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of four inches, that the valve may play easily. ded into the rock, and the stones of all the There should likewise be a valve at the nose of courses are dovetailed and joined with each others the bellows, that the one may not take the air forming one connected mass from centre to cirfrom the other. To blow an organ of sixteen cumference. The successive courses of the work feet, there are required four pairs ofthese bellows. are also connected by joggles of stone; and to They are wrought by a man called the blower; prevent the stones from being lifted up by the and, in small organs, by the foot of the player. force of the sea, while the work was in progress,

Bellows, WATER, a contrivance to save ex- each stone of the solid part of the building had pense in the fusion of metals, wherein water, two holes bored through it, entering six inches falling through a funnel into a close vessel, sends into the course immediately below, into which from it so much air as blows the fire. See Fur- oaken tree nails, two inches in diameter, were NACE.

driven, after Mr. Smeaton's plan at the Eddystone. BELL-PEPPER, in botany. See Capsi- The cement used at the bell-rock, like that of the

Eddystone, was a mixture of pozzolano, earth, BELL-ROCK, or Cape, a dangerous ridge of lime, and sand, in equal parts, by measure. The sunken rocks, lying about twelve miles east from building is of a circular form, composed of stones the point of Fife-ness, and an equal distance south of the weight of from two tons to half a ton each. from Arbroath harbour, between the openings of The ground course measures 42 feet in diameter, the Friths of Tay and Forth. The ridge extends and the building diminishes, as it rises about a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth; to the top, where the parapet-wall of the lightthe top of the rock only being seen a few hours room measures only 13 feet in diameter. The at low water in spring tides. This rock not only height of the masonry is 100 feet, but including renders the navigation of the Tay and Forth very the light-room, the total height is 115 feet. The hazardous, but is also highly dangerous to all ves- building is solid from the ground course to the sels navigating coast-wise. Every year, formerly, height of 30 feet, where the entry-door is situate, vessels of great value were wrecked upon it, and to which the ascent is by a kind of rope-ladder there is reason to suspect that many which were with wooden steps, hung out at ebb tide, and supposed to have foundered at sea, have suffered taken into the building again when the water on this dangerous reef. It is a remarkable fact covers the rock; but strangers to this sort of that hardly a single instance has been known of climbing are taken up in a chair, by a movable a vessel being saved which had the misfortune crane projected from the door, from which a to strike upon this rock. Captain Brodie of the narrow passage Icads to a stone stair-case 13 feet royal navy placed a beacon on it some years ago, in height. Here the walls are seven feet in but though the greatest care was taken to have it thickness, but they generally diminish from the properly secured, the first storm broke the chains, top of the stair-case to the parapet-wall of the and the beacon was driven ashore. Previous to light room, where they measure one foot in thickthe erection of the new and noble light-house ness. The upper half of the building may be now placed here, it was commonly remarked that described as divided into six apartments for the even if it were practicable to erect it upon such use of the light-keepers, and for containing lighta sunken rock, no one would be found hardy house stores. The lower or first, formed by an enough to live in an abode so dread and dreary, inside scarfement of the walls at the top of the and that it would fall to the lot of the projectors stair-case is chiefly occupied with water tanks, fuel, themselves to possess it for the first winter. The and the other bulky articles; the second floor is bill appointing commissioners for this great under- for the oil, cisterns, glass, and other light-room taking, however, passed both houses of parliament stores; the third is occupied as a kitchen ; the ate in the session of 1806. In the following fourth is the bed-room, the fifth the library or summer, a vessel was fitted out as a floating-light, strangers' rooin, and the upper apartment formas and moored off the Bell-rock. Captain Brodie thelight-room. The floors of the apartments are had previously constructed a very ingenious of stone, and the communication is made by model of a cast-iron light-house standing on pil- means of wooden ladders, excepting in the lightlars; and Mr. Murdoch Downie, author of se- room, where every article being fire proof, the veral marine surveys, brought forward a plan of steps are made of iron. There are two windows a light-house, to stand upon pillars of stone. in each of the three lower apartments, but the Mr. Telford, the engineer, was also employed in upper have each four windows. The casements some preliminary steps, connected with Mr. are all double, and are glazed with plate-glass, Downie's enquiries. But Mr. Stevenson, engi- having besides an outer storm-shutter, or dead neer for the commissioners of the northern light- light of timber, to defend the glass from the houses, modelled the first design, which was sub- waves and spray. The parapet wall of the lightmitted to the opinion and advice of Mr. Rennie. room is six feet in height, and has a door which This distinguished engineer coincided with Mr. leads out to the balcony or walk formed by the Stevenson in preferring a building of stone, upon cornice round the upper part of the building; the principles of the Eddystone light-house. which is surrounded by a cast-iron rail, wrought

The BELL-ROCK Light-house is a circular like net-work. This rail rests upon batts of building, the foundation-stone of which is nearly brass and has a massive coping, or top rail, of the on a level with the surface of the sea at low-water same metal. In the kitchen, there is a grate or of ordinary spring-tides; and consequently at open fire-place of cast iron, with a smoke tube high-water of these tides, the building is immer- of the same metal, which passes through the sed to the height of about fifteen feet. The two several apartments of the light-room, and heats first or lower courses of the masonry are imbed- them in its passage upwards. This grate and

chimney merely touch the building, without arranged, and kept up with the light-keepers at being included or built into the walls, which, by the rock. Three of the light-keepers are always this means, are neither weakened, nor liable to at the light-house, while one is ashore on liberty, be injured by it. The timber of the doors, the whose duty it is for the time to attend the signal pannelled partitioning of the rooms from the room; and when the weather will admit of the stairs, and the bed frames and furniture in general, regular removal of the light-keepers they are six are of wainscot.

weeks at the rock, and a fortnight ashore with The light-room, and its apparatus was entirely iheir families. prepared at Edinburgh. It is of an octagonal The attending vessel for the Bell-rock, and the figure, 12 feet across, and 15 in height, formed light-houses at the isle of May and Inchkeith, in with cast-iron sashes, glazed with large plates of the Firth of Forth, is a very handsome little polished glass, measuring about 2 feet 6 inches cutter of about 50 tons register, carrying upon by 2 feet 3 inches, each plate being a quarter of her prow a model of the light-house, and is an inch thick. The light-room is covered with appropriately named the Pharos. She is stationed a dome roof of copper, terminating in a large at Arbroath, and is in readiness to proceed for the gilded ball, with a vent-hole in the top. The rock at new and full moon, or ai spring-nides, light of the Bell-rock is very powerful, and is carrying necessaries, and the light-keeper on leare, readily seen at the distance of six or seven leagues, to the rock, and returning with another. The when the atmosphere is clear. The light is from vessel is navigated by four men, including the oil, with Argand burners placed in the focus of master, and is calculated for carrying a board silver plated reflectors, measuring 24 inches over 16 feet keel, or of sufficient dimensions for la the lips; the silvered surface or face being ing at the rock in moderate weather. The meter hollowed or wrought to the parabolic curve. That and mate are kept in constant pay, and have the Bell-rock light may be easily distinguished apartments in the establishment ashore ; the for from all other lights upon the coast, the reflec- mer, acting as a superintendent, has the charge tors are ranged upon a frame with four faces or of the buildings and stores kept at Arbroath. sides, which, by a train of machinery, is made BELLUL, in zoology, the sixth order of the to revolve upon a perpendicular axis once in six mammalia; the character of which is, that there! minutes. Between the observer and the reflectors, fore teeth are obtusely truncated, their feet hoofed on two opposite sides of the revolving frame, their walk heavy, and their food vegetables. See shades of red glass are interposed, in such a ZOOLOGY. manner, that during each entire revolution of BELLUGA, in ichthyology, a large fish, the reflectors, two appearances, distinctly differ- accounted a species of sturgeon, and called by ing from each other, are produced ; one is the Artedi, accipenser tuberculis carents It is like common bright light familiar to every one, but, the sturgeon in shape, but its snout is shorter and on the other, or shaded sides, the rays are tinged thicker. Of its row or spawn is made earea, of a red color. These red and bright lights, in and some of them are so large as to yield 920 the course of each revolution, alternate with weight of it. The fish is very common and Fery intervals of darkness, which, in a very beautiful large in the Volgi, near the city of Astracan in bed and simple manner, characterise this light. has been caught there thirty-six feet long, and where

In foggy weather two large bells of about 12 eighteen thick. It is also found in the Dor, und cwt. each, are tolled day and night by machinery. other rivers, and in the Baltic and Caspian scais, Vessels who cannot see the lights, thus get See ACCIPENSER. warning to put about. The establishment BELLULA Bos, in icthyology, a name given at the Bell-rock, consists of a principal light by Paulus Jovius to that species of the ray tsa

them to keeper, who has 60 guineas per annuin, paid which was called by the old Greek and Latin quarterly, a principal assistant, who has 55 gui- writers bos marinus, and by the late authors rupa neas; and two other assistants at 50 guineas each, oxyrynchus. It is distinguished by Artedi, by besides a suit of uniform clothes, in common the name of the variegated ray, with ten prichy with the other light-keepers of the northern light- tubercles on the middle of the back. houses, every three years. While at the rock, BELLUM, Lat. war; in old law, trial y these men get a stated allowance of bread, beef, combat. butter, oat-meal, pot-barley, and vegetables, BELLUNESE, a territory of Italy, which her besides small beer, and an allowance of fourpence longed to the Venetians, till ceded to Austria per day each for the purchase of tea and other by the treaty of Campo Formio. It now for necessaries. At Arbroath, the most contiguous a part of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, ali EF town on the opposite coast, a suite of buildings lies between Friuli, Cadorino, Feltrino te has been erected, where each light-keeper has bishopric of Trent and Tyrol. It is thirty mit calon three apartments for his family. Here the master long, and twenty-two broad, and produces plerung and mate of the light-house tender, have also of corn, wine, fruits, &c. besides rearing te og accommodation for their families; a plot or piece numbers of cattle. It contains besides the capta of an enclosed garden ground is attached to each tal, Belluno, 200 towns, villages, and forts, wie house, and likewise a seat in one of the pews in 40,000 inhabitants. the parish church of Arbroath. Connected with BELLUNO, a town of Italy, and a bishop these buildings there is a signal tower erected, see; is situated among the Alps, on the midla. which is about 50 feet in height. At the top of Piave. it, there is a room with an excellent five feet BELLUTUS (Sicinius), a plebeian Romania achromatic telescope, placed upon a stand. From who, about the year of Rome 256, hendeu de this tower, a set of corresponding signals is people in their opposition to the exorbitant pomillega

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of the Senate and Patricians; and under whom BELOE (William), a native of Norwich, they retired to the Mons Sacer, about three miles educated at Cambridge. About 1773 he became from Rome, intending to form a new establish- assistant 10 Dr. Parr, who was then head master ment for themselves, till, after repeated messages of the Norwich grammar school. He shortly sent in vain by the senate, Menenius Agrippa after obtained the vicarage of Earlham. Repersuaded them to return, by the well known moving to the metropolis, he was made master of fable of the belly and the other members. On this Emanuel College, Westminster, and he joined occasion the tribune-ship being first instituted, with Archdeacon Nares in establishing and editing Bellutus was appointed the first of the five Tri the British Critic. His connexion with this bunes, A. U.C. 560. See Rome

work continued till the close of the forty-second BELLY, v. &, n.) Gothic, balgs; Ang. volume. He also obtained the living of AllhalBELLY'ache, Sax. bælg ; Lat. bulga; lows, London-wall, a prebend in St. Paul's, and BELLY'BOUND,

that part of the human the desirable post of a librarian to the British BELLY'CHEER, body which reaches from Museum. Of the last situation, however, he was BELLY'FULL, the head to the thighs, deprived, in consequence of the loss of some BELLY'FARE, Scontaining the bowels; valuable prints, which were stolen by a dishonest BELLY'SLAVE, the womb; any thing artist. He died at Kensington in 1817. He BELLY'GOD,

that swells out to a large translated Herodotus, and Aullus Gellus, and was BELLY'PINCHED, capacity. To belly out, the author of Miscellanies, 3 vols. Anecdotes BELLY'TIMBER, is to swell out; to in- of Literature and Scarce books, 6 vols. 8vo. The

BELLY'WORM. J flate; to sketch; to dis Sexagenarian (his own memoirs), 2 vols. 8vo. and tend.

some works of minor importance. The body's members

BEʻLOMANCY, n. s. From Belos and pav-
Rebell’d against the belly; thus accus'd it :--

That only like a gulf it did remain,

Belomancy, or divination by arrows, hath been in
Still cupboarding the viand, never bearing,

request with Scythians, Alans, Germans, with the Like labour with the rest.

Shakspeare. Africans and Turks of Algiers.
Do you set down your name in the scroll of youth,

Brown's Vulgar Errours. that are written down old with all the characters of BELOMANCY, BELOMANTIA, was practised in age? Have you not a moist eye, a dry hand, a the east, but chiefly among the Arabians, and yellow cheek, a white beard, a decreasing leg, an in different ways. One was to mark a parcel increasing belly ?

Id. of arrows, and put eleven or more of them into This night, wherein the cubdrawn bear would

a bag: these were drawn out; and according as couch,

they were marked or not, they judged of future The lion and the belly-pinched wolf

events. Another way was to have three arrows, Keep their fur dry, unbonnetted he runs, Id.

upon one of which was written, ‘God orders it Back and side go bare, go bare,

me:' upon another, God forbids it me;' and Both hand and foot go cold: But belly, God send thee good ale enough,

upon the third nothing. These were put into Whether it be new or old. Still. Old Song.

a quiver, out of which one was drawn at ranWith Methos, Gluttony, his guttling brother,

dom; if it happened to be that with the first Twin parallels, drawn from the self-same line; inscription, the thing was to be done : if it So foully like was either to the other.

chanced to be that with the second, it was let And both most like a monstrous belly'd swine. alone ; but if it it proved that without inscrip

Fletcher. Purple Island. tion, they drew over again. Belomancy is an What infinite waste they made this way, the only ancient practice, and probably that which Ezekiel story of Apicius, a famous bellygod, may suffice to mentions, chap. xxi. 21. At least St. Jerome shew.

Hakewell understands it so, and observes that the practice Thus, by degrees, day wastes, signs cease to rise, was frequent among the Assyrians, and BabyFor Lellying earth, still rising up, denies Their light a passage, and confines our eyes.

lonians. Something like it is also mentioned in Creech's Munilius.

Hosea, chap. iv. only that slaves are mentioned Loud rattling shakes the mountains and the plain,

instead of arrows, which is rather that of deHeav'n bellies downwards, and descends in rain. mancy than belomancy. Grotius, as well as Je

Dryden. rome, confounds the two together, and shows that it is met 'Midst these disports, forget they not to drench prevailed among the Magi, Chaldeans, and Scy* Themselves with bellying goblets.

Philips. thians; whence it passed to the Sclavonians, and The strength of every other member

thence to the Germans, who, as Tacitus observes, mi Is founded on your belly-timber.

Prior. made use of it. Belly in anatomy, the abdomen. See Ana BELON (Peter), born at Mans, in France, intis TOMY, Index.

flourished about the middle of the sixteenth Belly, Dragon's, venter draconis, is used by century. He was murdered near Paris by one some astronomers to denote the point in a pla- of his enemies, in 1565. His principal works

net's orbit, wherein it has its greatest latitude, or are, 1. De Arboribus Coniferis, 4to. Paris, it is farther distant from the ecliptic, more frequent- 1553. 2. Histoire de la Nature des Oiseaux, ly called its limit.

fol. 1555. 3. Portraits d'Oiseaux, 4to. 1557. het BELMONTE, a town of Italy, in the hither 4. Histoire des Poissons, 4to. 1551, with plates.

Calabria and kingdom of Naples. It is situated 5. De la Nature et Diversité des Poissons, 8vo. on the coast of the Tuscan sea. It is celebrated 1555. for its fine marbles.

BELONE, in ichthyology, the trivial name of BELOCK, be and lock. See Lock.

a species of esox, See Esox.

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BEʼLONG, v. n. Dutch belungen. To be 'Tis much below me on his throne to sit ; the property, province, or business of; to ad- But when I do, you shall petition it. here, appertain, or have relation to.

This said, he led them up the mountain's brow,

And show'd them all the shining fields below. Id. To light on a part of a field belonging to Boaz. Ruth.

The gladsome ghosts in circling troops attend;
There is no need of such redress;

Delight to hover near, and long to know
Or if there were it not belongs to you.

What bus'ness brought him to the realms beloro. ld.

When suff'ring saints aloft in beains shall glow, The declaration of these latent philosophers belongs And prosp'rous traitors gnash their teeth belure. to another paper. Boyle.

Ticketl. To Jove the care of heav'n and earth belongs And let no tears from erring pity fow,

Dryden. For one that's bless'd above, immortaliz'd below. He went into a desart belonging to Bethsaida.

Suith. Luke.

The fairest child of Jove, To whom belongest thou? whence art thou ? Below for ever sought, and bless'd above. Prior.

1 Samuel. The noble Venetians think themselves equal at The faculties belonging to the supreme spirit, are least to che electors of the empire, and but one dere unlimited and boundless, fitted and designed for in- below kings.

Addion finite objects.

Cheyne. His Idylliums of Theocritus are as much belour his He careth for things that belong to the Lord. Manilius, as the fields are below the stars. Feltra.

1 Corinth. Sieur Gaulard, when he heard a gentleman report, BELOSTOMA, in zoology, a genus of insects

that at supper they had not only good cheer, but also of the order hemiptera, family hydrocorise. Its

rico Ite savoury epigrams and fine anagrams, returning how,

rated and belowted his cook as an ignorant scullion, generic character is, fore feet terminated by a

m a that never dressed him either epigrams or anagrams. single hook; antennæ semi-pectinated. There

Camdes. is no European species.

Father of all above and all below, BE'LOVED, purt. From belove, derived of O great! and far beyond expression so love. It is observable, that though the partici- No bounds thy knowledge, none thy power conine, ple be of very frequent use, the verb is seldom For power and knowledge in their source are thine'. or never admitted; as we say you are much be

Parul loved by me,' but not I belove you.' Loved; BELPECH, a town of France, in Languedoc, dear.

department of the Aude. In 1369 this place I think it is not meet,

was taken by the English, and among the priMark Antony, so well beloved of Cæsar, Should outlive Cæsar.

soners was Isabella, mother of the queen of

Shakspeare. France. It is seven miles north-west of Vire In likeness of a dove The Spirit descended, while the Father's voice

poix, and twelve south-west of Castelnaudary. From heav'n pronounc'd him his beloved Son.

Long. 150° E., lat. 43° 12' N.

Each lonely scene shall thee restore,

TUS, the last king of Babylon, is generally agreed For thee the tear be daily shed;

to have been the son of Evil-Merodach, by the Belou'd till life can charm no more,

celebrated Nitocris, and grandson of Nebuchad. And mourn'd till pity's self be dead.

nezzar the Great. He succeeded upon the deaths

Collins' Dirge. of his uncle-in-law Neriglissar, and his infint : BEʻLOW, prep. & adv.) Be and low. Low cousin Laborosoarchod (with whom some author BE'LOWT, v.

Sis the past participle confound him), about A. M. 3393, or, accorinz of the Ang.-Sax. verb, liczan, jacere, cubiere. to others, 3449. He is said to have regnet Belowt, is to treat as a lowi. Under, in place : seventeen years, but was so devoted to pleasure, not high; unbefitting; unworthy of; in the lower that nothing is recorded of him, excepting his place; in hell; in earth. in opposition to folly, dissipation, and impiety, till the last day heaven.

of his reign and life: when the miraculous vision For all below the moon I would not leap.

of the hand-writing on the wall, denouncing the Shakspeare.

immediate overthrow of his empire, alarmrd him He'll beat Aufidius' head below his knee,

and his impious nobles, in the midst of their And tread upon his neck.

Id. guilty festival; and led him to apply for adrict, To men standing below on the ground, those that be when too late, to the long neglected price on the top of Paul's seem much less than they are, minister and prophetic instructor of his grandand cannot be known; but, to men above, those below father. See Daniel, chap. v. Babybon was seem nothing so much lessened, and may be known. taken by Cyrus, Belshazzar slain, and the kus

Bacun. dom transferred to the Medes and Persianis; The upper regions of the air perceive the collection A. M. 3410, or 3466, and about A. A. C. 508. of the matter of the tempests and winds before the See BABYLONIA. air here below ; and therefore the obscuring of the BEL'SWAGGER, n.s. A cant word for a smaller stars, is a sign of tempest following. Id. whoremaster. His sultry heat infects the sky;

You are a charitabie belswagger; my wife cried out The ground below is parch'd, the heav'ns above us fry. fire, and you cried out for engines.


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