Εικόνες σελίδας

the time, if they work the same number of hours a day, supposing that far heavier to bear. An obstacle is something in the traveller's 2 of the second set can do as much work in an hour as 3 of the first? path: a disappointment is something in himself-a wounded

18. If a man, his wife, and child drink a barrel of beer in 14 days, spirit or a chagrined heart. Well, let him still press on, for the how long would it take 3 couples, each with 3 children, to drink 2 barrels,

noblest heroism is to endure, and, like all emotions, the smart of a man drinking twice as much as a woman, and a woman twice as

wounds caused by disappointment gets dulled in time, and the much as a child ?

aching nerve is at ease again. It is very trying to have to fight

the battle with a sore heart, but there is a needs-be: we have to KEY TO EXERCISE 51, LESSON XXXII. (Vol. II., page 295).

conquer ourselves as well as the great outside world, and the 1. £225 15s. 8. 15s. 9d.

15, £32 148, 31d. hour of victory will bring compensation for all the hard struggle 2. £56 168, 8Xid. 9. 2;} days.

16. 66.

and toil. 3. 2156 lbs. 10. 4 men.

17. 3229 158. 6 d. Perseverance becomes, however, in time a pleasant thing. 4. £811 158, 6d. 11. 4s. 113:1d. 18. 46,8 sovereigns,

Even digging up Greek roots is an enjoyable mental agriculture 7066 dols.40 cents. 12. 15 oz.

19. £92 5s. 8;d.

to the learned professor, and pursuit of all kinds has in it the 6. £45.

13. 7000 grains. 20. 78. in the pound. 7. £16480. 1 14. 144.

power to stir our energies, quicken our pulses, and by filling all 21. 4 days,

the channels of our being with life, to produce that healthy state

of energetic existence which is happiness in and of itself. PerESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-X. severing people must be content to lose many passing advan

tages of a pleasing kind, and in seeking the higher end to lose PERSEVERANCE.

many nearer ambitions. After all, it is the ideal to which the CHARACTERS that lack the element of perseverance seldom pursuer aspires which regulates all his energies; and he who is reach any goal worth attaining. There is very little of what content to be complimented as the painter of a sign-post will feel is called luck in the world, and a careful analysis of many no pang of disappointment that his productions are excluded seemingly easy successes would discover, not a chance success, from the Academy walls. All earnest students should aim high, but a strenuous persistence in the path which has led to victory and in doing so they must remember that if the path be toilsome The humblest plodder often outstrips the cleverest genius so far and wearisome, yet the end is worth more than all the energy as ultimate attainment is concerned. The old fable of the hare of their will, and all the investment of their time for the and the tortoise has a lesson for us all, as it often happens that pursuit itself invigorates their own nature as well as secures mediocrity wins the day, whilst superiority tires and wearies in for them the triumph they sought. Perseverance will have its the long course of pursuit. Constitutional temperament has

sphere also in the conquests of temper and in the regulation of doubtless something to do with perseverance, both in a physical

common life. It is not easy to tame the propensities and and moral sense. Some are by nature endowed with powers of passions which are inherent in us; and in the use we make of endurance which their less-famed compeers do not enjoy; they those instrumentalities which a kind Providence has placed seldom suffer from headache or ailment, whilst others have to within our reach, there will be ample scope for the arduous bind the wet towel round the hot brain, and to humour in many exercise of perseverance. No more difficult work can be as. ways the weakness of the flesh. There is, too, in a moral sense, signed to us than the introspective care which is necessary in some inherent tendency to laziness that has to be fought against the sphere of our own inner life; but without this all other with unremitting energy; whilst to others early rising and peren- rewards of perseverance will be shorn of their sweetest joy; for nial activity are fraught with no difficulty at all. There is an unless we have persevered in self-conquest, the world-conquest air of vigour about' them, so to speak, as to “the manner without us will only bring successes to hearts which have not born." It cannot, however, be questioned that the differences learnt the first lesson of how to enjoy them. Perseverance is of natural temperament are not so influential as the influences the stern duty of all who would be victors; even in the humblest of habit; and that perseverance is one of those moral virtues ambition it is quite true that the persevering will not always which may be attained and cultured even by those who are by win the race; but for the most part they will, and they will have nature inclined to ease and averse to difficulties. There can be the felicity of feeling that they deserved to do so. Checks and no necessity to hide from any of the racers in the great arena of defeats, however, sometimes serve higher ends than success life that there are hedges and obstacles in any path, whichever would do, and it is alike the duty and the privilege of dependent they may choose. The attainment of success results from a beings to believe and trust in the wisdom of a Superior Will. In succession of obstacles overcome. If one of these difficulties the main, let it be remembered that in the records of history daunts us, we lose that prestige which is one of the great secrets and in the experience of common life we have abundant evi. of victory. An army accustomed to defeat is soon demoralised,dence that, amongst all races, and in all ages, the persevering, and a man who finds himself thwarted by early difficulties, loses even when mediocre in their talents, have been honoured with that moral tone which is of such supreme importance in the triumph over the most brilliant geniuses and over many much oncoming struggles of life. In highly civilised nations like our more highly favoured with opportunities for securing the coveted own, every path becomes more and more hedged about with end. Therefore, let it be well understood that the grand element preparations and conditions. The Civil Service, the Army, the of success is within the reach of most, and that the voice of all Navy, the Church in all its sections, the law, the department time keeps whispering in the ear of the earnest plodderof medicine, even to the pharmaceutical examination for which “Persevere.” the chemist has earnestly to prepare-all these and other departments of duty have their standard of necessary qualification raised from year to year; and he must give up the race as hope

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XXI. less who is not prepared in the engagements of commerce, THERE are a few more observations to make upon the proporas well as in the practice of the professions, to exercise that tions of the entire figure, before we introduce those relating to persevering energy which will sustain him in the conflicts of the face and head. We consider this to be necessary, because, the course. All this is well. Perseverance is not only a virtue when practically employed in drawing the figure, we must deterin itself—it educes, sustains, and strengthens all other virtues, mine upon its action and proportions before the details are for these are indebted to perseverance for the opportunities entered upon. Then the head and face claim our first attention. they have for healthful exercise. Memorable are the instances Some artists design their groups in the nude, and clothe them in which judges and bishops have risen from lowly ranks to wear afterwards, by which means they obtain a more life-like reprethe ermine or the lawn, and wonderful are the cases in which, sentation than when they proceed by drawing drapery only in amidst pain and weakness, the seeker after truth has plodded conjunction with the extremities—the head, hands, and feet. By on his way. When pained with incurable heart-disease, the this process not only are the proportions better maintained, but celebrated Robert Hall lay on his back to learn a continental the contour of the body and limbs is established also; and, espelanguage that he might be the better acquainted with its cially when the costumes fit closely, we know of no course of literature; and when deserted by the Johanna men, the adven- practice more favourable than this for giving expression and turous Livingstone pursued his onward way through the desert character to the whole design. wilds of Africa. These men teach us, in the study and in the The unit of proportion employed to regulate the height at field, what it is indeed to persevere ! Obstacles, however, are the figure is the head, and various have been the opinions not the greatest difficulties in our path-disappointments are practice of artists as to the number of lengths of the he

be used. Some have drawn their figures as low as seven heads, of the whole frame is subject to such a variety of change and others as high as eight and a half and nine, and occasionally, expression as the face. We look into it for a reflex of the mind; even more; the heroic cannot be less than eight. But certainly, it is stronger than the arm in its power of repelling or attractwhichever of these units of measurement we may choose, if ing those who seek to approach us; and the whole state of the the one employed represents the head large in proportion to the mind, whether as friend or foe, is revealed in the countenance. body, it is not a distinctive mark of beauty ; this defect may In short, so keen are our detective powers when reading the be noticed amongst Laplanders, Tartars, and some other signs depicted in the human face, that dissimulation must be a nations. Consequently, if we desire to give dignity and beauty practised art before it can be thoroughly successful. The smile to the figure, we must endeavour to avoid littleness of style, of some men is repulsive because it is not genuine, and we see which unavoidably belongs to lowness of stature, unless, of that it is not; there is a raising of the upper lip and exposure of course, the character of the subject demands it. The Apollo the teeth along with it, which betrays envy or malice. The kindBelvedere, a celebrated ancient Greek statue, is eight heads and hearted man can frown only with his brows, and in spite of a half high. Rubens, a painter who flourished in the reign of himself the generous feelings of his heart will linger about Charles I., occasion.

the corners of the ally drew his figures

mouth, slightly eight heads high;

raised by the swell. but there is gene

ing muscles of the rally an appearance

cheeks. Thus, in of heaviness in most

either case, the chaof his figures, which Fig. 128.

racter of the indivimay be partly attri.

dual, which is one of buted to their being

the most difficult only seven heads

things to conceal, high.' Michael An

will show itself ; the gelo, the Florentine

most trifling acci painter and sculptor,

dental circumstance who was born in

will serve to reveal 1474, did not restrict

it, and he will be es himself to any fixed

teemed or disliked proportion, but

accordingly. When would employ that

we reflect that the which he deemed the

same features are best for his purpose.

capable of expressEight heads might

ing opposite pashave been his lowest

sions, such as joy standard, but Pro

and sorrow, love and fessor Camper says,

hatred, compassion “C. Vander Mander

and revenge, we have has proved that in

to make the esta some of the figures

blished rules of proof Michael Angelo,

portion subservient the size is equal to

to the end sought nine, ten, nay twelve

for. There are occkheads, in order to

sions when these recommunicate more

ceived regulations grace to a stooping

must be set aside, attitude.” It is ge

when some particunerally allowed that

lar passion or emoeight heads is the

tion is to be exbetter proportion

pressed. According for a figure than

to the scale of depar one of a less num

ture from true prober. Men above six

portion, in like manfeet high, for the

ner does the ratio of most part, reach

deformity increase. that standard, some

Deformity in the a little more. The

countenance ought reason of lowness

only to be employed of stature in men

to express deformity is, in most cases,

of mind; and thereattributable to the

fore, in order to be shortness of their

able to represent the legs, and this leads us to another proportion proper to be bad passions, the rules of proportion must be learnt, that w observed, namely, that the distance from the top of the head to may know when and how to break them. the pubis should be equal to that from the pubis to the feet;! When animal expression is associated with the human ta the face to be one-tenth, and the foot one-sixth of the figure. it degenerates into caricature, and although there are bus Therefore,' adopting the above standards of proportion, the passions found amongst men, and they are deeply imprinted heights of the figures we draw are determined by the number their countenances, yet those countenances must be humanised: of the repeated measurements of the head; two figures may be for, notwithstanding the similarity of character which exists drawn, each on a separate piece of paper, and although the one | between the most degraded of mankind and the brute creation, may not occupy a larger space than the other, yet it is accord we cannot go so far as to transgress the laws which regulate the ing to the size of the head that we decide which is the tall man, human face as a whole, so entirely as to divest it of the mig and which the short.

nature belonging to man, and substitute that of the anime The next consideration connected with this part of our sub We select an example from Lavater's “Essays on Physiognomy, ject relates to the head and face alone, and the proportions of to illustrate our observations, “ The head of Judas, after hoc their parts relative to each other ; a knowledge of these is as bein” (Fig. 128). It is the personification of selfishness, important as those of the body, but there is a difference in the and hypocrisy, combined with other latent and bad qualiaus se and application which must not be overlooked. No part that nurture them and contribute to their development

was necessary to employ these features to represent the man, for, of the nose; the third at the base of the nose; and the last however revolting they may be, the painter is justified in the ending with the chin : thus making the whole head four noses extremity of the means by the intensity of the character to in length. The width of the head is equal to three-fourths be portrayed. Lavater says of

1 of the length. Bisect the second it : “ Who can persuade himself

division in E, and with the distance that an apostle of Jesus Christ

E A describe the circle A DF C, and ever had an aspect like this, or

draw on through E at right angles that the Saviour could have called

to A B. On the third division, with such a countenance to the apostle

Fas centre and F B as radius, deship? And whose feelings will

scribe another circle; then, by be offended when we pronounce a

drawing the curve upon which the visage like this base and wicked?

ears are placed between 2 and 3, Who could place confidence in

the oval will be made. Divide the such a man?” Mr. Charles Bell,

line c d into five equal parts; the in his “Essays on the Anatomy of

eyes will be placed under the Expression in Painting,” says: If 243 € ++

second and the fourth divisions. "To brutify a human countenance,

Divide the lowest division from 3 we have only to diminish the

to 4 into two equal parts; the forehead, bring the eyes nearer,

2 line G will mark the position of lengthen the jaws, shorten the

the under lip. The distance from nose, and depress the mouth. If

line g to the division of the mouth this be done, no expression of in

is one-third of the line from 3 to dividual features will give eleva

G; the width of the upper lip sometion to the character. A breadth

what smaller; the ears equal to the and squareness in the lower part

| length of the nose (between the of the face is quite consistent in a

| divisions 2 and 3). These proporvulgar head with a certain repre

tions may, no doubt, assist us in sentation of strength and manli.

drawing the head; where nature ness; but if the eyes be diminished

deviates, we must make the neand the space between them con

cessary alteration, otherwise we tracted, the expanse of the human

shall fail in representing indivi. countenance is lost, and there can

dual character. The most remarkremain no dignity of expression.”

able point of difference in the We have gone thus far into our

shape of the head amongst nations subject to show that when the

especially, and frequently between proportions of the figure and face

| individuals of the same nation, is are properly understood and prac

in the facial angle (the inclination tised, the draughtsman must not

of the face from the base-line rest there; he has only acquired

of the skull, rejecting the lower the means of proceeding; after

jaw). In the profile of the negro wards, we repeat, he has to

(Fig. 130) we find this angle, employ them for purposes of a

Fig. 129. ABC, much more acute than that higher kind than those which

of the European (Fig. 131). In belong to mere imitation: these refer to the mind, and how the former it is about 50°, and in the latter about 70°. We give he can best express its intentions, knowing the influence it has in but these two examples as representing the extremes of the controlling the actions of the body. If we examine the practice of human family, between which the various degrees of intellectual the ancient Greeks, we shall find that their proportions were ge- capacity exist. We have already remarked that where this nerally arbitrary.

angle becomes They considered

still more acute, the oral to be the

we leave the humost perfect form

man and take up of the human head;

the brute creation; this proportion

Fig. 132.

on the other hand,

Fig. 131. may be adopted in Fig. 130.

where the angle some cases where

increases, then we the ideal is in

approach the ideal • tended, but it is

conceived and not the rule in

practised by the nature; such a

ancients (Fig. standard would

132). It is very make the crown of

evident that they the head too high,

avoided everyand they, in order

thing that was to relieve this, re.

deemed characterduced the length

istic of the brute from the front to

when they reprethe back. We

sented their gods will give these

or heroes ; thus, proportions, al

by enlarging the though to employ

mean angle comthem invariably

mon amongst men, would produce a

they felt that they mannerism that

had increased would be extremely objectionable, and in portrait painting they those distinguishing attributes which marked the difference bewould be altogether useless. (See Fig. 129.) Draw a perpen tween the intellectual and the brutal; and then again, when the dicular line, A B, of the required length of the whole head, and subject was a satyr or a faun, the sensual was indicated by a divide it into four equal parts. The first of the several divisions decreased angle. No one will question the truth of these s will be seen at the root of the hair; the second at the bridge ciples, since they are founded upon nature.


J'exige que vous lui donniez cela. I require you to give him that.

oulez-vous qu'il aille à la chasse ? Do you wish him to go hunting ? SECTION LXXI.-- THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

J'aime mieux que vous me payiez, I would rather have you to pay the, 1. ALL the French verbs, regular and irregular, end in the

VOCABULARY. present tense of the subjunctive mood with e, es, e, ions, iez, ent.

Artisan, m., mechanic. | Empêch-er,1, to prevent. Moulin-a-scie, sau-mall, 2. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE Atelier, m., workshop. Fortement, very much. Obé-ir, 2, to obey. OF THE REGULAR VERBS :

Au-dessus, above. Force, f., strength. Rempl-ir, 2, to fulfil. Que je chant - fin isse reç o ive rend -e.

Bracelet, m., bracelet. Magasin, m., warehouse. Rue, f., strect. That I may sing may finish

au finish

may receive
may receive may render.

Déjà, already.

| Malsain, -e, unhealthy. | Tomb-er, 1, to fall. Que tu parl e s chérisses aperçoives vend -es.

EXERCISE 137. That thou mayest speak. mayest cherish mayest perceive mayest sell. 1. Que voulez-vous que nous fassions ? 2. Je désire que Qu'il donn e fournisse perçoive tend -e.

vous fassiez attention à vos études. 3. Ne craignez-vons pas That he may give may furnish may gather

may tend. Que nous cherch -ions pun -issions conc -evions entend -ions.

que la pluie ne vous empêche de sortir ? 4. Nous craignons

fortement que la pluie ne nous empêche de remplir nos engage. That we may seek may punish may conceive may hear. Que vous port iez sais -issiez d

e viez perd iez.

ments. 5. Doutez-vous qu'il soit chez lui maintenant? 6. That you may carry may scize may owe

may lose. Je doute qu'il y soit, il est déjà dix heures. 7. Exigez-vous Qu'ils aim e nt un -issent déç oivent mord -ent. qu'il parte de bonne heure ? 8. Je m'étonne qu'il ne soit pas That they may love may unite may decoire may bite. déjà parti. 9. Aimez-vous mieux que je vous rende ces brace

3. In the first conjugation, the subjunctive is in the singular, lets ? 10. J'aime mieux que vous me les payiez. 11. Votre similar to the present of the indicative. Exception: aller

voisin craint-il que son enfant ne sorte ? 12. Il craint qu'il je vais, que j'aille.

ne tombe dans la rue. 13. Ne désirez-vous pas que vos élèves 4. The first and second persons plural of the subjunctive, vous obéissent ? 14. Je souhaite qu'ils m'obéissent et qu'ils in the four conjugations, are the same as the corresponding | obéissent à leurs professeurs. 15. Ne craignez-vous pas que persons of the imperfect of the indicative. The third person cet artisan ne tombe malade ? 16. Je crains qu'il ne tombe plural is like the corresponding person in the indicative pre- | malade, car son atelier est très-malsain. 17. Ne regrettezsent. Exceptions : avoir, subjunctive, nous ayons, vous ayez, vous pas qu'il soit obligé de travailler ? 18. Je regrette qu'il ils aient; savoir, nous sachions, vous sachiez, ils sachent; être,

soit obligé de travailler au-dessus de ses forces. 19. Ne dénous soyons, nous soyez, ils soient; faire, nous fassions, vous fassiez, sirez-vous pas qu'on lui apprenne cette nouvelle ? 20. Je désire ils fassent; aller, ils aillent; vouloir, ils veuillent; valoir, ils qu'on la lui apprenne le plus tôt possible. 21. Votre père ne vaillent.

veut-il pas que vous achetiez un magasin ? 22. Il vent que 5. The subjunctive may also be formed from the participle j'achète un moulin-à-scie. 23. Désirez-vous que je vous quitter present, by changing ant into e, es, e, ions, iez, ent: as, chantant,

24. Je désire que vous restiez avec moi. 25. Je veux que vous je chante ; finissant, je finisse; rendant, je rende ; sachant, je partiez ce matin.

EXERCISE 138. sache; craignant, je craigne.

1. Do you wish me to speak to the mechanic ? 2. I wish 6. The verbs presenting exceptions to this last rule are the you to tell him to (de) come here to-morrow morning. 3. following, which the student will find conjugated in Part II.

What do you wish me to do? 4. I wish you to bring me a of these lessons, $ 62 :

book. 5. Do you not wish me to read your letter? 6. I wish Acquérir Concevoir Mourir Prendre Savoir Venir

you to read it and (que) give it to my sisters. 7. Does not Aller Décevoir Mouvoir (and Tenir (and (and your sister fear lest the rain may prevent her going out? Apercevoir Devoir Percevoir its com- its com- its com

| 8. She fears that the rain may prevent our going out. 9. Do Avoir Etre Pouvoir pounds) pounds) pounds) lendo

10. I doubt his Boire

you doubt that your father be at home now? Faire Pourvoir Recevoir Valoir vouloir.

being there. 11. Do you require me to do my work now? 13. 7. The past of the subjunctive is formed from the subjunc. I wish you to do your work before going out (avant de sortir tive present of one of the auxiliaries, avoir, étre, and the past 13. Do you not regret your being obliged to work ? 14. I do participle of a verb [$ 45).

not regret my being obliged to work. 15. Are you not Que j'aie parló, que je sois venu, That I may have spoken, that I may astonished that he knows that? 16. I am astonished that he

have come.

knows all. 17. Do you require me to pay him to-day? 18. I 8. A verb is put in the subjunctive, when it is preceded by wish you to pay him to-morrow. 19. What would you bave the conjunction que, and another verb expressing consent, me do (see No. 1 of the above exercise) ? 20. I will have you command, doubt, desire, surprise, want, duty, necessity, regret, pay him immediately. 21. Do you fear lest the master punish fear, apprehension, etc. [$ 127 (2)].

your son ? 22. I fear that he may not punish him. 23. What Je veux que vous lui parliez, I wish you to speak to him.

would you have me say? 24. I would have you say the Je désire que vous arriviez à temps, I wish you to arrive in time.

truth. 25. Does not your father wish you to buy a house? 9. When the first verb expresses fear or apprehension, the

26. He wishes me to buy a storehouse. 27. Do you wish us verb preceded by que must also be preceded by ne, which, how.

to leave you? 28. I wish you to go away to-morrow. 29. Do ever, has no negative sense ($ 127 (3), § 138 (4) (5) (6)].

you wish me to stay with you? 30. I wish you to stay here.

31. Do you wish me to tell him that news ? 32. I wish you Je crains qu'il ne tombe, I am afraid lest he fall.

to tell it to him. 33. Do you wish your children to obey theu 10. After craindre, to fear; appréhender, to apprehend; avoir teacher ? 34. I wish them to obey him. peur, to be afraid; trembler, to tremble, pas is used in connection with the ne, when we wish for the accomplishment of the

SECTION LXXII.-USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. action or occurrence expressed by the second verb [$ 138(7)].

1. A verb preceded by the conjunction que and one of the Je tremble qu'il n'arrive pas à I tremble that he may not arrive in

unipersonal verbs, il fant, it is necessary; il importe, it matters, it is important; il convient, it is proper, becoming; il ratt

; temps,


mieux, it is better; il plait, it pleases, suits; il se peut, il peut RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

se faire, it may be ; il est juste, it is just ; il est bon, it is proper; Le médecin veut-il que je boive de Does the physician wish me to drink | il est nécessaire, it is necessary; il est important, it is important l'eau ? water ?

il est temps, it is time ; il est indispensable, it is indispensable ; Je consens que vous alliez le voir. I consent that you go to see him. Nous doutons que vous arriviez à We doubt your arriving in time.

il est à propos, it is proper ; il est fâcheux, it is sad, it is a pity; temps.

il est urgent, it is urgent, or by another verb or expression Je crains que votre maitre ne vous I fear lest your master may punish

| plying necessity, will, or propriety, must be put in the subpunisse.


junctive ($ 127 (4)]. Je crains que votre maitre ne vous I fear that your master may not

I faut que vous restiez ici, You must remain kero. punisse pas.

punish you. Je m'étonne qu'il ne sache pas cela. I am

Il est juste que vous soyez ré. It is just you be rewarded. astonished that he does not

compensé, know that. Que voulez-vous que je dise ? What do you wish me to (that I 2. The unipersonal verb il est governs the indicative presente

should) say ?

or the future, when it is used affirmatively, and followed by

que, coming after one of the adjectives, sûr, sure; certain, cer- ever you may do, you will not succeed (réussir). 21. Whatever tain; vrai, true ; démontré, proved ; incontestable, incontestable; your brother may say, nobody will believe him (croire, ir.). 22. évident, evident, and others having a positive and affirmative Must I write to you? 23. You must write to me. 24. Do you sense.

wish me to be ill? 25. I do not wish you to be ill. 26. Il est certain qu'il vient ou qu'il It is certain that he comes or will Do you require me to tell you that ? 27. It is necessary that viendra,


you tell me all. 28. Do you wish me to go to your house ? 29. 3. When, however, the verb il est used in the above con I wish you to go there. 30. Must I get up ? 31. You must nection is negative or interrogative, it is followed by the sub rise immediately (à l'instant). 32. Must your brother retire ? junctive.

33. He must go to bed immediately. 34. It is time for him to Il n'est nullement certain qu'il It is by no means certain that he I go to bed, it is twelve o'clock. vienne,

will come. 4. After certain conjunctions, afin que, in order that; quoique, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. although, etc. (see full list, § 143 (2)], the subjunctive is always

EXERCISE 50 (Vol. I., page 252). used.

1. Voulez-vous nous envoyer cette lettre? 2. Je veux vous l'envoyer, Quoique vous fassiez, quoique vous Whatever you may do, whatever you si vous voulez la lire. 3. Je veux la lire si je puis. 4. Pouvez-vous disiez,

may say.

me prêter votre plume? 5. Je puis vous la prêter, si vous voulez en 5. Other important rules on the government of conjunctions avoir soin. 6. Puis-je parler à M. votre père ? 7. Vous pouvez lui will be found in § 143.

parler, il est ici. 8. Avez-vous peur de l'oublier? 9. Je n'ai pas peur

de l'oublier. 10. Vonlez-vous les lui envoyer ? 11, J'ai l'intention RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

de les lui envoyer si j'ai le temps. 12. Est-ce que vous lui parlez de Que faut-il que votre sæur fasse ? What must your sister do ?

votre voyage ? 13. Je lui parle de mon voyage. 14. Je leur en parle. Faut-il que je lui écrive ? Must I norite to him?

15. Pouvez-vous le lui communiquer ? 16. J'ai envie de le lui com. Il est nécessaire que vous lui It is necessary for you to write to muniquer. 17. Voyez-vous vos connaissances tous les lundis ? 18. Je écriviez.


les vois tous les lundis et tous les jeudis. 19. Ou avez-vous l'intention Il est temps que vous lui donniez It is time that you should give him de les voir ? 20. J'ai l'intention de les voir chez M. votre frère et chez son argent. si tard ? his money.

Mlle. votre scur, 21. Pouvez-vous l'y envoyer tous les jours ? 22. Je N'est-il pas fâcheux qu'il soit arrivé Is it not a pity that he arrived so late ? puis l'y envoyer tous les lundis, s'il le veut. 23. Pouvez-vous me Il est certain qu'il est arrivé. It is certain that he is arrived. les donner? 24. Je puis vous les donner. 25. Qui veut leur prêter Il n'est point certain qu'il se soit It is not certain that he has hurt des livres ? 26. Personne ne veut leur en prêter. 27. Votre libraire blessé.


veut leur vendre de bons livres et de bon papier. 28. Est-il à la Restez ici jusqu'à ce qu'il arrive. Remain here until he comes.

maison? 29. Il est chez son frère. 30. Avez-vous tort de payer vos Pourvu que vous finissiez à temps. Provided that you finish in time.

dettes ? 31. J'ai raison de les payer. 32. Voulez-vous n

33. Je veux vous l'envoyer si vous en avez besoin. 34. Voulez-vous VOCABULARY.

nous les donner? 35. Nous voulons les donner à vos connaissances. Affaire, f., affair, Se lev-er, 1, ref., to rise. Point, m., point, degree.

EXERCISE 51 (Vol. I., page 271).
Ainsi, thus.
Linge, m., linen. Pourvu que, provided

1. Do you like bread or meat? 2. I like bread, meat, and fruit. Créancier, m., creditor. Manqu-er, 1, to want. that.

3. Have we peaches in our garden ? 4. We have peaches, strawberries, Se coucher, I, ref., to Nécessaire, m., neces. Régl-er, 1, to regulate.

raspberries, and cherries? 5. Does your brother like cherries? 6. He retire, to go to bed. saries.

Satisfai-re, 4, ir., to l does not like cherries much, he prefers plums. 7. Have you vegetables? Emprunt-er,1, to borrow | Ordre, m., order.


8. I do not like vegetables. 9. We have neither vegetables nor fruit. Fourn.ir, 2, to furnish. Oubli-er, 1, to forget. | Tel, -le, such.

10. We like neither vegetables nor fruits. 11. Do you go every day to EXERCISE 139.

your brother's wood? 12. I do not go every day. 13. Does your 1. Que faut-il que je dise ? 2. Il faut que vous disiez ce que

sister bring the flowers ? 14. She brings them. 15. Does your mother

que bring flowers ? 16. She brings some every Monday. 17. Do you see vous avez entendu. 3. Ne faut-il pas que je finisse cette histoire ?

General Bertrand ? 18. I do not see him, I see Corporal Duchêne. 4. Il n'est pas nécessaire que vous la finissiez. 5. N'est-il pas 19. Are your sisters weary? 20. My sisters are weary of studying. à propos que je satisfasse mes créanciers ? 6. Il est à propos que vous le fassiez. 7. N'est-il pas juste que je vous paie ce

EXERCISE 52 (Vol. I., page 271).

1. Votre scur aime-t-elle les fleurs ? 2. Ma seur aime les fleurs et que je vous ai emprunté ? 8. Il est juste que vous me le payiez.

mon frère aime les livres. 3. A-t-il tort d'aimer les livres? 4. Non, 9. Se peut-il que votre frère ait oublié sa famille. 10. Il ne | Monsieur, il a raison d'aimer les livres et les fleurs. 5. Avez-vous peut pas se faire qu'il l'ait oublié. 11. Est-il certain que votre beaucoup de fleurs dans votre jardin ? 6. Nous y avons beaucoup de frère se soit oublié à un tel point ? 12. Il est certain qu'il fleurs et beaucoup de fruits. 7. M. votre cousin aime-t-il les framboises ? s'est oublié. 13. Il est bien fâcheux qu'il se soit oublié 8. Mon cousin aime les framboises et les fraises. 9. M. le capitaine ainsi. 14. Resterez-vous jusqu'à ce que j'aie mis ordre à mes aime-t-il les louanges? 10. Il n'aime pas les louanges. 11. Le jardinier affaires. 15. Je resterai jusqu'à ce que vous les ayez réglées.

vous a-t-il apporté des légumes? 12. Il m'a apporté des légumes et du 16. Ne faudra-t-il pas que je fournisse des provisions à cette

fruit. 13. A-t-il honte de vous apporter des légumes? 14. I n'a ni famille ? 17. I faudra que vous lui en fournissiez, pourvu que

honte ni peur de vendre des légumes. 15. Madame votre mère est-elle

fatiguée? 16. Ma mère n'est pas fatiguée. 17. M. votre frère est-il vous en ayez. 18. Ne vaudra-t-il pas mieux que vous lui prêtiez

chez le colonel D.? 18. Il demeure chez M. le colonel D., mais il n'est de l'argent, que de la laisser manquer du nécessaire ? 19. Il

pas à la maison à présent. 19. Combien de pêches avez-vous ? 20. Je vaudra mieux que nous lui en prêtions. 20. Que faut-il que n'ai guère de pêches, mais j'ai beaucoup de prunes. 21. M. le capinous fassions ? 21. Il faut que vous portiez ce linge chez moi. taine B. aime-t-il les pêches ? 22. Il aime les pêches, les prunes, les 22. N'est-il pas temps que je me couche ? 23. Il est temps que framboises et les fraises. 23. Allez-vous dans le bois de M. votre vous vous couchiez. 24. Faut-il que je me lève? 25. Il faut frère ? 24. J'y vais tous les matins. 25. M. le général L. est-il ici? que vous vous leviez.

26. Non, Monsieur, il n'est pas ici, il est chez votre cousin. EXERCISE 140.

EXERCISE 53 (Vol. I., page 276). 1. What must our friend do? 2. He must remain at our

1. Do you know that gentleman? 2. Yes, Madam, I know him very honse until I come. 3. What must onr neighbonr do? 4. He well. 3. Do you know from what country he is? 4. He is a Hunmust put his affairs in order. 5. Is it not right that you should

garian. 5. Does he speak German? 6. He speaks German, Polish,

Russian, Swedish, and Danish. 7. Is he not a physician? 8. No, Sir, pay your creditors ? 6. It is right that I should pay them.

before the revolution he was a captain. 9. Have you & wish to learn 7. Is it time for your little boy to go to school ? 8. It is time Russian ?. 10. I have a wish to learn Russian and modern Greek. for him to go to school, it is ten o'clock. 9. Must I write to 11. Do you know the gentlemen who are speaking to your sister? your correspondent to-day or to-morrow? 10. You must write 12. I do not know them. 13. Do you know where they live? 14. They to him to-morrow morning. 11. Is it not a pity that your live at the house of your brother's upholsterer. 15. Have you not the brother has torn his cap (casquette)? 12. It is a pity that he history of Louis the Fourteenth in your library? 16. I have neither has torn it. 13. Is it necessary for your mother to finish her

that of Louis the Fourteenth, nor that of Henry the Fourth, 17. Are letter ? 14. It is not necessary that she finish it. 15. Is it

you wrong to learn Chinese ? 18. I am not wrong to learn Chinese. certain that your son has forgotten his money? 16. It is certain

19. Do your companions learn the ancient languages ? 20. They know that he has forgotten it. 17. It is by no means certain that 22. I know English, and I speak it. 23. Do you know the Englishman

several ancient and modern languages. 21. Do you speak English ? he has forgotten it. 18. Must you furnish money to that me. whom we see ? 24. I do not know him. 25. He does not know mp chanic ? 19. I must furnish him some, he has none. 20. What and I do not know him.

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