« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
made to those Books which are specially kept for these pur which have been already described ; and the process of making poses. In transactions where Goods are sold for Cash, the par- up-that is, of copying the entries from these books into the ticulars must still be entered in the usual manner in the Day. Journal—is called Journalising. In the system of transactions Book, just as if they had taken place on credit ; and the particu- about to be laid before our students, this process is performed lars of the transactions relating to the money paid for the at the end of each month. Instead of Journalising, therefore, Goods must also be entered in the Cash-Book. Were this not as formerly observed, it should be denominated Monthly Postdone, the accounts both of Property and Persons could not be ing or Sub-Ledgerising. kept in a proper manner, and nothing but confusion and error The first book which is journalised is the Cash-Book. In doing Tould ensue. We cannot, however, stop here to explain the this, you make Cash Account Dr. to Sundries for all the Receipts reason of this or of many other things which we have said in of money during the month, and you then specify the names of these lessons, otherwise we should never have done ; but the all the Accounts on which Cash has been received, taking care reason will be sure to suggest itself to the attentive student. to collect all the sums received on the same account in any cage In home or inland transactions, where Goods are purchased into one amount, for the sake of abridging the entries in the by a Merchant on Commission as an Agent for another party, Ledger. If, however, Cash has been received on only one it is usual to enter in the Day-Book only the gross amount or Account, then make Cash Account Dr. to thot Account. Next, sum on which the Commission is calculated, and the Incidental you make Sundries Dr. to Cash Account, for all the Payments Expenses attending the Purchase and the Transmission of the of money during the month, and specify the names of all the Goods to the Principal, or party for whom the Merchant is Accounts on which Cash has been paid, collecting all the sums Agent, without entering into the more minute details. This paid on the same account into one amount, as before; and if cash will be exemplified in the first part of our system relating to has been paid on only one Account, make that Account Dr. to Inland Trade.
Cash Account. In making up these entries for the Journal, The method of keeping the Day-Book which we shall adopt short loans which are settled within the month are to be omitted; in our Lessons, is a modification or rather an improvement of if not settled within the month, they must be extended in the the principle of Check Entries by means of Double money proper columns, treated as regular transactions, and carried to columns, invented by Mr. Jones, and strongly recommended account in the Ledger ; all balances of Cash are to be omitted in by numerous Accountants, Merchants, Bankers, and others Journalising, because they are not real transactions, but only who adopted it in their counting-houses in London, Liverpool, | arithmetical operations employed to check the accuracy of the Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. This method Cash Account. consists in having Dr. and Cr. money Columns in the Day-Book, The next book that is journalised is the Bill-Book. In perand putting in the one column the net sum to be carried to forming this operation, you make Bills Receivable Dr. to Sundries account in a line with the names of the Debtor and Creditor in for all the Bills received, that is, which are drawn by you or any entry; and in the other column the cost of the Goods, etc., transmitted to you during the month; you then specify the in a line with their quantity and price. In the former column are names of all the Persons on whose Account the Bills have been also entered the Discounts, Commissions, and other deductions received, at the same time collecting the sums of all those from the cost; and in the latter column are entered all Charges, received on the same person's account into one amount, as done Incidental Expenses, etc., forming additions to the cost. Owing in journalising the Cash Book ; and if Bills have been received to this arrangement, when properly effected, it is found that on only one person's account, make Bills Receivable Dr. to that when the two columns are added up at the bottom of every person. Next make Sundries Dr. to Bills Payable, for all the page, and at the end of every month, their amounts always Bills accepted during the month; then specify the names of all exactly agree, unless some error has been committed. Hence, if the Persons on whose account the bills have been accepted, and this process is carried on from page to, page, such error cannot collect the sums of all those accepted on the same person's acremain undetected longer than the time required to finish the count into one amount as before; and if bills have been page in which it occurs.
accepted on only one person's account, make that person Dr. to The same method of checking erroneous entries is adopted in Bills Payable. the Journal, where it is even of more importance than in the The next book to be journalised is the Day-Book. As the Day-Book. In the Journal also are employed the Double form of the entries in the Journal is similar to that of the money columns marked Dr. and Cr., and these contain all the entries in the Day-Book, there are, in general, no other changes aims placed to the Debit and Credit of the Different Accounts made upon the latter entries in transferring them from the which are kept in the Books according as they occur in the one book to the other, than those which an abridgment or a. Monthly Entries. Hence, as both the Debtor and Creditor are condensation of entries by means of combination is naturally mentioned in each entry, the amounts of the sums entered in suggested to the Bookkeeper from their exact similarity. This both columns, whether taken page after page, or month after abridgment or condensation is made in three ways:-1st. month, are sure to agree, if no mistake has been made in When the same account is debited to a number of different entering them; if there has, as we said before, it will be accounts at different dates of the same month; then make that detected as soon as the Bookkeeper reaches the bottom of the | account Dr. to Sundries for the amount of all the sums thus page. But this advantage, although great in keeping the entered, specify the name of each account, and collect all the Journal free from error, is not the only one gained by the adop sums belonging to each account into one amount. 2nd. When tion of this method. For the Ledger itself being a periodical a number of different accounts are debited to the same account transcript of the Journal, the amounts of all the sums entered at various dates of the same month; then make Sundries Dr. in the Dr. and Cr. columns of the Ledger during any given | to that Account for the amount of all the sums thus entered, period, must exactly agree with the amounts of the sums entered specify the name of each account, and collect all the sums bein the columns of the same name in the Journal. In this way longing to each account into one amount, as before. 3rd. When a regular and complete system of Checking Entries in Book the same two accounts are found in several entries, having the keeping is obtained ; the liability to commit error in posting is same relation to each other as Dr. and Cr., and at different dates very much diminished, if not altogether removed, and the of the same month; you then make a single entry of the whole, speedy detection of error is rendered almost certain in the and collect all the sums of the different entries into one amount. hands of an intelligent Bookkeeper. Moreover, the process of In these various cases of abridgment or combination, arrange balancing the Books at the year's end, which has always been the dates and the sums which belong to each Specified Account, considered a serious task under the old systems of Bookkeeping, in the proper columns of the Journal and in the same line with is thas made an operation of comparative ease, accuracy, and the name of each account, placing the latest date in a line with certainty.
the first name or word in the combined entry, and the whole It being now clearly understood by the student that the amount of all the suns in a line with the name of the general Journal is not in business what its name implies, a mere record Dr. or general Cr. in the entry. The commencement of each of lady occurrinces, but a collection of all the entries of the month in the Journal is distinctly shown by writing the name transactions of any concern for a given period, which are | of the month and the year across the page, in a space ext intended to be carried to account in the Ledger, it becomes ing from side to side. The dates are inserted in a necessary to explain how this part of Bookkeeping is performed. column to the left hand of each page; and parall The Journal is made up from the Daily or subsičmary-Books column is one intended for the folio of the Ledger
entries of each name and sum are posted into that Book. The legal inflictions, to be moved at the pleasure of every hirer ;-and whol numbers denoting the folios should be entered in this column beholding the ruin and havoc / made by a lázsuit, which |“ taco scruples of the Journal when these particulars are entered in the Ledger, of honesty” | in his counsel | might have prevented, can calmly pocket his but not till then; the absence of a folio figure in its proper
| fee with the reflection that he has done his duty to his client, alike column opposite the name of any account will then indicate
to regardless of duty to his neighbour' and his God.
That such men dó exist, to disgrace our profession, is lamentably trìe; that an entry has been omitted ; and the absence of all such
món figures will indicate that the entries without them have not
" that can speak yet been posted into the Ledger,
To every cause, and things mere cèntraries,
Till they are hoarse again, yet áll be LÅw." READING AND ELOCUTION.-XXII.
We would redeem its charaeter || by marking a higher standard of morals.
While our aid should never be withheld | from the injured or the EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (continued). accused, let it be remembered, that all our duties are not concentrated VI. ETERNITY OF GOD.
in conducting an appeal to the law ;-that we are not only lawyers, but Marked for Rhetorical Pauses, Emphasis, and Inflections.)
CITIZENS | and MEN ;-that our clients are not always the best judges
of their òron interests :-and that having confided these interests to our There is one Being || to whom we can look with a perfect conviction hands, it is for us to advise to that course which will best conduce to 1 of finding that security which nothing about us ' can give, and which their permanent benefit, not merely as solitary individuals, but as men nothing about us 'can take away. To this Being | we can lift up our connected with society | by enduring ties.--Greenleaf. souls, and on Him I we may rest them, exclaiming in the language of the monarch of Israel, “ Before the mountains were brought forth, or
VIII. HUMAN CULTURE, ever Thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlásting [To be marked by the reader, for Rhetorical Pauses, Emphasis, to everlasting || Thou art GÒD." "Of old | hast Thou laid the founda
and Inflections.] tions of the earth, and the heavens are the work' of Thy hands. They | shall pérish, but Thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall war
When we see a flower-its calyx filled with petals of exquisite form, old I like a garment, as a vèsture 'shalt Thou change them, and they
of the most delicate texture, and diverse colours, so rich and nicely shall be changed; but Thou art the same, and Thy years shall have
blended that no art can equal them, and withal perpetually diffusing a
delicious perfume, we cannot readily believe that all this variety of no end.". Here then is a support, which will néver fail; here' is a foundation
charms was evolved from a little seed, not bigger, it may be, than the
head of a pin. which can never be moved-the everlasting Creator of countless worlds, *the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity." What a SUBLÍME
When we behold a sturdy oak that has for a hundred years defied
the blasts of winter, has stretched wide around its sheltering liubs, CONCÈPTION! HE INHABITS ETÈRNITY, Occupies this inconceivable durdtion, PERVADES | and FILLS | THROUGHOUT || THIS' BOUNDLESS DWÈLLING.
and has seemed to grow only the more hardy the more it has been Ages on ages || before even the dust of which we are formed | was
pelted by the storms,--we find it difficult to persuade ourselves that created, he had existed i in infinite majesty, and ages on ages will roll
the essence, the elements of all this body and strength, were once
enclosed in an acorn. Yet such are the facts of the vegetable aray || after we have all returned to the dust whence we were táken, and still | He will exist | in infinite majesty, living
world. Nor are they half so curious nor wonderful as the changes,
in the eternity of his own nature, reigning ' in the plenitude of his own omnipotence, for ever
which are wrought by time and education, in the human mind and sending forth the word, which forms, supports, and governs' all things,
heart. commanding neuc-created light || to shine on new-created worlds, and
Here, for example, is a man now master of twenty languages, who raising up new-created generations | to inhabit them.
can converse in their own tongues with the people of as many different The contemplation of this glorious attribute of Góp, is fitted to excite
nations, whose only utterance thirty years ago was very much like, I in our minds the most animating and consóling reflections. Stand
and not any more articulate than, the bleating of a lamb. Or it may
be that he, who could then send forth only a wailing cry, is now ofer. ing, as we are, amid the ruins of time, and the torecks of mortality, where every thing about us | is created and dependent, proceeding from nothing,
whelming the crowded forum, or swaying the councils of the ration, and hastening to destruction, we rejoice i that something is presented to
by his eloquence, fraught with surpassing wisdom.
Here is another, who can conceive the structure, and direct the which has stood from everlasting, and will remain for ever. When we have looked on the pleasures of life, and they have vanished
| building of the mighty ship, that shall bear an embattled host around away; when we have looked on the works of nature, and perceived that
the world, carrying a nation's thunder; or the man, who can derisa they were changing ; on the monuments of art, and seen that they would
the plan of a magnificent temple, and guide the construction of it, nntil, not stand ; on our friends, and they have fled while we were gázing ;
it shall present to the eye of the beholder a perfect whole, glowing on ourselves, and felt that we were as fleeting as théy; when we have
with the unspeakable beauty of symmetrical form. looked on every object' to which we could turn our anrious éyes, and
And here is a third, who has comprehended the structure of the they bave all told us that they could give us no hope, nor support,
solar system. He has ascertained the relative sizes of the planets, because they were so feeble themselves; we can look to the THRONE of
and learned at what precise moments they shall severally complete
their circuits. He has even weighed the sun, and measured the dis. GOD: change and decay | have never reached ThÀT; the revolution of dges || has never moved it; the waves of an eternity | have been rushing
tances of the fixed stars; and has foretold the very hour " when the post it, but it has remained unshåken; the waves of another eternity |
dread comet," after an absence of centuries, « shall to the forehead of are rushing toward it, but it is FÌXED, and can núver be DISTURBED.
our evening sky return," Greenwood.
These men are the same beings who, thirty years ago, wero paling VII. THE UPRIGHT LAWYER.
infants, scarcely equal in their intelligence to kittens of a week old.
There, too, is a man who is swaying the destiny of nations. His [Marked for Rhetorical Pauses, Emphasis, and Inflections.]
empire embraces half the earth; and throughout his wido domanis In the walks of private life, the character of an upright lávoyer || shines' his will is law. At his command, hundreds of thousands rush to artes, with mild I but génial ! lustre. He concerns himself with the begin the pliant subjects of his insatiable ambition, ready to pour out therr nings of controversies, not to infláme' but to extinguish them. He is blood like water in his cause. He arranges them, as he pleases, to not content' with the doubtful morality' of suffering clients, whose execute his plans. He directs their movemeurts, as if they were pann passions are rðused, to rush blindly into legal conflict. His conscience upon a chessboard. He plunges them into deadly conflict, and wades can find nó balm
| au une renection, that he has put obeyed the orders to conquest over their dead and mangled bodies.
That mau, Calle of an dngry man. He feels that his first duties are to the community potic power of whose mind now overawes the world, was ones a feetle in which he lives, and whose peace | he is bound to preserre.
babe, who had neither the disposition nor the strength to harm a fly.. He is no stranger | to the mischiefs which follow in the train of liti. On the other hand, there is one who now evinces unconquerable gation; the deadly fouds and animosities | descending from the original energy, and the spirit of willing self-sacrifice in works of benevolencecombatants' to successive generations; the pérjuries' and frauds so No toil seems to overbenr his strength. No discouragement impair often committed to secure succèss; and the impoverishment so com- his resolution. No dangers disarm his fortitude. He will p monly resulting | even to the winning party; and in view of these con- into the most loathsome haunts of poverty or vice, that he may rebere sequences, he advises to amicable negotiation and adjustment. He is a l the wretohed, or reclaim the abandoned. He will traverse contien peacemaker-a composer of dissensions-a blessing to his neighbourhood ; and expose himself hourly to the capricious cruelty of barbarous men: his path | is luminous || as the path of the JUST.
that he may bear to them the glad tidings of salvation; or he wil I look with pity on the man, who regards himself ' a mere machine calmly face the scorn and rage of the cirilised world, in opposition to of the Idro ;--whose conceptions of moral and social duty Il are all the wrong; or march firmly to the stake, in maintenance of the true absorbed in the sense of supposed obligation to his client, and this i of so and the right. This man, a few years ago, might have been low a nature | as to render him a very TOOL' and SLÅVE to serve the crying for a sugar-plum, or quarrelling with his little sister for a twoworst passions of men ;--who yields himself ' a passivo instrument' of penny toy.
And who are they that are infesting society with their daripa * When the falling inflection recurs, in succession, as above, it falls crimes, scattering about them "fire-brands, arrows, and death," boldiy Istore +ench repetition,
setting at defiance the laws of man and of God? They are the sun
beings that, a few years ago, were innocent little children, who, could repetition of parts here manifested in a high degree. The same they have conceived of such deeds of darkness, as they now perpetrate parts are repeated over and over again, sometimes to tho without compunction, would havo shrunk from them instinctively with
number of many hundreds. In fact, the bodies of these animals horror.
may be said to consist of a long series of exactly similar rings These, surely, are prodigious changes, greater far than any exhibited in the vegetable world. And are they not changes of infinitely greater
or segments placed one behind the other, and containing all the moment? The growth of a mighty tree, from a small seed, may be
parts essential to life in each segment. By this statement it is matter for wonder, for admiration; but the development of a being,
not meant that the animal is an aggregate of individuals, or capable of such tremendous agencies for good or for evil, should be that it is capable of independent existence if severed from the with us all a matter of the deepest concern. Strange, passing strange, rest, but merely that the individual is maintained by the interthat it is not so !-May.
dependence of similar parts. In some species this statement The next piece is designed as an exercise in smooth” and is almost literally correct. Thus the earth-worm has a mouth "pure quality" of voice. The suavity of tone, which belongs to developed in the under side of the first segment, and an opening gentle and tender emotion, should prevail in the reading of this in the tail segment for the completion of the alimentary canal; beautiful composition. A full, clear, but softened note should but all the intermediate segmento form a series differing from be heard throughout.
one another only in size. Each segment has its own ring-like IX. MEMORY.
outer wall, its own nervous centre, its compartment of the [pu.t.] 'Tis sweet to remember! I would not forego
stomach, its transverse circulatory organs, and its so-called The charm which the past o'er the present can throw
peculiar segmental organs. In some of the water-worms the For all the gay visions that fancy may weave
presence of feelers, proboscises, and jaws in the fore partIn her web of illusion, that shines to deceive.
or of localised gills, etc., in the after parts-of the body, someWe know not the future—the past we have felt,
what interfere with this repetition ; but something corresponding Its cherished enjoyments the bosom can melt;
to these organs generally exists in a rudimentary condition in Its raptures anew o'er our pulses may roll,
the other segments, and in all the species the parts are indeWhen thoughts of the morrow fall cold on the soul.
finite in number, and many of the segments in each species 'Tis sweet to remember! When storms are abroad,
precisely alike. We see in the rainbow, the promise of God :
We have said that each segment has its own nervous centre, The day may be darkened,—but far in the west,
a centre consisting of two nerve knots, situated on the under In vermilion and gold, sinks the sun to his rest;
sido or floor of the segment, and sending lateral nervousWith smiles like the morning he passes away ; Thus the beams of delight on the spirit can play,
threads to its own special ring. It is, however, essential to When in ealm reminiscence we gather the flowers,
individual life that the whole of the nervous system should be Which love scattered round us in happier hours.
| united, and therefore, to effect this, two cords run from the two "Tis sweet to remember! When friends are unkind,
nerve-centres of each segment to each of the adjoining segments When their coldness and carelessness shadow the mind.
before and behind it. This arrangement gives rise to a double Then, to draw back the veil which envelops a land,
beaded or knotted cord of nervous matter stretching along the Where delectable prospects in beauty expand;
| floor of the body-cavity from end to end. Since the mouth To smell the green fields, the fresh waters to hear,
always opens on the under side of the body, and the organs of Whose once fairy music enchanted the ear;
sense, when present, are necessarily placed in the neighbourhood To drink in the smiles that delighted us then,
of this and in the front of the animal, it follows that the nervous To list the fond voices of childhood again,
centre, which supplies these organs with nerves (the necessary Oh! this the sad heart, like a reed that is bruised,
carriers of sensation), must be situated above the throat, and Binds up, when the banquet of hope is refused.
must also be joined to the next centre lying under the throat by 'Tis sweet to remember! And naught can destroy
two cords, one of which runs on each side of the gullet; other. The balm. breathing comfort, the glory, the joy,
wise symmetry would not be maintained. The form of the Which spring from that fountain, to gladden our way, When the changeful and faithless desert or betray.
nervous system arising from these arrangements is the most I would not forget !-though my thoughts should be dark;
distinguishing character of the articnlata, and it is retained by O'er the ocean of life, I look back from my bark,
all the members of this sub-kingdom, however much they have Ard see the fair Eden, where once I was blest,
become modified from the elongated worm-like type. This A type and a promise of heavenly rest.-Clark.
character has given rise to the term homogangliata, which means that the animals so named have a system of repeated,
similar, nervous knots. This division includes all the articulate COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.–VIII. animals, and excludes all other animals; for though the spinal ANNELIDA : RINGED WORMS.
cord of vertebrates may be looked upon by some as the aggrega
tion of a lineal series of nervous centres, yet this tract is not We have now arrived at a class in the animal kingdom in crossed by the alimentary canal in their case, and is probably which the radial symmetry is almost entirely abandoned, and not homologous with this system at all. the two-sided arrangement is perfect. In accordance with this In this symmetry in the arrangement of the nervous system, advance we find many of these animals gifted with considerable and in the segmental condition of their bodies, the worms are powers of locomotion, and it is in this class that we first find like the higher classes of the articulata, which are represented animals which have adopted a quasi-aërial mode of life. Nature, by the centipede insects and crustaceans and spiders. They we are told by the ancients, and told truly, does nothing differ from these in having no definitely jointed limbs, in having suddenly, and hence, though the arrangement best adapted to a system of blood vessels completely shut off from the bodyrapid locomotion is found in this class, and some of these cavity whose whole circuit is perfect, and in having ciliated animals reside in that thin medium through which the body membranes at some period of their lives in some part of their can be impelled with the greatest velocity, yet the means of bodies. Besides these distinctive characters there is another locomotion in this class are but feeble. The instruments of very generally possessed by worms, and that is that the Tocomotion, the limbs, are but rudimentary; and though the exterior of their bodies, instead of being stiff and hard, is soft carth-worm be capable of breathing in air, it respires on the and flexible. The body-wall is composed, not of a horny subaquatic type, and, indeed, requires that its skin be kept moist stance called chitine, as is the case in insects; but of memto respire at all. Hence, the earth-worm always inhabits moist braneous material, in the internal layers of which muscular Earth, and makes its peregrinations above the soil after dark, fibres are embedded. Since there are no jointed levers for hen the sun's rays, which would rapidly dry it up, are directed limbs, it follows that the whole movement of the body must
depend on the flexibility, contractility, and elasticity of the This class also introduces us to the articulate type of animals integument, and hence the soft character of the outer integument under its simplest form. In the worms the beginnings of all is a matter of necessity. The more complicated organs which we find in the lobster and The species which stands as the representative of the wholme bee are present, but present in a very incomplete condition. of this class, both on account of its occurrence everywhere in accordance with what we have said about the characteristics of the multitude of individuals which it composes, is the o of an animal of a low grade of structure, we find the vegetative earth-worm (Lumbricus terricola). Nevertheless, this is
u berrant species of the eiass than its proper type. Its is well seen in the ventral feelers shown in the section of a bestence in muisi arth Ns impusei zpon it ifferent means segment of the body of the Eunice. of woomuson, and s
t eparation, to the mone typical! The food canal of these animals runs in a straight or slightly examples of the anne..is te proper pe of the ciass is flexnous course from head to tail. There is sometimes a musR e ceni mung Dose a s v. sermen ind : the ular gizzard, and generally the tube is more or less sacculated sanus .u-se acu se ss s
acis the —that is, it consists of alternate enlargements and constricmes 20- si
resmi me n uistions, the enlargements usually corresponding to one or more amateur sex sese se Sa
l ine of the outer rings of the body. From the outer wall to the Sr . Sos CE vaststei
KT 13; anilise constrictions run partitions which divide the body cavity into a t se za me
s tustui both number of chambers. These partitions are not complete, but mo scsante : sess.
acter are of very i are perforated so as to allow of the passage of the fluid of the g uetes
e 30 : peas je the under cavity (called the chylaqueous fuid), which flows rapidly froin is e Tut ar 2 c ry Jonction to one chamber into another with the movements of the creature. Seren sauren
PONTICSS sumal, like the In some the body carits
In some the body cavity, or space between the food canal and M . u .
e '$ Jeceptive, and outer skin, is large; but in some it is but small, and in earth. mense
2: 24 Vertiaws are concealed. | worms it is almost obliterated. In the leech it is absolutely it..
a suddenly evert and lost, so that the sane network of vessels which runs round the w
ret wakh a large pair of stomach, and sucks and absorbs the alimentary liquids into w s a
black the fingers of its the blood, also supplies the integument with blood, and there
Yol tracted in the same exposes it to the influences of the air s
ugitt be withdrawn by From the foregoing sentences the intelligent reader will ol d
rhese retractible trunks have gathered that in the annelids there are two distinct vital
is in dues of the sea-worms, and fluids which are shut off from one another : ww w .es wwUSCIS !$ vuiy armed with one pair 1. The fluid which occupies all the space between the food
Wiely giat, or nine jaws. Thus, tube and body-wall, which is of watery consistence and pale w w w and that the bilateral symmetry, colour, though containing albumen and little roundish bags Jos
tu body, 18 here interfered I called corpuscles. S
i siw na new ws are found on one side, and 2. The fluid contained in the blood vessels, which has usually
e ise er species there are four jaws on no corpuscles, and is of a dark red or green colour. ... wie wind i Jaws on the left. Besides these Though at first one might have supposed the last-named
ama bukvily, vthur instruments are sometimes was the blood proper corresponding to the blood of the higher w w
ww us spooies has a circlet of cartila- | animals, on account of its being contained in definite veins und es wuboravim, and another has a number of and arteries, yet the real representative of the blood is the N
u to form a file. In others the first-named fluid, and the vascular system corresponds to the onto Ward, und must act as a flexible lip to suck in ambulacral, or water-vascular system, which we have described
as found in the annuloida. This system is very probably repreW o d to the remainder of the segments behind the sented in insects by the tracheal system; a system which we
a oboadly, thay No almost exactly alike, the external must describe hereafter, and which is applied to an utterly w indow bob locomotivo organs, and more or less developed different purpose. Whatever be the homology, or structural
affinity, of this vascular system in worms, it attains in them Im who win the Norels, the gills are not well developed, a high degree of perfection and complication. with w h ey protruded thin membranes where the In the Eunice, which may be taken as a type of the circula
har bumaba a lovalaod, but in nearly allied forms, these tion in those worms whose integument is distinct or not mina ovalopod iuba branohed bundles of vessels, or into adherent to the food canal, the arrangement of the vascular
TV in the substance of which the blood enters, / system and the course of its contents are as follow :-Two main
maod to the influence of the surrounding water vessels run along the upper side of the intestine, and receive m h Wil Vory thru walls. There is thus considerable the blood and the fluids added from the aliment from the net
.. u tha mature of their organs, which will be best work of vessels which invests that tube. At the point where m aand au wa hava described the general circulation in
the dilated throat joins the intestinal tube a large vessel runs
the dilated the W mia 16 la suiticient here to say that the gills or round the alimentary tube, while the two vessels before named M a vanalary Vessels are, when present, always protruded are united into one large contractile vessel, and thus continued
the u pper side of the animal, and are sometimes forward towards the head. The large single vessel does not avaluad a very segment, but confined to certain regions adhere to the throat or pharynx, but acts as a heart to propel
dunvalo hudy. So in the common lob-worm (Arenicola) the blood received, not only from the intestine, but also from $ AMA Hinilala the mixteen middle segments of the body. | vessel which runs along the integument of the back. The bloc
vanna which are most effective are bundles of thus derived from the system, both alimentary and intestinal, w on which stand at the ends of protrusions from is forced by branches to the head and also round into a vessel my wall and which can be more or less retracted into the which runs along the floor of the body. This ventral vessel, as H a mile which hear them. These bundles of bristles it is called, gives off at each segment a lateral branch on each W i red, and sometimes there are two pairs on each side, which is bent into a muscular loop, which acts as a special
on are brush-like oars, which the animal plies with heart to drive the blood to the network of vessels lying under W adly one after the other in succession, that the each tuft-like gill. After being aërated in the gills the blood is Mon produced to the eye is as of a series of waves returned to the main dorsal vessel by ducts, which are sustained
nolex from head to tail. Hence the simile by the partitions which join the body wall to the intestinal WM In these animals of a galley with its bank of wall. In the case of the lob-worm (Arenicola) the gills are
Mongated sutter with a multitude instead of supplied from vessels which branch off from the main trunk Wh y A good one, since the oars of these all running along the top of the intestine, and they return the
was the brushes of the sea-worm play suc- blood to the great dorsal vessel, which is situated in the mid: othes, the remarkable order which the simile | line of the integument. The gills of this creature are beautiful
These organs are, of course, very objects under the microscope, although they appear to be but bs of the arthropoda, and cannot confused tufts of vessels to the naked eye. Although these "atance with the same definiteness tufts of vessels are so very delicate that the blood shines not ill suited to the wants of the through them, and as indeed it is necessary they should be for found among the sand and mud of the function of respiration to be accomplished, yet they have jelp falas limba are equally effective voluntary muscular fibres running round them. This is mani
Bouldes the bunches of bristles, fest, not only from the revelation of the microscope ; but also Bow called olevi, which seem to have from the faet that the animal can empty and retract any or all
The relation of those to one another of its gills at pleasure. In this case the gills are little else than
tufts of vessels derived exclusively from the closed vascular than most worms, being of an oval form. That which is most circuit; but in those cases before alluded to, where the gills are attractive about this otherwise inert and uninteresting animal more like solid plates, not only is the fluid of the vessels con- is the splendid play of colours which glances from the thicklyveyed into them; but they are channelled into spaces into which set bristles which clothe its sides. The bristles are from their the chylaqueous fluid of the abdominal cavity can find its way, shape not only locomotive organs, but means of defence; for and thus becomes exposed to the influence of the oxygen of the many of them are found, under the microscope, to be small water.
harpoons, furnished with many barbs. These, like the oarWhen the gills are almost wholly composed of protrusions of bristles of other families, are capable of being withdrawn into
4. XEREIS (A SEA-WORM), II. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE EUNICE. III. PROBOSCIS OF A NEARLY ALLIED SPECIES. IV. LEECH, SHOWING
IENTARY CANAL LAID OPEN ALONG THE BACK. V. DIAGRAM SHOWING THE CIRCULATION IN THE LEECH. ORAL SUCKER OF A LEECH. VII. LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF AN EARTH-WORM, SHOWING THE CIRCULATION, VIII, DIAGRAM SHOWING THE CIRCULATION IN A TRANSVERSE SECTION OF A WORM AT THE TAIL END OF THE ANIMAL IX. DIAGRAM SHOWING THE TRANSVERSE
CIRCULATION IN A LOB-WORM (ARENICOLA). Leks. to Nos. in Fig. II.-1, comb-like gill ; 2, dorsal feelers; 3, bundles of bristles ; 4, ventral feelers; 5, cavity of alimentary canal ; 6, dorso
intestinal vessels ; 7, ventral vessel; 8, vascular loop acting as a heart to force the blood to the gills ; 9, plexus of vessels beneath
the vascular system through the body wall, since the blood in pits made by the inversion of the papillæ on which they are them is kept in constant and rapid circulation, it is necessary set. Lest the harpoons should wound the skin when withthat the outer sea-water should be as rapidly changed ; and drawn, each is furnished with a sheath consisting of two pieces, hence we find such gills are clothed with those minute, con which are made into a split tube holding the retracted weapon. stantly-moving hairs which we call cilia. On the other hand, The common sea-mouse has two stalked eyes and three tentacles when the gills are in the shape of massive lobes so channelled on its head. One great peculiarity of its structure is that its out as to admit of the chylaqueous fluid to remain in them, back is covered in with a coating of felt composed of tangled and to be only changed slowly by the motion of the body, the and matted hairs. This felt covering is not continuous, but necessity of change of the external water is not so pressing, and consists of pairs of plates attached to certain segments of the therefore these lobes are naked and not ciliated.
body, the hind edges of the front plates overlapping the The representative of one of the families of sea-worms is the edges of those which come behind. These plates common sea-mouse (Aphrodite). It is much broader and shorter up and down by muscles, which are capable of a