« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
That crushed proud Ammon, when his iron car
Departed spirits of the mighty dead!
by human hand or foot. No one had ever dreamt of scaling it; and the golden eagles knew that well in their instinct, as, before they built their eyrie, they had brushed it with their wings. But all the rest of this part of the mountain-side, though scarred, and seamed, and chasmed, was yet accessible; and more than one person in the parish had reached the bottom of the Glead's Cliff. Many were now attempting it; and ere the cautious mother had followed her dumb guides a hundred yards, though among dangers that, although enough to terrify the stoutest heart, were traversed by her without a shudder, the head of One man appeared, and then the head of another; and she knew that God had delivered her and her child in safety into the care of their fellow-creatures.
Not a word was spoken-eyes said enough; she hushed her friends with her hands, and with uplifted eyes, pointed to the guides sent to her by heaven. Small green plats, where those creatures nibble the
rs, became now more frequent; trodden lines, almost as easy as sheep-paths, showed that the dam had not led her young into danger; and now the brushwood dwindled away into straggling shrubs, and the party stood on a little eminence above the stream, and forming part of the strath.
There had been trouble and agitation, much sobbing, and many tears, among the multitude, while the mother was scaling the cliffs : sublime was the shout that echoed afar the moment she reached the eyrie ; then had succeeded a silence deep as death. In a little while arose the hymning prayer, succeeded by mute supplication ; the wildness of thankful and congratulatory joy had next its sway; and now that her salvation was sure, the great crowd rustled like the wind-swept wood. And for whose sake was all this alternation of agony? A poor humble creature, unknown to many even by name-one who had but few friends, nor wished for more, contented to work all day-here, there, anywhere--that she might be able to support her aged mother and her little child ; and who on Sabbath took her seat in an obscure pew, set apart for paupers, in the kirk.Professor Wilson,
XVII. THE DOWNFALL OF POLAND.
Yes, thy proud lords, unpitied land! shall see
Thomas Campbell. XVIII. EDMUND BURKE. A SAGACIOUS critic has advanced the opinion, that the merit of Burke was almost wholly literary; but I confess I see little ground for this assertion, if literary excellence is here understood in any other sense, than as an immediate result of the highest intellectual and moral endowments. Such compositions as the writings of Burke suppose, no doubt, the fine taste, the command of language, and the finished education, which are all supposed by every description of literary success. But in the present state of society, these qualities are far from being uncommon; and are possessed by thousands, who make no pretensions to the eminence of Burke, in the same degree in which they were by him. Such a writer as Cumberland, for example, who stands infinitely below Burke in the scale of intellect, may yet be regarded as his equal or superior in purely literary accon taken in this exclusive sense.
The style of Burke is undoubtedly one of the most splendid forms in which the English language has ever been exhibited. It displays the happy and difficult union of all the richness and magnificence that good taste admits, with a perfectly easy construction. In Burke we see the manly movement of a well-bred gentleman; in Johnson, an equally profound and vigorous thinker, the measured march of a grenadier. We forgive the great moralist his stiff and cumbrous phrases, in return for the rich stores of thought and poetry which they conceal; but we admire in Burke, as in a fine antique statue, the grace with which the large flowing robe adapts itself to the majestic dignity of the person.
But with all his literary excellence, the peculiar merits of this great man were, perhaps, the faculty of profound and philosophical thought, and the moral courage which led him to disregard personal inconvenience in the expression of his sentiment. Deep thought is the informing soul, that everywhere sustains and inspires the imposing grandeur of his eloquence. Even in the Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful, the only work of pure literature which he attempted-that is, the only one which was not an immediate expression of his views on public affairs—there is still the same richness of thought, the same basis of " divine philosophy." to support the harmonious superstructure of the language. And the moral courage which formed so re. markable a feature in his character, contributed not less essentially to his literary success.
It seems to be a law of nature, that the highest degree of eloquence demands the union of the noblest qualities of character, as well as intellect. To think, is the highest exercise of the mind; to say what you think, the boldest effort of moral courage; and both these things are required for a really powerful writer. Eloquence without thoughts is a mere parade of words; and no man can express with spirit and vigour any thoughts but his own. This was the secret of the eloquence of Rousseau, which is not without a certain analogy in its forms to that of Burke. The principal of the Jesuits' college one day inquired of him by what art he had been able to write so well. “I said what I thought," replied the unceremonious Genevan; conveying in these few words the bitterest satire on the system of the Jesuits, and the best explanation of his own. - A. H. Everett.
In the “Downfall of Poland," by Thomas Campbell, and the spirited word-painting by Professor Wilson of the recovery of a child by its mother from an eagle's eyrie, to which even a sailor had not dared to climb, the reader will find admirable exercises, in the first-named for his elocutional powers, and in the latter for his ability to render a well-described scene even still more grapluc by the manner in which he reads it.
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.-VI.
Account, Cloth Account, or the account of any other article in
which the Merchant happens to deal. In keeping Books by Double Entry, the various secounts which After the Property Accounts are opened in the Ledger, then are opened in the Ledger Brrespond, of course, exactly to the follow the Personal Accounts, or the names of those persons nature of the transactions when eve I she business. In with whom a Merchant deals, whether in buying or selling general, however, therr Jojeet s threefoi, is formerly stated Goods, Lending or Borrowing Money, and acting as Agent or in our third Lesson, Viz.. The proper Accounts, the Personal 'otherwise. Lastly, are opened the Profit and Loss Accounts, Accounts, and the Pepit und Loss Secounts. In the same or those in which the Loss or Gain by certain transactions are Lesson snies were arer for inding the Debtor and creditor, at once rendered manifest from their nature; such as Interest and making the proper entry s very rarety of transaction (including Discount), Charges, Commission, etc. Besides these, is a general rule . Jpeming these sceounts the Ledger, it is the general Profit and Loss Account itself is also opened, as a both usual and proper wst pen those secounts we are receptacle for a proper statement of all the Losses and Gains in called Property counts SR - Stock scount, vinch repre- business not classified under particular heads, and as a proper sents the capital pioyed I Vereiant bosiness; and account for exhibiting at the end of any given period the
ce Account, who presents the Vereinant bumseif and setual state of a Merchant's business in respect of his real Olns l e moneys Austrated rom she business on his Gains and Losses on all the other accounts which have been uwa ter sur leunt, sat weh. B she did Italian system, opened in the Ledger. used e unable to sath Sepers
In posting the entries from the Journal into the Ledger, it is the ingrepene literes mea o low these se generally Cash plain that whatever the Journal says in any entry, the Ledger k a Anety 27.wuns, ke 2es when stesently must say the same thing, sometimes in the same form, someI builuke ber
i he set ons in must be simes in a different form ; but in Double Entry, this same rul sier Arse s that does the founts of sing must always be said twice, namely, once on the Dr. side of is f e ni shans pryde's s weet sy de seful the Debtor's Account, and once on the Cr. side of the Creditor's 10 eurves ont Burier event w a s these sield be count. Let us illustrate this principle by some examples: 16 de 'Oulus s e weiger Next, may now is Fr, suppose that the following entry occurred in a Merchant's *** with varios aus sen a ton couns, nes
and in the following form :
T o me, although brought together here for the sake time, this is so obrious to every one, that we might have spared windo(*. m y bao la very different parts or folios of the ourselves the trouble of making the remark. In the Journd, i lui Hora Mler #may be romarked that as To is the word you will see a column placed alongside the Date column; this
le monde 24 h (ditor, so By is the word which points is the column for inserting the folio of the Ledger where the ... Min 1 ms. The columu alongside the pounds column accounts occur ; and it should be inserted as soon as the entry Mile im wity cuncted by a double stroke) is the column is made in the Ledger; thus there would be one folio figure
o llow the number of the page of the Journal from which placed in the Journal, against the name of the Debtor Richaru
de la Mboni and this number should always be in. Watson, and another folio figure placed against the name of the ilmile p e calunan, at the same time that the money | Creditor Cotton Account. .. well in the mentary columns. As to the importance of Secondly, suppose that an entry similar to the following m enm.ie dhe fushen ad the entry in its proper column at the same occurred in a Merchant's Journal :
The second entry in the Ledger will be threefold, that is, it the whole amount of the sums in this entry, in the following
Thus you see from the above examples that the sum of in whose account they are entered. Thus you will see also £273 17s. 9d., received in Cash from different parties in that these three latter entries on the Cr. side of the Ledger March, is entered once on the Dr. side of Cash Account, and account are but an equivalent to the one entry on the Dr. side that the same sum is entered once on the Cr, side of the different of the same. accounts to which they belong ; but that it is apportioned out Thirdly, we shall only suppose another example of a Journal into the respective sums received from each of the parties / entry to be posted into the Ledger, as follows:
This single Entry in the Journal will occasion three separate and John Tillotson, will only be an equivalent for the single entries in the Ledger, as follows; but it is plain that in this Credit entry in the Cash Account ; and thus it is still an case the two Debit entries in the accounts of Hugh Williams example of Double Entry :
Here the form of the entry in the Journal, when transferred : Journal there were twenty Drs. to Cash, instead of two as in to the Ledger, is considerably different; yet both forms have the preceding instance, you will see what a vast saving of the same meaning. For whether we say Sundries Dr. to Cash writing, and of liability to error, is effected by using the single Account, as in the Journal; or Cash Account Ch. By Sundries as phrase-By Sundries. We might proceed to give other examples; in the Ledger ; both of these forms of expression have pre but we must not anticipate the short system which we shall cisely the same meaning; the former is peculiar to the Journal, begin to lay before our readers in the next lesson. Suffice it the latter is peculiar to the Ledger. Of course the student to say that, as a general rule, for posting, or transferring 15 supposed to know that Sundries is used instead of the words entries from the Journal to the Ledger, you have only to Debit Several Accounts, and has the same meaning. It is a very the Debtors for the sums that they owe; and Credit the Creditors convenient business word; but he would be a very stupid for the sums owing to them; and remember, that to Debit learner who should expect to see a Sundries Account in the la Debtor, is to enter on the Dr. side of his account in the Ledger, as there it would have no meaning. Instead of saying Ledger, the name of his Creditor, with the word To before it, in the Cash Account as above, By Sundries, the Bookkeeper and the sum that the Debtor owes ; and to Credit a Creditor, is to might say By Hugh Williams and By John Tillotson ; but this enter on the Cr. side of his account in the Ledger, the name of wonld occupy two lines instead of one, and would not be one his Debtor, with the word By before it, and the sum that is whit clearer in meaning. Besides, if in one entry in the ouing to him, the Creditor.
It has been already remarked that by the adoption of Dr. / arnatus sum, I have been loved ; amatus sim, I may have been and Cr. columns in the Journal (which forms the peculiarity of locd; amatus eram, I had been loved, etc. The participle Jones's system of Book-keeping), a constant check is kept amatus, of course, undergoes the variation of declension, so as upon the accuracy of the entries, not only in that Book, but to agree with the pronoun or noun connected with it; thus, if also of the corresponding entries in the Ledger; inasmuch as the noun is plural and feminine, amatus becomes amatæ; if the total sums in the Dr. and Cr, columns of both books for necice and singular, amatum; and so on. any given period ought perfectly to agree; that is, not only The inf. fut. pass. is formed by the aid of the passive infini. ought the sum of the Dr. columns in the Journal to agree with tive of eo, I go, as amatum iri, to go to be loved, that is, to be the sum of the Cr. columns for any given period ; but the sum about to be loved. of the Dr. columns of the Ledger ought to agree with the sum
MOODS, TENSES, ETC., OF A REGULAR VERB OF THE FIRST of the Dr. columns of the Journal, and the sum of the Cr. columns of the Ledger ought to agree with the sum of the Cr.
CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. columns of the Journal, and that for the same given period.
PRESENT TENSE, In addition to this (which constitutes part of our improve
Indicative, Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. ment of the said system), the plan of check on the accuracy of
Sing, Amor, Amer.
Amáris. Amēris. all the books will be rendered complete, if, to the amount of
Amare or amator, Amari.
Amätur. Amitur. Amator. the net sums of the Day Book entries for any given period, be
Caminor, added the amount of the sums entered in the Bills Receivable
Amămini. Aměmini. Amāmini or amBook, in the Bills Payable Book, in both sides of the Cash Book, Amantur. Amentur. Amantor. and in any other book from which entries are taken into the
IMPERFECT TENSE, Journal; for then the sum of the whole amounts or totals of
of Sing. Amábar. Amărer. the sums entered in these books ought exactly to agree with Amábaris. Amdreris. the sum of the Dr. or Cr. columns of the Journal or of the Amabatur. Amarētur. Ledger, for the period in question. Such a mode of check Plu. Amabāmur. Amarēmur. will at all events furnish a clear and satisfactory proof that Amabamini. Amarłmini. no error with regard to the entering of sums has been com
Amabantur. Amarentur. mitted, either in Journalising the subsidiary Books, or in posting
FIRST FUTURE TEXSE, the entries into the Ledger.
Amatum Amanda Amábèris.
Sing. Amatus sum. Amatus sim,
Amatum Amate. Amatus es. Amatus sis.
Amatus est. Amatus sit.
Plu. Amati sumus, Amati simus.
Amati estis, Amati sitis.
Amati sunt. Amati sint.
Ind. Imp. Sub. Imp.
Amatus eras. Amatus esses.
Amatus erat. Amatus esset.
Plu. Amati erämus.Amati essemus.
Amati erätis. Amati essētis.
Amati erant. Amati essent.
SECOXD FUTURE TENSE,
Sing. Amatus ero.
Amatus eris. Latin. Amatus eram,
INSTANCES.-Form according to these examples the following
Imp. Past Part. Fut. Part. in-dus. verbs, namely, honoro, 1, I honour; corono, 1, I crown; and Latin. Amatum iri.
Amare, Amatus, Amandus, judico, 1, I judge. English. to be about to be loved. be thou loved. loved. ought to be loved.
VOCABULARY. After what has been said, the corresponding English and Æquus, -a, -um, equal, Emendo, 1, I amend, Pax, pacis, f., pick Latin signs will easily be deduced by the student; thus-of the just,
Piger, -gra, -grum, idle, present, the Latin sign is or, the English be loved; in the sub.
sign is or, the English be loved in the snb. | Castigo, 1, I chastise, | Exoro, 1, I entreat, obimp. the Latin sign is rer, the English might be.
tain by entreaty.
Recupero, 1, I negais, Compare together the forms in the active voice and the
Caveo, 2, I avoid (E. R. Flagitium, i, n., a recover.
shameful deed, forms in the passive voice, and carefully notice how they differ,
Sancte, adv., holu;
Congrego, 1, I collect Judex, judicis, m., a Spero, 1, I hope and how the one may be changed into the other—that is, the
or gather together judge.
Splendor, - ris, 1, active into the passive, and the passive into the active.
(E. R. congregation, | Morbus, -i, siokness, splendour, braga, Remark that the English I am loved, he is loved, etc., denotes 1 from grex, gregis, a disease.
shining. a present act, equivalent to this, they or you love me, they are flock).
Munus, -ēris, reward, Studium, -, L., loving me, loving me now; such is the force of amor with its Contamino, 1, I defile, present. several persons. It is thus contrasted with amatus sum, which,
Muto, 1, I change (E.R. study). if translated literally, would seem to mean, I am loved, but
Crucio, 1, I crucify, Il mulation).
Violo, 1, I violate, ie which is a past tense and signifies I have been loved. Mark
torture (Latin, crux, Obscuro, 1, I darken jure. carefully that amatus sum (es, est, etc.) is a past tense; learners
crucis, a cross). I (E. R. obscure). I are apt to construe it as a present tense. The Latin verb has,
EXERCISE 79.–LATIN-ENGLISH, in strict speech, no perfect tense of the passive voice, thongh it 1. Ego laudabar, ta vituperabäre. 2. Urbs oppugnabatur. S. 10 can express a perfect passive act. That expression it effects by l laudabor, tu vituperaběre.t 4. Urbs oppugnabitur. 5. Quum te a periphrasis (a Greek word equivalent to the Latin circum. ab hostibus oppugnabatur, omnium civium animi ingenti timore Occus ution, or roundabout way of speaking); thns it uses the passive
ple, and parts of the verb esse, to be : for instance, * Another form of vituperabaris. Another form for vituperbena
pabantur. 6. Cives vehementer ab hostibus vexati sunt. 7. Quum the movement you impart to the other. As to which of the two pugna erat atrocissima, sol nubibus obscurabatur. 8. Malefici post ways shall be adopted, the player must be guided by his own mortem justis penis castigabuntur. 9. Urbs ab hostibus oppugnata
position in the game at that particular stage of it at which he est. 10. Omnium civium animi ingenti terrore occupati sunt. 11.
has arrived; for, unless he keep this in view, a roquet and the Si literas diligenter tractaverimus, a parentibus pulchris muneribus
consequent croquet may be a hindrance to him in his play indonabimur. 12. Quum urbs ab hostibus expugnata erat, omnes cives acerbissimo dolore cruciabantur. 13. Si liberi vestri bene a vobis
stead of an advantage. educati sunt laudabimini. 14. Industrius discipulus laudător, piger
When a player has completed the circuit of the hoops, and vituperator. 15. Leges divinæ ab hominibus sancte observantor. before he finishes his game by striking the starting or winning 16. Exoramini, O mi parentes! 17. O mi puer, delectare literarum post with his ball, he is allowed to become a rover, and may studio! 18. Exorare, O judex! 19. Milites certa die in urbem con- go to any part of the ground, roqueting the balls either of gregantor. 20. Cives ne flagitiis contaminantor. 21. Melior est certa
friends or of foes, and taking the croquet after each roquet is pax quarn sperata victoria. 22. Terra mutata non mutat mores. 23.
made. In this way he may greatly promote the winning of Dolor patienter toleratus minus acerbus est. 24, Bonus vir laudandus
the game for his own side; but he is liable to be roqueted by est. 25. Boni parentes curant ut liberorum mores emendentur. 26.
any of the other balls, and if either of these should drive his Cura ut in omni re conscientia recta servetur. 27. Ta a me amaris ut ego a te redamer. 28. Heri ambulabam ut tristis animus exhilararetur.
own against the starting peg, he is no longer in play, and his 99. Milites nostri acerrime pugnabant ut urbs ab interitu servaretur. ball must be removed from the ground. So long as he remains 30. Vide ne a præceptoribus vituperēre. 31. Bonus civis cavet ne in, he may croquet all the balls in succession, provided he leges a se violentur. 32. Non dubito quin amicus meus morbo liberatus makes a roquet from each; but he must not roquet the same sit. 33. Nemo dubitabat quin pax recuperata esset. 34. Nescio qua ball twice running. re pax turbata sit.
Having now sufficiently explained the game, we will give a EXERCISE 80.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
few hints towards the acquirement of dexterity in playing it. 1. Peace has been regained. 2. Peace will be regained. 3. Peace First, as to the attitude and manner of striking the ball. The was regained. 4. I do not doubt that they are about to regain peace. mallet may be held either in one hand or by both. If by one 5. Peace has been disturbed. 6. Has peace been disturbed ? 7. Has hand, the precision of the stroke requires that the mallet should not (nonne) peace been disturbed ? 8. Peace will be disturbed. 9. be grasped lower down the handle than in the other case, and Peace ought not to (must not) be disturbed. 10. I shall be praised, la more stooping attitude is, in consequence, unavoidable. Many he will be blamed. 11. He must be blamed. 12. He has been blamed.
ed good players use one hand only; but it is entirely a matter 13. The city has not been captured. 14. O father, be entreated (over. come by entreaty) by your suppliant daughter! 15. The mother was
of habit, and, in order to secure a firm grasp of the mallet, overcome by entreaty. 16. The sun is obscured by a cloud. 17. Yes.
with a steady aim at the ball, as well as to observe that erectterday the sun was obscured by clouds. 18. Dear son, thy mind is nees of posture which it is desirable to cultivate in all field occupied by terror. 19. My mind was occupied with grief. 20. The sports, we recommend the learner to employ both hands in his minds of all the citizens will be occupied with fear and sorrow. 21. play. The attitude shown in Fig. 3 will be his best model. Young men, be not contaminated with vice. 22. I love thee that I may In taking the stroke, you should stand sideways to the ball, be loved again by thee. 23. The father must be loved. 24. The bad as shown in this figure. Some players face the ball, and strike boy must be chastised. 25. Let the laws of the state be conscientiously I from between the legs with a scooping kind of stroke; but observed by all citizens. 26. The laws of God are observed by holy men. 27. Have the precepts of virtue been observed by the young
this cannot be recommended either on the ground of elegance men (adolescens, -tis) of the city ?
or of accuracy of aim. Standing sideways, it will greatly conduce to the travelling of the ball in the proper direction, if the
shoulders are in a straight line with the hoop through which OUR HOLIDAY.
the ball is to be driven. The body should be kept quite steady,
while the stroke is made by a free movement of the arms alone. CROQUET.-II.
Easy as it may seem to the uninitiated to strike a croquet ball We have explained in the previous paper that the whole object through a hoop placed only a few feet off, all who have attempted of the game of Croquet consists in impelling the ball with the to play the game know that it is harder than it appears. It is mallet through the successive hoops, in their proper order ; and a laughable, although not an unfrequent, spectacle to see a toothe player or players who first accomplish this feat win the sanguine novice failing in repeated attempts to pass the very game. Every hoop passed is a point made towards game; and first hoop on the ground, while his dexterous rivals are travelling the striking of the pegs or posts at the top and bottom of the freely over it; and the advice just given should be remembered ground also count as points.
by those who would wish to avoid figuring in this predicament. But, besides this simple circuit of the ground, other passages Next, it must be remarked that more than one kind of stroke arise in the play, which require more detailed comment. The should be practised by any one who would become a tolerably ehief of these, and one which adds very greatly to the interest skilful player. There is first the plain stroke, in which your own of the game, is the power at any period after passing the first ball is simply hit in its centre by the full stroke of the mallet. hoop to strike another ball with your own. This is termed a But besides this, there are many others known to players of roquet (pronounced ro'-kay). You may roquet either a friend's the game, the best of whom can make the ball travel in a way ball—that is, your partner's, if you are playing in sides—or an which sometimes appears marvellous to the inexperienced. When opponent's; and having done so, you have the privilege of three balls, for instance, are in a straight line, and the first has taking a croquet from it. In taking the croquet, you place your to strike the third without hitting the intermediate one, the own ball close to that which you have just struck, lifting it from feat would seem to most people impossible; and yet this is the ground for that purpose; and then, the two balls being in occasionally done by what is called a “leap-frog” stroke, the contact, you strike your own, so that the other is driven by the player's ball being hit sharply on the top and downward, when concussion in any direction you may desire. Thus, if you have it rises and jumps over the second ball, rolling to that beyond roqueted a friend's ball, your proper play is to croquet it in it. We have not space, nor is it necessary here, to enter upon such a way that he is assisted towards his next hoop, or in what these refinements of the game, but we will describe one or two ever direction he may be wishing to go; while, if it is an an- of the simpler strokes which it is well to practise. The stopping tagonist's ball that you have roqueted, you strive in taking the stroke is made, when you are about to drive your own ball croquet to drive him away from his proper line of play, and by against another, by hitting it full and sharply, and drawing back 60 doing you may perhaps destroy his chance for the remainder the head of your mallet the moment you have struck. By this of the game.
means your own ball expends nearly all its force in striking the There are two ways of taking the croquet, either of which other, and remains almost stationary afterwards. The followmay be adopted at the option of the player. The one is called ing stroke has just the contrary result. It is made when you *** tight," and the other " loose croquet.” In making a tight desire your ball to follow in the same line with that which you croquet, you place your foot upon your own ball, so that when it croquet, and is effected by bringing the mallet steadily down on is struck it remains in the same place, although the other is the ball, and raising the mallet upward towards the left shoulder driven away from it by the effect of the blow. The attitude of as you strike. But a mere pushing or “spooning” stroke is the player in making a tight croquet is shown in our illustration not allowed in the game. The ball must in all cases be fairly (Fig. 4). In "loose " croquet, you strike your own ball without hit, so that a tap may be heard. the foot on it, and then it of course partakes more or less of A little practice with two balls placed .rather near each