« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
four or five minutes with redoubled earnestness, sagely observed that
Must he,-a blooming, laughter-loving child, "he had his doubts about the matter"-which in process of time Be mated thus?—The thought wis cruel, wild! gained him the character of a man slow in belief, and not easily
His knees together smote, as first, in fear, imposed on.
He gazed around his prison ;-then a tear The person of this illustrious old gentleman was as regularly formed
Sprang to his eyes in kind relief; and said and nobly proportioned as though it had been moulded by the hands
The little boy, “I will not be afraid. of some cunning Dutch statuary, as a model of majesty and lordly
Was ever spirit of the good man known grandeur. He was exactly five feet six inches in height, and six feet
To injure children whom it found alone?" five inches in circumference. His head was a perfect sphere, and of And straight he taxed his memory, to supply ruch stupendous dimensions, that dame Nature, with all her sex's Stories and texts, to show he might rely ingenuity, would have been puzzled to construct a neck capable of
Most safely, humbly, on his Father's care, supporting it; wherefore she wisely declined the attempt, and settled
Who hears a child's as well as prelate's prayer. it firmly on the top of his backbone, just between the shoulders. His
And thus he stood,-on Whitefield's form his glance body was of an oblong form, particularly capacious at bottom; which
In reverence fixed,-and hoped deliverance. is wisely ordered by Providence, seeing that he was a man of sedentary habits, and very averse to the idle labour of walking. His legs,
Meanwhile, the recreant teacher, -where was he? though exceeding short, were sturdy in proportion to the weight they
Gone in cffrontery to take his tea had to sustain; so that, when ereet, he had not a little the appearance
With the lad's mother!-Supper done, he told of a robustious beer-barrel standing on skids. His face, that infallible
The feat that should display her son as bold.
With eye indignant, and with words of flame, inder of the mind, presented a vast expanse, perfectly unfurrowed or
How showers that mother's scorn, rebuke, and shame, deformed by any of those lines and angles which disfigure the human
And bids him haste! and hastes herself, to bring countenance with what is termed expression. Two small grey eyes
Him from Death's realm, who knew not yet its sting: twinkled feebly in the midst, like two stars of lesser magnitude in the bazy firmament; and his full-fed cheeks, which seemed to have taken
And yet believed,-so well her son she knew,
The noblo boy would to himself be true: toll of ererything that went into his mouth, were curiously mottled and streaked with dusky red, like a Spitzenberg apple.
He would sustain himself, and she would find His habits were as regular as his person. He daily took his four
Him patient and possessed, she trusted well his mind.
The boy yet lives, and fro:n that distant hour stated meals, appropriuting exactly an hour to each; he smoked and
Dates much of truth that on his heart hath power; doubted eight hours; and he slept the remaining twelve of the four
And chiefly this,-whate'er of wit is wed and-twenty. Such was the renowned Wouter Van Twiller-a true philosopher; for his mind was either elevated above or tranquilly
To word of his,-to reverence the dead. settled below the cares and perplexities of this world. He had lived
XIV. FOUNDATION OF NATIONAL CHARACTER. in it for years without feeling the least curiosity to know whether the sin revolved round it, or it round the sun; and he had watched for
[To be marked for Inflections by the student.] at least half a century the smoke curling from his pipe to the ceiling, Mental energy has been equally diffused by sterner levellers than without once troubling his head with any of those numerous theories ever marched in the van of a revolution, the nature of man and the by which the philosopher would have perplexed his brain, in account. providence of God. Native character, strength, and quickness of ing for its rising above the surrounding atmosphere.--Washington mind are not of the number of distinctions and accomplishments Irring.
that human institutions can monopolise within a city's walls. In III. THE CHILD OF THE TOMB: A STORY OF NEW BURYPORT.
quiet times they remain and perish in the obscurity to which a false
organisation of society consigns them. In dangerous, convulsed, and [The following fact is found in Knapp's “Life of Lord trying times, they spring up in the fields, in the village hamlets, and Dexter.”]
on the mountain tops, and teach the surprised favourites of human Where WHITEFIELD sleeps, remembered, in the dust,
law, that bright eyes, skilful hands, quick perceptions, firm purpose,
and brave hearts, are not the exclusive appanage of courts. The lowly vault held once a double trust;
Our popular institutions are favourable to intellectual improvement, And Parsons, reverend name, that quiet tomb
because their foundation is in dear nature. They do not consign the Possessed, -to wait the day of weal and doom.
greater portion of the social frame to torpidity and mortification. They Another servant of the living God, PRINCE, who (bereft of sight) his way had trod,
send out a vital nerve to every member of the community, by which its
talent and power, great or small, are brought into living conjunction Unerringly and safe, life's journey through,
and strong sympathy with the kindred intellect of the nation; and Now sought admittance to these slumberers too.
every impression on every part vibrates, with electric rapidity, through As earth roceded, and the mansions blest
the whole. They encourage nature to perfect her work; they make Rose on his vision,-"Let my body rest
education, the soul's nutriment, cheap; they bring up remote and With Whitefield's"-said he, yielding up his breath,
shrinking talent into the cheerful field of competition : in a thousand In life beloved, and not disjoined in death,
ways they provide an audience for lips which nature has touched with Obedient to his wish, in order then
persuasion; they put a lyre into the hands of genius; they bestow on Were all things done; the tomb was oped to ken
all who deserve it, or seek it, the only patronage worth having, the Of curioug eses,-mude ready to enclose
only patronage that ever struck out a spark of " celestial fire,”-the Another tenant in its hushed repose :
patronage of fair opportunity. And, lighted with a single lamp, whose ray
This is a day of improved education: new systems of teaching are Fell dimly down upon the mouldering clay,
devised; modes of instruction, choice of studies, adaptation of textWas left, prepared, to silence as of night,
books, the whole machinery of means, have been brought, in our day, Till hour appointed for the funeral rite.
under severe revision. But were I to attempt to point out the most It chanced the plodding teacher of a school,
efficacious and comprehensive improvernent in education--the engine A man of whim, bold, reckless, yet no fool,
by which the greatest portion of mind could be brought and kept Deemed this an opportunity to test
under cultivation, the discipline which would reach furthest, sink How far the fears of spirits might infest
deepest, and canse the word of instruction not to spread over the The bosom of a child. A “likely" boy.
surface, like an artificial hue, carefully laid on, but to penetrate to The choicest of his flock, a mother's joy,
the heart and soul of its objects-it would be popular institutions. He took, unscrupulous of means, if he
Give the people an object in promoting education, and the best His ends might gain, and solve the mystery.
methods will infallibly be suggested by that instinctive ingenuity
of our nature, which provides means of great and precious ends. Both stood within the mansion of the dead,
Give the people an object in promoting education, and the worn And while the stripling mused, the teacher fled,
hand of labour will be opened to the last farthing, that its children Leaving the child, where the dull cresset shone,
may enjoy means denied to itself.-E. Everett.
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XXIII. Of the cold earth-the living in the tomb!
THE PARABOLA--THE HYPERBOLA,
PROBLEM LXIII.—To describe a parabola by fixing a number of Though near the haunt of busy, cheerful day,
points through which the curve may be traced, the abscissa and He, to drear night and solitude the prey!
ordinate of any point in the curve being given. Must he be watcher with these corpses!-Who
Let P (Fig. 91) be any point in the required parabola, Can tell what sights may rise? Will reason then be true? A represent its ordinate, and B its abscissa. Through
straight line Px of indefinite length towards x, and along px pivot A. Before starting, when the edge of the ruler is con. from P set off PC, CD, each equal to A. Through c draw cy tiguous to x y, the point G will be at 1, the pencil-point at F. of unlimited length towards y, and along it from c set off ce and the string in the position BF, FK. As the ruler moves equal to B. Through P and d draw PF, DG parallel to CE and upwards, the pencil-point traces out the curve FLNP, the point
1p equal to it, and through E draw G describing or moving in the path of the arc u , and the I TG parallel and equal to Px. end of the ruler p in the path of the arc ko. The point 1Divide PC, CD into any numbere, where AB is bisected at right angles by the perpendicular
of equal parts in the points a, b, E s, is the centre of the hyperbola. By reversing the ruler, dc, etc., and divide P F, DG each and repeating the operation below x y, the lower part, FT, of
into the same number of equal | the curve
parts in the points m, n, o, etc., PFT may be ŏ s, t, u, etc., as each of the straight traced ; and
lines PC, CD have been divided by fixing the 1. into. Draw straight lines through ruler so that * the points a, b, c, etc., parallel to the point re1 C E, and from E draw straight presented in
plines to the points m, n, o, etc., the figure at B
in P F, and the points s, t, u, a may be at Fig. 91.
etc., in DG. Then through the B, and the
points 1, 2, 3, etc., formed by the end of the intersection of Er with the parallel through f, E q, with the string fastparallel through e, E p, with the parallel through d, etc., trace ened at A, the curve EP above the axis EC, and the curve ED below it. the opposite The curve PED is the required parabola.
branch of PROBLEM LXIV.-To describe an hyperbola by mechanical the hypermeans.
bola passing The hyperbola, instead of being considered as a single curve, through E is frequently represented as consisting of two equal and sym. may be de
Fig. 93. metrical curves, having their vertices opposite each other, and scribed. The their branches proceeding in contrary directions. The reason straight line V BU, passing through the focus B, is called the of this may be understood from Fig. 92, in which two cones are latus rectum of the hyperbola ; FB the abscissa, and sv the represented, the one having its apex against the apex of the ordinate of the point v; iz the abscissa, and pz, T3 the other, and its base turned in the contrary direction. Such a ordinates of the points P and T. The chief peculiarity of double cone as this may be generated by the revolution of two the parabola is, that the distance of every point in the curte, as equal equiangular and similar right-angled triangles, having the ruler passes from one position to another from the focus, is their vertices contiguous, and their altitudes in the same equal to its distance from the point marked g in the ruler. straight line as the triangles A B C, A DE, in the figure. We Thus, when the ruler is in the position A K, and G is at , may also conceive the double cone to be generated by the FI is equal to FB; in the position AD, LB is equal to LG;
revolution of a straight line, BA F, or D AG, in the position AO, NM is equal to N B; while in the position - round its central point, A (which is fixed), and AP, PW is equal to PB. The distances, AF, FB; AL, LB;
inclined at any angle less than a right angle AN, NB; AP, PB, are called the focal distances of the points
cone in NOR, PSQ, which form two equal and the abscissa and ordinate of any point in the curve being
are considered as each forming a branch of In Fig. 94 let any indefinite straight line, x Y, be the axis of the Fig. 92. the complete hyperbola.
required hyOur readers will now more readily compre- perbola; the hend the method of describing an hyperbola by mechanical portion in. P. means, and when certain data are given; and they will also tercepted be. understand why an hyperbola is said to have two foci, like antween the ellipse.
points A and In X Y (Fig. 93), which represents any straight line of indefinite B being set length, let two points, A and B, be selected as the foci of the off equal to hyperbola to be described. Take a flat, narrow ruler, CD, with P, the giveny a hole in it near one end, through which a pin may be inserted major axis ; to fasten the ruler to the paper or board on which the hyperbola and q, e beis to be traced, the ruler working freely round the pin. Suppose ing the given F, in A B, be selected as the vertex of the hyperbola that is to abscissa and be traced. Take another point, E in A B, so that AE is equal ordinate of to FB; then E will be the vertex of the opposite branch of the a point in hyperbola, and EF the major axis of the curve. Let a string the curve. be fastened at the end, D, of the ruler C D, and let the string From B, set be of unlimited length, or, what is as well, of the same length off along xy, as the ruler. Set off along the ruler from the point a, in the in the direo
Fig. 94. direction AD, a straight line A G, equal to E F, and holding the tion of Y, string tightly to the edge of the ruler, mark it at the point B C equal to Q, and through c draw the straight line DE CE opposite to the point G in the ruler; then thrust a pin through indefinite length, at right angles to xr; and from c along DL
ring at the point thus marked, and fasten it down at the in the directions of D and E, set off cp, CG, each equal to 1.
Keeping the cord stretched to its utmost tension The points F and G are points in the required curve. Throaga noil-point, and having the edge of the ruler applied F and G draw F u, GK parallel to Xy, and through a draw Light line xy, move it slowly upwards round the parallel to DE. Divide CF, CG each into five equal parts
the points a, b, etc., e, f, etc., and divide H F, KG also into | during the revolution. It is evident that, as every point of the five equal parts in the points k, l, etc., 0, P, etc. Of course, circumference of the circle in succession touches the straight when the curve is large, the greater the number of parts into line A c during the revolution, Ac, which we may call the base which the double ordinate, FG, and the parallels, I F, KG, are of the cycloid, is equal in length to the circumference of the divided, the more accurately the curve can be traced, care circle BKD. If the circle be caused to return to its position being taken to divide the parallels into the same number of in the centre of the cycloid when B is at its highest position, as equal parts as each half of the double ordinate, FG, is divided in the figure, and straight lines, such as M H, N F, be drawn into. From the point A draw straight lines through the points through the circle parallel to the base and terminating both F, 4, 6, etc., and from B draw straight lines through the points ways in the curve of the cycloid, these straight lines pass k, l, etc., 0, P, etc., and through the points of intersection of through opposite points in the circumference of the circle B K D,
at equal distances from the diameter B D, whieh is perpendicular to the base, G L being equal to go, and EK to EP. It will be found that lh is equal to the arc B L, and that the arc Bu is equal to twice the chord B L, and so on for the other points, M, N, F, in the curve of the cycloid, through which straight lines have been drawn parallel to the base. The arc BC will therefore be equal to twice BD, the diameter of the generating circle, and the whole curve A B C consequently
equal to four times B D. This curve is said to have been Fig. 95.
discovered and its properties first investigated by Galileo. the lines Aa, BN, Ab, Bm, etc., numbered 1, 2, etc., and the points
PROBLEM LXVII.—To describe a spiral.
Take any point, A (Fig. 97), as the centre of the spiral to be F, B, and g, trace the curve FBG. This curve is the hyperbola required.
drawn. Draw a horizontal straight line, x y, of indefinite length Lest some of our readers may be tempted to inquire of what
through A, and from A as centre, with any distance, A B, practical use it may be to be acquainted with the method of
| describe the semicircle B DC. tracing parabolas and hyperbolas of different degrees of cur.
Then from the point B as rature, we may remind them that the parabola sometimes is
centre, with the distance B C, used in forming an arch, while such articles as tazzas and wine
describe the semicircle CEF glasses, and other pieces of useful and ornamental china-ware,
on the opposite side of A B. may be formed by the revolution of an hyperbola about its
Next, from A as centre, with
LPY axis, as may be seen by copying the curve in Fig. 94, so that the vertex, B, points downwards, and then adding a slender stem
the semicircle F G H, and and foot to form a wine-glass.
then from B and a, in alterPROBLEM LXVI.—To describe the curve called the cycloid.
nation as centres, at the The term cycloid, derived from the Greek KukAOELồns (ku-klo
distances BH, A L, etc. etc., i'-dees), like a circle, is a name given to the curve traced by any
describe as many semicircles point in the circumference of a circle during the complete revolu.
| in succession as may be
Fig. 97. tion of the circle while rolling along a straight line. For example,
required. A spiral of any 23 2 carriage is drawn along on a road or railroad, the end of
given number of turns may be described on a given straight any spoke in one of its wheels, or a nail in the tire, describes a
line by dividing the given straight line into as many equal parts succession of curves, similar to the curve resembling half of an
as there are turns required, and bisecting the central division ellipse in Fig. 95. That the reader may understand how the curve
if the number of turns be odd, or the division on the right or is traced, let A B C D represent a circle, having two diameters, AC,
left of the centre of the line if the number of turns be even. BD, intersecting each other at right angles, and let the circle be
The centres to be fixed in describing the semicircles must be standing on a straight line, xy, of indefinite length, so that
the point of bisection, and either of the points of division immethe diameter ac is at right angles to xy, which is a tangent
diately contiguous to it if the number of turns be odd, or the to the circle A B C D, the circle touching it only in the point A.
point of bisection and the centre of the divided line if the Suppose the circle to roll slowly along the straight line x y, in
number of turns be even. Thus, in Fig. 97, if it be required the direction of x, and pass into the position A' B'c' d'. It
to describe a spiral of eight turns or semicircles on the given has now performed a quarter of a complete revolution, and the
straight line R T, divide R T into eight equal parts, in the point A in ascending into the position A' has traced a path
points n, H, C, B, F, L, P, and bisect BC, or BF, in a for the represented by the curve A A'. In the next quarter of a revo
centre of the spiral. Then from the points A and B, in alternalution the point A is brought to the top in the position A",
tion, describe the semicircles BDC, C EF, etc. etc. and when a complete revolution of the circle has been made it
PROBLEM LXVIII.-Any two straight lines being given, to bas passed from A" to A"" and A"', having traced in its passage
determine a curve from A to A" the curve A A'A'A'A'. Practically, the cycloid
by which they shall may be traced by causing a thin disc of metal, ivory, or even
be connected. Cardboard, having a slight nick in its circumference to receive a
Let A B,C D (Fig. pencil point, to travel slowly along the edge of a ruler until a
98) be any two straight lines which it is required to connect by a curve. Produce A B, CD in the direction of B and c, until they meet in E. Bisect the angle Bec by
the straight line
EF. From the
Fig. 98. complete revolution has been made. At the commencement of c of the straight the revolution the pencil-point must be on the line along which lines A B, CD, draw BF, CF perpendicular to A B and on the disc is to revolve, as A, in the straight line x y, in Fig. 95 respectively, and intersecting each other and tho straight line
EF in the point F. From Fas centre, with the distance FB or Like the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola, the cycloid has FC, describe the arc BC. This arc connects the straight lines Ttain properties peculiar to itself. Suppose the circle B KD AB, CD. The same process is followed when the given straight 119.96) revolving along the straight line A C, to have traced out lines are at right angles to each other, as AB, GH, which are de cycloid ABC by the passage of the point B from A to c connected by a curve, B G, struck from K as centre, the of
intersection of the perpendiculars BK, G K, drawn, as before, at
Inf. Pres. right angles to the extremities, B and G, of the given straight
English. to lore. lines A E, G H. Next, let the given straight lines A B, C D be parallel to one
1 Sup. 2 Sup.
Pres. Part. Put. Part, Act, another. Through B and c (Fig. 99) draw F BX, C E, perpendicular
Latin. Amátum, Amātu,
Amatūrus, to AB, CD respectively. Join BC, and having taken a point, K. in English. to love. to be loved.
about to lote, BF, so that BK shall be less than BC, draw KL through K,
Ger. Ger. Ger. Ger. Inf. Perf. parallel to BC, and cutting CE in L; from L as centre, with the Latin. Amandi, Amando, Amandum, Amando, Amarisse, distance LC, which is equal to BK, describe the arc c M, meeting English. of loving. to loving. loving. by loving. to have loved. BC in M. Join L M, and produce it in the same straight line
Imp. towards m, to meet Fx in N. Front N as centre, with the
Latin. Amaturum esse,
Ind. Pres. Indicative Mood, Present Tense.
Sub. Pres. Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense. by the curve BMC.
Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense. If, however, the
Sub. Imp. Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense. given straight lines
First Future Tense. are not parallel,
Second Future Tense.
Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense.
Sub. Perf. Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense, one or both were
Ind. Pluperf, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense. produced, as G H
Sub. Pluperf. Subjunctive Mood, Pluperfect Tense. produced meets B A
Infinitive Mood, Present Tense, in A, forming the
Inf. Perf. Infinitive Mood, Perfect Tense. small angle H AB,
Infinitive Mood, Future Tense. draw, as before, Fx
Imperative Mood. and go at right
First Supine. angles to A B and
Fut. Part. Act. Future Participle, Active Voice.
The Gerund. in BF; make G P equal to BK, and join KP. Bisect kp in e, and draw QR perpendicular to KP, meeting Fx in R. Join
Having in the above corresponding parts given the Latin sa RP, and from P as centre, at the distance Pg. describe the arc well as the English of several members of the verb, I need not G8, meeting Rp in s. Then from the centre r, at the distance repeat them. I supply in full what remains. As I write for RB or Es, describe the arc BS, completing the curve BS G. by young men and women rather than for children, I omit adding which the given straight lines A B, 1 are connected.
the English in all the details of the persons; for when you know This problem exhibits a mode of construction useful to
what is the first person, you will readily supply the rest: thus, engineers in laying out the curves of a railway; to landscape
if the English of amaveram, the first person, is I had lowed, gardeners, in laying out walks and roads : and to carpenters, you know that the English of amaveras, the second person, 18 in forming curves to connect the straightedeg of a piece of wooá | thou hadst loved ; and of amaverat, the third person, he had by a curve, when they are either parallel to one another, or in
loved ; so also in the plural. clined to each other at a greater or less angle.
Instead of I might have loved, the sub. pluperf. may someAt this point we bring to a conclusion our Lessons in Geo. | times be rendered (put into English) by I would, I should, or 1 metry, in which we have explained, as clearly and as fully as
have explained, as clearly and as fully as could have loved. possible, the leading principles of the science on which all the In the corresponding English words, I have given the nearest constructive arts are based. Of the practical value of geometry approach to the several Latin parts. The student will do well to the artisan and mechanic we have already given many proofs. to adhere strictly to these meanings at first, though, as we It will not be too much to say that any one who has studied correspondence between the several Latin and the severs! these lessons carefully, and understands them thoroughly, has | English parts is not entirely complete and constant, he will find not only rendered himself a scientific workman, but has ad. | occasions when his English will appear scarcely idiomatic, or vanced far on his way to become an architect or civil engineer, strictly proper. He cannot, however, learn too soon, that in or to enter any profession in which a knowledge of geometry is few particulars are any two languages exactly correspondent. an essential requisite. From these lessons the student will | Accordingly, for amo, I have set down what may be termed find it of the greatest advantage to turn to “Euclid's Elements three meanings--namely, I love, I do love, and I am loring. of Geometry," in which he will find a conclusive proof of almost Hore it is obvious that the English is more rich than the Latin, every construction that has been brought under his notice in inasmuch as it has three forms of the present tense indicative the preceding problems.
mood, while the Latin has but one form. Having but one form, the Latin cannot by a form indicate the variations of the English
present tense. Consequently, here is a want of strict corre LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXIII.
spondence; and here also is a source of doubt; for we may ask, REGULAR VERBS.-THE FIRST CONJUGATION.
what is the English equivalent of amo ? is it, I love, or I do ACTIVE VOICE.
love, or I am loving?
After these remarks the student will know that it is with Example.--Amo, I lore. Chief Parts : amo, amāvi, amātum,
some latitude that he is to take these amāre. Characteristic letter, a.
CORRESPONDING LATIN AND ENGLISH SIGNS. PARTS WITH THE CORRESPONDING ENGLISH.
Ind. Pres. Sub. Pres. Ind. Imp. Sub. Imp. i Fut. 27.
rem, bo, ero, Latin. Amo, Amem, Amabam, Amirem,
did. might. II. vill kart. English, I lore, I may lore. I did lore. I might Love.
Ind. Perf. Sub. Perf. Ind. Pluperf. Sub. Pluperf. Inf. Pris I do love, or
Latin. i, erin, eram,
might hase. .
Inf, Perf:-Latin, isse; English, to hare.
Inf. Fut. Imp. Sup. 2 Sup. Part, Pres. Fut. p. 44
Latin. rum esse, ama, -um, -u, -208,
78, do. English, about to
in order to. to. Ind. Perf.
ing. on the pointed. Sub. Perf. Ind. Pluperf. Suh. Pluperf.
Amiverim, Amâveram, Amavissem, | Give yourself a thorough practice in these signs. Again and iave lered, I may have lored. I had loved. I might here lored, ' again ask until yon are perfect, what is the English sign of the
indicative mood present tense ? what the Latin sign? what is
STPINES. the Latin sign of the sub. pluperf.? what the English sign of
2. Ama-tu. the same? So go through all the parts.
Acc. Ama-ndum. I hope you understand what I mean by these signs. Your
Abl. Ama-ndo. understanding of them is the more important, because they
EXAMPLES.—Like this model, conjugate laudo, 1, I praise; pertain not merely to the verb amo, or to the first conjugation,
curo, 1, I take care of; voco, 1, I call. but to all the verbs; and because, when you are perfect in your knowledge of them as just given, you will easily put Latin into
Compare together the 2 Fut. with the Sub. Perf. You will
find that the endings are the same, except in the first person, English and English into Latin. On account of this import
which in the former is -ro, in the latter -rim. In other words, ance, I will subjoin a few explanations.
the Latin language has no distinctive form beyond the first These signs, then, might be called a set of equivalents, and
person for one or the other of these tenses. A distinction is I might have indicated them after this manner :
attempted with the aid of the accent or the quantity. Thus, have.
the first person plural of the second future is pronounced long, -bo will.
as amaverimus, while the first person plural of the subjunc-erim may have.
tive perfect is pronounced short, as amaverimus; and conseThese signs or equivalents are, you see, without any verb. quently you find the sign of the long vowel over the i in the They are so given because they are applicable to all verbs. former tense, and the sign of the short vowel over the į in the Thus to -i you prefix the stem amav, and make amavi; so to latter tense, showing that, although the words are spelt alike, have you add I and loved, and make the corresponding English, they are not pronounced in the same way. that is, the English equivalent of amavi—namely, I have loved. There is a difference between the first future, amabo, and
In some instances the English sign is arbitrary, or the best the future formed with the aid of the future participle, thus, we can get; in the ind. pres. love is chosen as the E. S. (English amaturus sum. Amabo means I will or shall love, simply indi. sign) for the want of a better. Scarcely less arbitrary is the cating a future act, without determining when, or the precise E. S. of the imp.-namely, did.
point in the future when the act will take place. Amaturus These departures from exact correspondence, precision, and sum signifies I am about to love, that is, I shall shortly love; uniformity are certainly drawbacks; but, notwithstanding these intimating that the action signified in the verb is near at hand, drawbacks, great aid may be derived from a careful and sys- and in the immediate future. tematic attention to the system here set forth.
Of the first future there is properly no subjunctive tense; I have said that these signs are applicable to all verbs. If the import, however, is expressed by combination, thus, amaturus so, they need not be repeated.' And in general the statement sim (sis, sit, etc.), I may be about to love ; amaturus essem, I is correct. You will, however, bear in mind what you have might be about to love. The second future also is without a previously learnt as to the tense-endings, and the mood-endings; subjunctive mood. and then you will remember that instead of -bo, -am (es, etc.) is EXERCISES.—Form according to the model now given, that the ending, and as the ending so the sign of the first future of is, write them out in full, with all the parts in both Latin and the third and the fourth conjugations. One or two other English, these verbs-laudo, 1, I praise; vigilo, 1, I watch ; deviations will occur to you.
compăro, 1, I procure.
Amā-re. Ama-nø. PERHAPS it is better to notice at this stage a class of animals
whose relations to other classes are difficult to express. As Ama-t. Ame-t. Ama-to.
we have before stated that it is quite impossible to place the Plu, Ama-mus. Amē-mus.
whole array of animals in a single Ama-tis. Amé-tis. Amā-te or a maAma-nt.
line according to their grades of Ame-nt. Ama-nto. [tote.
structure, the reader will not be sur. IMPERFECT TENSE.
prised that we have to break off in el Sing. Ama-bam. Amā-rem.
the midst of the description of a deAma-bas. Ame-res. Ama-bat.
finite and well-sustained series of ani. Ama-tet. Plu, Ama-bámus. Ama-rēmus.
mals to treat of a class which cannot Amo-bātis. Ama-ritis.
well be inserted into that series. The Ama-bant. Ama-rent,
class referred to is called Rotatoria. FUTURE TENSE.
The animals which compose it arə Sing. Ama-bo.
decidedly inferior in complexity of Ami-bis.
[esse. Ama-tūrus. structure to the animals we shall have Ama-bit.
to describe as coming in the next Plu, Amā-bimus,
order to the Annelids, and in many Ama-bitis.
respects also inferior to the AnneAma-bunt,
lids themselves, and yet they lead PERFECT TENSE. Sing. Ama-ni.
up to a class of animals called Crus. Ama-(ve)rim.
Ama-(vi)sse. Ama-(vi)sti.* Ama-(ve)ris.
tacea, which are as decidedly of a Amo-rit. Ama-(ve)rit,
higher type than the worms. In Plu. Ama-vimus. Ama-(ve)rimus.
many respects, these are also superior Ama-(vi)stis. Ama-(ve)ritis.
to the Myriapoda, which directly sucAma-(vē)runt. Amā (ve) rint.
ceed to the worms, and of which we PLUPERFECT TENSE.
shall write in the subsequent part of Sing. Ami-(te)ram. Ama-(vi)ssem.
this lesson. The difficulties under Ama-(ve)ras. Ama-(vi)sses.
which a constructor of a system of Amd (ee)rat. Ama (vi)sset.
classification labours may be best ilPlu, Amo-(re)rāmals. Ama-(vi)ssēmus.
lustrated by the annexed diagram, in Ama-(ve)rátis. Ama-(vi) ssētis.
which the lines branching upward Ama-(e)rant. Ama-(vi) ssent,
from the single stem marked Protozoa SECOND FUTURE TENSE.
represent the relations of the divisions Sing. Ama-(ve)ro. Ama-(ve)ris.
of the animal kingdom to one another. Amā.(ve)rit.
These relations are so complicated, and Plu, Amo-(verimus,
* Ama(vi)sti, pronounced amavísti. as one have occasioned so much diversity of Ama-(ve)rītis. word; the vi is put in brackets to denote that it opinion among naturalists, that it would be presumptuous Ama-(
orint. may, by syncopation (shortening), bo omitted. | assume that the diagram gives the relations exactly as