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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædia are the following:

Oscar Fay Adams,

Author of A Dictionary of American Authors, etc. BARTOL, CYRUS AUGUSTUS, BLACKMORE, RICHARD DODDRIDGE, CRANE, STEPHEN, MARTINEAU, JAMES, MulhaLL, MICHAEL GEORGE, Max MÜLLER, FRIEDRICH, RusseLL, HENRY, TYLER, Moses Coit,

and other articles. Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

Editor of United States National Museum.
EXPLOSIVES,
EXPOSITION, PARIS UNIVERSAL,
MARYLAND,
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,
NEW YORK CITY,
New York STATE,
ROGERS, FAIRMAN,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

Of the Cleveland Plain-Dealer.
Ohio.
Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.,

Chief Librarian of the Free Circulating Libraries,

New York City.
Physics.
Roscoe C. E. Brown,

of the New York Tribune.
ROOSEVELT, THEODORE.
Rev. Richard L. Burtsell, D. D.

McGlynn, EDWARD.
Thomas Campbell-Copeland,

Author of the American Colonial Handbook.
IDAHO,
ILLINOIS,
PENNSYLVANIA,

WYOMING.
James P. Carey,

Formerly Financial Editor of the Journal of Com

merce.
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1900.
John Denison Champlin,

Editor of Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings.
FINE ARTS IN 1900.
John H, Clifford.

Kansas,
OKLAHOMA,
Texas,
VIRGINIA.

Ralph C. Davison,

of the Railroad Gazette.
STEEL CARS.
Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L. H. D.,

Author of The Mikado's Empire an Korea the Her

mit Nation, JAPAN,

KOREA.
George J. Hagar,

Compiler and Statistician.
GIFTS AND BEQUESTS,

OBITUARIES, AMERICAN (in part). Arthur S. Hamilton.

VOTING MACHINES.
Rev. Moses Harvey,

Author of Text-book of Newfoundland History.
NEWFOUNDLAND.
Col. Richard J. Hinton,

Author of The Making of the New West.
MISSOURI.
J. Castell Hopkins, F. S. S., F. R. Hist. S.,

Author of The Story of the Dominion.
BRITISH COLUMBIA,
CANADA, DOMINION OF,
MANITOBA,
New BRUNSWICK,
ONTARIO,
QUEBEC,
YUKON TERRITORY,

and other articles. Miss Edith J. Hulbert,

Formerly of the Home Journal.
OSTEOPATHY.
Frank Huntington,

Of the Standard Dictionary staff.
AFGHANISTAN,
AUSTRALASIA,
BELGIUM,
BRAZIL,
CHINA,
COLOMBIA,
Congo, INDEPENDENT STATE OF THE,
DENMARK,
EGYPT, ,
FRANCE,
GERMANY,
GREAT BRITAIN,
HAWAII,

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INDIA,

Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor,

MADAGASCAR,

Author of Index to Shakespeare.

NETHERLANDS,

ARIZONA,

OBITUARIES, FOREIGN (in part),

CALIFORNIA,

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS,

DELAWARE,

SPAIN,

INDIANA,

SWITZERLAND,

LOUISIANA,

and other articles.

MississIPPI,

MONTANA,

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D.,

NORTH DAKOTA,

Editor of the Jewish Messenger.

OREGON,

Jews.

South CAROLINA,

Edward A. Jenks,

TENNESSEE,

Formerly of New Hampshire Statesman.

VERMONT,

WASHINGTON,

New HAMPSHIRE.

WISCONSIN.

Florence Kendrick Johnson.

GOLD NUGGETS,

Col. Timothy H. Roberts.

NINETEENTH CENTURY, IMPORTANT EVENTS OF VISUAL INSTRUCTION,

THE.

John M. Stahl,

William H. Larrabee, LL. D.

Secretary of the Farmers' Congress.

ANGLICAN CHURCHES,

FARMERS' CONGRESS.

CHRISTIAN ARCHÆOLOGY,

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR,

Charles Coleman Stoddard.

DISCIPLES OF CHRIST,

OBITUARIES, AMERICAN (in part).

FREE CHURCHES, FEDERATION OF,

FRIENDS,

John Talman,

METHODISTS,

Of the St. Paul Pioneer Press.

PRESBYTERIANS,

MINNESOTA.

REFORMED CHURCHES,
UNIVERSALISTS,

James B. T. Tupper,

UNITED BRETHREN,

Chief of Law Division, office of Internal Revenue,

and other articles.

Washington.

John Malone,

SUPREME COURT DECISIONS (in article UNITED

STATES).

Actor and author.
ADENIS DE COLOMBEAU, JEAN,

Miss Mary Twombly,

BIDWELL, DOLLIE,

Formerly of the Boston Transcript.

COYNE, GARDINER,

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE,

DEL PUENTE, GIUSEPPE,

METAPHYSICS, AMERICAN,

HAMILTON, LOUISE,

NURSES, TRAINED,

LITTLE, JOHN ZEBULON,

UTAH.

LUMLEY, RALPH ROBERT,

MARBLE, EDWARD STEVENSON,

J. Kendrick Upton,

MESTAYER, CHARLES HENRY,

Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

MORRIS, FELIX,

SHERMAN, JOHN,

NOTT, CICELY,

UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE.

REEVES, SIMS,

RICE, DAN,

Edward S. Van Zile,

SULLIVAN, Sir ARTHUR,

Author of With Sword and Crucifix, etc.

VINCENT, JAMES,

WARNER, CHARLES DUDLEY.
and other sketches of actors and dramatists.

Miss Frances V. Warner,
Col. Charles Ledyard Norton,

of the Jacksonville Times-Union.
Author of Jack Benson's Log, A Soldier of the FLORIDA.

Legion, etc.
YACHTING.

Frank Weitenkampf,

Of the New York Public Library.
Hugh J. O'Brien,

LIBRARIES, PUBLIC.
Formerly of the Rochester Post-Express.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

A. Schade van Westrum,

of the New York Mail and Express.

Rev. Solomon E. Ochsenford, D. D.,

Fiction, AMERICAN.

Professor in Muhlenberg College.

CONRAD, VICTOR LAFAYETTE,

William J. Youmans, M. D.,

Former Editor of the Popular Science Monthly.

GOTWALD, LUTHER A.,

LUTHERANS,

CHEMISTRY,

Olsson, OLAF,

METALLURGY,

WINGARD, HENRY S.,

Mivart, Sr. GEORGE,

and other articles.

PHYSIOLOGY.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

PAGE

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PAGE ADNA, CAPITAL OF TIGRE 1 QUARTERMASTER'S WHARF, MANILA

561 STATUETTES IN TERRA COTTA . 23 BAMBOO Rafts, MANILA .

562 PICTOGRAPHIC AND LINEAR SIGNS (two en- NATIVE FILIPINOS

563 gravings) 26, 27 A TAGALOG

565 OBJECTS FROM TOMBS AT ABYDOS, EGYPT 30 THE CITY OF JOLO

566 THE FRENCH QUARTER IN TIENTSIN

101 Ruskin's Early HOME AT HERNE HILL 625 THE AMERICAN QUARTERS IN PEKIN 109 A STEEL CAR.

659 RUINS OF THE AUSTRIAN LEGATION, PEKIN 111 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HisCHINESE POLICE 116 TORY

757 COLON

123 AUDITORIUM IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 758 SMOKELESS POWDER (two engravings) 198 Hall OF PALEONTOLOGY.

759 ALEXANDER III BRIDGE 200 JESUP COLLECTION OF Woods .

760 THE EIFFEL TOWER .

202 THE STANDARD VOTING MACHINE (two enTHE UNITED STATES PAVILION 204 gravings)

761, 762 INTERIOR OF THE MANUFACTURES PAVILION 206 LIBRARY OF THE WISCONSIN HISTORICAL SoHONOLULU. 291 CIETY.

781 BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY . 332 PANNING ON THE ELDORADO

787 LLAMAS IN DESAGU ADERO

558 A DOG TEAM ON THE WHITE Pass TRAIL 788

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA. .

А. ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa, ritory all the country north of the Mareb, Balesa, known also as Éthiopia. The ruler, whose title and Muna rivers. is Negus Negusti, meaning King of Kings, is Ethiopia proper comprises the kingdoms of Menelek II, originally King of Shoa, who estab- Tigre, Âmhara, with Gojam, and the powerful lished himself on the throne with the aid of arms kingdom of Shoa. The dependencies extend into and munitions furnished by the Italians after Somaliland as far as Harrar, and to the west and Johannes II, his predecessor, had been slain in southwest the present Negus has made efforts to a battle with the dervishes. He signed a treaty establish his dominion over the Gallas and the at Ucciali on May 2, 1889, under which Italy tribes beyond to the borders of the already occuclaimed a protectorate over all Abyssinia as well pied parts of British East Africa and to the as sovereignty in the territories north of Tigre White Nile. and inland from Massowah, which before the The area of the empire is estimated at 150,000

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Italian occupation were dependencies of Abys- square miles, the population at 3,500,000. The sinia. The protectorate was denied by Menelek, Negus has a regular army of about 150,000 men whose troops, on March 1, 1896, defeated at Ado- stationed in garrisons in various parts of the wa an Italian army that invaded Tigre and Am- country, supplemented by irregular forces and hara, and on Oct. 26, 1896, through the mediation territorial levies. of Russia, a new treaty was signed at Adis Abeba, The Abyssinians are Christians of the Alexanby which Italy renounced the protectorate over drian rite, whose ecclesiastical chief, called the Abyssinia, and Menelek recognized as Italian ter- ubuna, is always a Copt, appointed by the Alex

VOL. XL.—1 A

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