30 d. between the Cattegat and the North Sea. It is joined to the

30 d. + (30 d.) = 459d., continent by the Isthmus of Schleswig or Slesvig, which is

and hence in 360 days 2s. 6 d. amounts to £45 159., about 25 miles wide. In the south of Europe there are three and therefore, in 365 days, to £45 158. + 5 (2s. 6 d.), or to £46 78. 8}d. peninsulas of great importance in history, namely, the Iberian 10. To reduce a Given Sum of Money to the Decimal of a Pound. or Spanish Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal, which

1s. = £36 = £ = £.05. lies between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, and is separated from the rest of Europe by the mountain chain of the Hence, to reduce any number of shillings to the decimal of & Pyrenees stretching from the Bay of Biscay to the Gulf of Pound

pound, multiply the number by 5, and cut off two decimal places. Lions; and Greece (anciently the Peloponnesus, the Island of

Thus 23 shillings are 1.15 of a pound. Pelops), sometimes called the Morea, which is joined to the

„ 17

85 mainland called Hellas (anciently Achaia) by the Isthmus of Again, by calcnlation, we find that a farthing is .0010416 Corinth, this isthmus being only about four miles wide at the of a pound. Now the difference between this decimal and 001 narrowest part. To these peninsulas may be added the Crimea, is .0000416, or very nearly .0000417; and .001 = do Hence, which is the most southern part of Russia, and which is joined as far as 3 decimal places are concerned, we may consider one to the mainland by the Isthmus of Perecop, a neck of land only farthing to be doth part of a pound; and therefore, in reducing about five miles wide at the narrowest part.

any sum below a certain amount to the decimal of a pound, we

need only reduce it to farthings, and mark off 3 decimal place. SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. White Sea, N. of Russia.

Thus 3d. = 15 farthings, and it is therefore ·015 of a pound NORTH.-Arctic Ocean. SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL STRAITS.

correctly to three decimal places. SJUTH.-The Mediterranean Sea,

| It is evident that when the number of farthings reaches & the Sea of Marmora, the Black Bonifacio, Strait of, S. of Corsica. Sea, and the Caucasus Range.

Bosphorus, or Strait of Constanti. certain amount, the product of this number by .0000417, which EAST.-The Ural Mountains, Ural

nople, N.E. Sea of Marmora. / we neglect, will affect the 3rd decimal place. We will determine River, and Caspian Sea.

Dardanelles, or Hellespont, S.W. ) the point at which this takes place.

Sea of Marmora,
WEST.-The North Atlantic Ocean,
Dover, Strait of, English Channel.

Now (001 + .0000417) 23 = .023 + .0009591 = .023 to thres
SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL SEAS
Gibraltar, Strait of, Mediterranean.

decimal places.
AND GULFS.
Great Belt, Baltic.

But(.001 + 0000417) 24=*024 x .0010008 = .025 to three decimal places.
Adriatic, or Gulf of Venice, N.
Little Belt, Baltic,

Hence, for sums of 24 farthings and upwards, we must add Messina, Strait of, E. of Sicily. of Mediterranean. North Channel, N. of Ireland.

one to the number of farthings, and then cut off 3 decimal places Archipelago, N.E. of Mediter.

as before. This we' may do until the number of farthings ranean. Otranto, S. Adriatic.

large enough to cause more than one to be carried to the 3rd Baltic Sea, N. of Germany.

Sound, Baltic

St. George's Channel. Irish Sen. Biscay, Bay of, W. of France.

place of decimals. Black Sea, E. of Turkey.

Yenikale, or Kertch, N.E. Black Thus 7d. = 31 farthings; and therefore, when reduced to Bothnia, Gulf of, Baltic.

Sea.

the decimal of a pound, it is, correctly to 3 places, .032. Caspian Sea, S. of Russia.

SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL PENIN Now 47 (+0000417) = .0019599, which still only adds 1 m Cattegat. North Sea.

SULAS.

the 3rd decimal place; and therefore, as far as 48 farthings English Channel, S. of England. Crimen--Russia.

(one shilling), the above rule holds. Finland, Gulf of, Baltic. Iberia-Spain and Portugal.

As soon as a shilling is reached, we find the decimal of a Genoa, Gulf of, S. of Piedmont. Italy-New Kingdom of Italy, pound by the rule first given. Irish Sea, Isle of Man.

Papal States. Kara Sea, N. of Russia.

EXAMPLE.- Reduce 13s. 8 d. to the decimal of a pound. Jutland-Denmark. Levant, E. of Mediterranean. Morea-Greece.

138. = £.65 of a pound. North Sea, or German Ocean, E. Scandinavia-Sweden and Norway,

84. = 36 farthings = £.037 correctly to 3 places. of Britain,

Hence 138. 8}d.= £*687 correctly to 8 places.
Sea of Azof, S. of Rassia.
SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL ISTHMUSES.

EXERCISE 50.
Sea of Marmora, S. of Turkey. Corinth, N. E. of Morea.
Skager-Rack, North Sea.
Perecop, N. of Crimea.

Find how much the following sums per day amount to in s Taranto, Gulf of, S. of Italy. Schleswig, S. of Jutland.

1 year :

1, 2d.
5. ls. 5d.

9. 2s. 780. alteration, either in volume or temperature, will be observed, 2. 3 d. 6. ls. 1 d.

10. 5s.

and air will be formed. In every case, when chemical combina3. 5 d. 7. ls, 3.d.

11. 78, 3d.

tion takes place, there is invariably either an alteration in 4. 9.a. 8. 28. 6d.

12. · 8s. 7 d.

volume or temperature, or both. Reduce to the decimal of a pound correctly to 3 decimal 2. If air from water, or from melted snow, be analysed, it places, by the method of Art. 10:

will be found that oxygen is present in almost double the pro13. 3 d.

16. 2s. 3 d. | 19. £3 15s. 89d. portion in which it is present in the atmosphere. This fact 14. 5 d.

17. 178. 9:a. 20. £15 195. 11,d. has been already alluded to, as caused by water being capable 15. 60. 18. 18s. 910.

of absorbing more oxygen than nitrogen. · If, however, the

gases were chemically combined, the water must absorb them as KEY TO EXERCISE 49, LESSON XXX. (Vol. II., page 234). one body-air, and they would appear in the water in the same 1. £.2375. 11. •5625 acre. 21. 88 rods.

proportion as in the atmosphere.

The volumes of the gases in the air may be roughly ascer2. £-5375. 12. •898809523 guinea 22. 10 h. 13 m. 9 sec.

tained by abstracting the oxygen from the air in a graduated 3. £.87916. 13. .002739726 of a 23. 50 min. 42 sec.

bell-jar, by burning phosphorus as above described, being care4. •5416 shilling.

year, '2.
24. 23.125.

ful that the diminution of the volume be measured when the 5. .25625 mile. 14. .0089285714, .2. 25. 6s. 8d.

temperature has fallen to what it was at the commencement of 6. 127083 day. 15, .03266258384 ... 26. 4114285714.

the experiment. But the most accurate method is by the 7. '046875 cwt. 16. .216.

27. 178. 9 d., .0006. eadiometer (Fig. 32). The instrument is used thus : 8. •2583 hour. 17. 149. 60.

28. -0042 . . . . The tube is filled with water, then a portion is poured out. 9. '46875 lb. | 18. 2s. 77d.

29. 5s. 4 d. 6 far. Place the thumb on the open end, and by properly inclining the 10.7, 1190476, | 19. 98., 3.6 farthings. 30. 196 cubic feet, tube, the air may be made to pass to the sealed end. The water •0925. ( 20. 6 oz. 15. drachms. 196}} cub. in. is now made level, so that the air may be under no undue pressure,

and the number of measures of it read off on the graduated

scale. The open end is completely filled with water, and the LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-IX.

instrument is inserted in a pneumatic trough, where hydrogen is NITROGEN, AIR, ETC.

passed into it, the quantity being at least more than half the air

in the eudiometer. The instrument is again closed with the NITROGEN : SYMBOL, N - ATOMIC WEIGHT, 14 – DEXSITY, 14. , I thumb, and the mixture of air and hydrogen got into the sealed NITROGEN is the chief constituent of the atmosphere, of which end. The water in the two tubes is again levelled, and the it forms four-fifths. From being an element of nitric acid, volume of the mixture read off. The instrument is held firmly, Chatal gave the gas the name here adopted, following the as in the diagram, and the platinum wires, a and b, connected example of Lavoisier. The French chemists call it azote, from with the outside and inside coatings of a charged Leyden jar. ita inability to support life. It exists in almost all animal The spark which passes in the tube, fires the mixture, and the and in many vegetable products.

oxygen in the air and the hydrogen combine to form water. The To prepare Nitrogen.—The simplest method is to deprive air temperature is allowed to equalise itself, and the water is again of its oxygen. This may be done in several ways

levelled and another reading made. It will be evident that the 1. Pass air through a porcelain tube containing copper difference between the two last readings will give the quantity of turnings, which is surrounded by red-hot charcoal. The heated gas which has gone to form the water in the explosion. Now copper combines with the oxygen, and the nitrogen is received we know that this consisted of all the oxygen in the air, and in a gas-holder.

some of the hydrogen we introduced ; but we also know that one2. In a capsule of Berlin ware (Fig. 31) float a piece of phos. | third of the quantity must be oxygen, this being the proportion by phorus on water; and, after having ignited it, place over it a volume of the gas in water. Hence we arrive at the quantity of bell-jar. The phosphorus takes all the oxygen to form phos- the oxygen in the air with the greatest accuracy. phoric acid (P,05), a solid, which is readily absorbed by the To determine the composition of the air by weight, it is water, the gas remaining in the jar being nitrogen.

necessary to weigh the copper, in the first process given for the 3. The oxygen may be absorbed from the air slowly, either preparation of nitrogen, before and after the experiment, being by suspending in the jar a stick of phosphorus-in this case careful to ascertain the quantity of air passed through the phosphorous acid (P.03) is gradually formed-or by placing in heated porcelain tube. a capsule a mixture of iron-filings and sulphur moistened with Thus the composition of air iswater. The experiment is arranged as the last, but must be

By volume.

By weight. untouched for at least twenty-four hours ; by that time all the

Oxygen . .

. 20.93

23.141

. . oxygen in the jar will have been absorbed by the mixture, and

Nitrogen

79-07

76-859 the water, rising to fill the place of the absorbed gas, will be

100.00

100.000 found to occupy one-fifth of the jar.

There are other ways of obtaining nitrogen from its com- | Next to these two gases, the most important ingredients in the pounds, thus : if chlorine gas be passed into water impregnated atmosphere are vapour of water and carbonic acid gas. To deterwith ammonia, the reaction will be

mine their respective quantities, a system of U tubes (Fig. 33) is 4NH, (ammonia) + ci, = 3NH,Cl (sal-ammoniac) + N.

connected with an “aspirator,” which is simply a vessel which

| has an opening at the top, and another at the bottom ; it is Care must, however, be taken that the ammonia be in excess, filled with water, and when the lower tap is turned, it is evident lest one of the most explosive of bodies—the chloride of nitrogen that as the water flows out air is drawn in through the opening - be formed.

at the top, and by connecting it with the tubes, a current of air Properties. The gas is colourless, inodorous, and tasteless. is made to pass through them. It is a little lighter than air, its specific gravity being 0:9713; The first two, a and b, are packed with pieces of pumico its affinities are very low ; it refuses to combine with other ele

stone, soaked with sulphuric acid. This retains all the moisture ments, except under peculiar circumstances. Hence it will not the air which passes through contains. support combustion, and is fatal if breathed in a pure state ; It next traverses a system of bulbs, suggested by Liebig, not that it has any poisonous qualities, but is incapable of sup- which are partially filled with a strong solution of caustic porting life.

potash. Here all the carbonic acid gas is absorbed, forming with THE ATMOSPHERE.

the potash carbonate of potash. The air, however, in passing Around our globe rolls a gaseous ocean, which is a mixture of through the liquid, will take up some moisture, and thus destroy certain gases. Oxygen and nitrogen greatly preponderate over the accuracy of the experiment; therefore, this moisture is the others, and are found in the proportion of 4 volumes of again absorbed by the sulphuric acid in the tube d. A fourth nitrogen to 1 of oxygen. The chief use of the nitrogen seems tube, e, similar to d, intercepts any moisture which may attempt to be to dilute the oxygen. That the atmosphere is not a to penetrate the tubes from the aspirator S. The tub chemical compound, but a mixture, may be thus proved :- and the bulbs c are accurately weighed. The

L IF. 4 volumes of nitrogen and 1 of oxygen be mixed, no slightly opened, and the air slowly drawn thr

[graphic]
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