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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Grot. gr. lb. oz. dr. ton cwt. gr. lb. oz. 14 1 25 14 9

15 12 1 10 10 13 2 20 1 15

71 8 2 6 0 9 3 6 7 3

83 19 3 15 5 10 0 18 12 11

36 7 0 20 14 7 2 27 3 2

47 11 1 27 11 6 1 19 8 1

63

5 2 19 7 4 3 0 15 5

12 13 1 14 9 12 2 0 0 13

9 7 0 5 10 79 2 6 15 11 340 5 2 8 2

A merchant bought 4 barrels of potash of the following weights, viz. 1st, 3 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lb. 12 oz. 3 dr. ; 2d. 4 cwt. 1 qr. 21 lt. 4 oz. ; 3d. 4 cwt. ; 4th. 3 cwt. 3 qr. 27 lb. 15 oz. 15 dr. : What was the en: tire weight of the four barrels ?

Ans. 15 cwt. 3 qr. 19 lb. O oz. 2 dr.

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LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE. Sq.yd. Sq. ft. Sq. in. M. A. R. 4 104

1 700 3 22 3 27

6 375 2 105 8 2

7 450 1 37 7 127 11 30 0 263 5 116 27 277 0

P. 37 25 31 25 38

There are 4 fields, the first contains 12 A. PR. 38P.; the 2d. 44. IR. 26P.; the 3d. 85A. OR. 19P.; and the 4th. 57A. IR. 2P.: how many acres in the four fields ?

Ans. 159 A. 2R. 5P.

SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE. S. yd. S. ft. S. in.

C. S. ft. C. Cord feet. 65 25 1129

16 127 87 9 37 26 132 17 12 26 7 50 1 1064

18 119 16 6 22 19 17

37 104 19 5 176 18 614 90 106 151

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DRY MEASURE. ch. bu. pk. qt. pt.

ch. bu. pk. qt. pt. 27 25 3 7 1

141 36 3 7 2 59 21 2 6 3

21 32 2 4 1 2 1 2 1

85 9 1 0 3 5 9 1 8 2

10 4 4 1 3 94 22 3 7

259 12 0 0 1

yr. mo. wk. da. hr.

4 11 3 6 20 3 10 2 5 21

5 8 1 4 19 101 9 3 y 23

55 8 4 6 17 172 2 1 4 4

TIME.

wk. da. hr, m. sec.

8 8 14 55 57 10 7 23 57 49 20 6 14 42 01 6 5 23 19 59 2 2 20 45 48 50 4 1 41 34

SUBTRACTION OF DENOMINATE

NUMBERS. $ 95. Subtraction of denominate numbers teaches how to find the difference between two denominate numbers that are unequal.

RULE. 1. Set down the lesser number under the greater, placing the same denominations directly under each other.

II. Begin with the lowest denomination, and if the number expressing that denomination be less than the number directly over it, make the subtraction as in simple numbers. But if it be greater, subtract it from the upper number increased by so many units es make one unit of the next higher denomination,

carry this one which has been borrowed to the next higher denomination, as in subtraction of simple numbers.

III. Do the same for all the denominations, and set down the several remainders, and they will form the true remainder.

EXAMPLES.
£. S.
d.
£. s.

d. From 27 16 8

26 35 20 Take 19 17 9

19 17 9 Remainder 7 18 11

7 18 11 In this example we cannot take 9d. from 8d. ; we therefore add 12d. to the 8d. making 20d., and then say, 9 from 20, 11 remains. Set down the 11, and carry one to 17 making 18: then say 18 from 36 leaves 18: set it down and carry one to 19 making 20: 20 from 27 leaves 7.

Or we may set down the minuend as on the right: £26. 35s. 20đ. Then 9 from 20 leaves 11 ; 17 from 35 leaves 18; and 19 from 26, 7 remains. T. cwt.

qr.

lb. From 4 12 3 20 Take

2 18 2 26 Remainder 1 14 0

22 In this example, we take 26 from 48; then 3 from then 18 from 32; then 3 from 4.

3;

PROOF. § 96. Add the remainder to the subtrahend-their sum should be equal to the minuend.

QUESTIONS. 95. What is subtraction of denominate numbers? How write down the numbers for subtraction ? Where do

to subtract? When the number to be subtracted

P.

is less than the one above it, what do you do? When it is greater, what do you do ? § 96. How do you prove subtraction ?

EXAMPLES

A. R.
From 18 3 28
Take

15 2 30
Remainder 3 0

38 Proof

18

3 28 lb. oz. pwt. gr.

16. oz. pwt. gr. From 273 0 0 0 18 9 10 8 Take 98 10 18 21

9 10 15 20 Rem. 174 2 1 3

8 10 14 12 T. cwt. qr. lb. oz. cwt. qr. 16. oz. dr. From 7 14 1 3 6 14 2 12 10 8 Take 2 6 3 4 11 6 3 16 15 3 Rem. 5 7 1 26 11 7 2 23 11 5

APPLICATIONS IN ADDITION AND

SUBTRACTION. 1. Sold a merchant one quarter of beef for £2 7s 9d ; one cheese for 9s 73 ; 20 bushels of corn for £4 10s 11d ; and 40 bushels of wheat for £19 12s 8fd : how much did the whole come to ?

Ans. £27 114d. 2. Bought of a silversmith a tea pot, weighing 316. 4oz. 9pwt. 21gr.; one dozen of silver spoons, weighing 21b. loz. 1pwt. ; 2 dishes weighing 1616. 10oz. 15pwt. 16gr.: how much did the whole weigh?

Ans. 2216. 4oz. 6pwt. 13gr. 3. Bought one hogshead of sugar, weighing 9cut. 2qr. 2716. 14oz.; one barrel weighing 3cwt. 271b., and a second barrel weighing 2cwt. 3qr. 26.b. 4oz.: how much did the whole weigh?

Ans. 15cwt. 3qr. 2516. 20

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