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nature, and of most uncompromising individuality. In his youth he had never gone to school, and yet he acquired a fair English education. At seventeen years of age we find him a tailor by occupation; at twenty the Mayor of Greenville, Tenn.; at twenty-seven in the legislature of the State, and at thirtythree in the State senate. He was in congress ten years, beginning in 1843, and twice elected governor prior to 1857 in which year he was elected to the United States senate.

Amidst the fury of the rebellion he left the senate to become military governor of his state, and received the nomination for vice-president in 1864. Mr. Lincoln had been assassinated April 14, 1865, and Mr. Johnson sworn into office on the 15th of the same month, only six days from the date of General Lee's sur render to General Grant.

On the 26th of May, 1865, the last army of the confederacy having surrendered, and congress not being in session, Mr. Johnson began the work of reconstructing the rebel states, according to what was known as (his) "My Policy"; and which gave ex-rebels an opportunity of controlling completely the legal white element and freemen. Congress claimed the power over the whole territory subdued by war, and stood ready to comply with the 4th article of the constitution which declares that "The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of government."

When, therefore that body assembled in the next session, the struggle began in earnest between the president and congress. On the second of March, 1867, an act was passed for the "reorganization of civil government in the ten rebel states," and another to "govern the tenure of civil office," both of which were promptly vetoed by the president, and as promptly passed over the veto. Thus stood the question on the day of our admission to the senate.

As General Thayer had made an honorable record in the army and had experience in Indian affairs, it was very proper that he should be assigned to duty on the military and Indian affairs committees, while he also secured an assignment to that of patents.



Thomas W. Tipton was born upon a farm, near Cadiz, Harrison County, Ohio, August 5th, 1817. His father, Rev. William Tipton, was, during fifty years, minister of the M. E. Church. His parents were pioneers to Ohio, from Huntington County, Pennsylvania. He attended common school during winter seasons, more or less interrupted by farm work until seventeen years of age. Subsequent to his eighteenth year he spent one year in a select school in Waynesburgh, Pa., two years in Allegheny College at Meadsville, and two years in Madison College at Uniontown, Fayette County, Pa., and graduated in September, 1840, delivering the valedictory.

Before graduation, as a representative of a college society, he utterly refused to appear in a joint debate, unless the faculty would allow him to argue against the "utility and policy" of the established devotion to the "dead languages," in the usual course of study. In this he displayed that trait of character, "the courage of his convictions," which stamped his personality during life and led him to change church relations and political associations in accordance with increased experience and investigation.

Leaving college and returning to Ohio for a time, he engaged in teaching and reading law, being admitted to the bar in 1844.


Though a Whig, he was not able to vote for Gen. Harrison in 1840, having lost his residence in Ohio, while a student in Pennsylvania. In 1844 he delivered fifty speeches for Henry Clay; in 1848 seventy-five for Gen. Taylor; in 1852, resigned a clerkship in the General Land Office in Washington, D. C., and gave four months to the campaign for Gen. Scott; in 1856 ad

vocated Gen. Fremont as the first Republican candidate; in 1860, being in the Territory of Nebraska, could not vote for Mr. Lincoln, nor yet in 1864; in 1868 voted for General Grant; in 1872 for Horace Greeley, and canvassed extensively in the states of Nebraska and North Carolina; in 1876 canvassed in New York and Indiana for Mr. Tilden, and in 1880 in Illinois for Gen. Hancock, and in the same year was candidate for Governor of Nebraska and in 1884 worked and voted for Grover Cleveland.

In 1845 Mr. Tipton, then 28 years of age, was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives. In 1860 was a member of the territorial council of Nebraska, which answered to the state senate. In 1866 was elected to the United States Senate by the legislature of Nebraska and re-elected in 1869. In 1885 was commissioned Receiver of the United States Land Office at Bloomington, Nebraska.

From the above it appears that he cast his presidential votes for three Whig, two Republican, and four Democratic candidates, Mr. Greeley being an independent Republican endorsed by the Democratic party.

During his connection with the General Land Office in 1850, an opportunity for self-assertion and vindication drew from the young subordinate an emphatic refusal to answer questions relative to the conduct of a fellow-clerk who had fallen under the displeasure of the Honorable Secretary of Interior.

Hon. Secy. of Interior--DEAR SIR: Before I could answer
your interrogatories I would have to sink the dignity of
the man in the subserviency of the slave. Respectfully,


At a time when slavery was making its last desperate stand against freedom in the territories, and blood was freely flowing in Kansas, he made an effort to lay aside his political armor and enter the M. E. pulpit. Being then in his 38th year, a public speaker of much experience, allowing no man to think or act in his stead, he soon found what an utter failure he must become

in attempting to submit to the surveillance of presiding elders, or in approving the manipulating strategy of the episcopacy in ministerial assignments.

Soon, therefore, when called on to explain the mode of administration over his charge, and requested to be silent on the current topic of the times, his answer to the former question was: "My official members do as they please and I sustain them, and I do as I please and they sustain me." And to the latter: "I could not promise that to my father in his shroud." To a congregation he said: "While I occupy this desk you will have a free preacher, and all my words shall be free speech, and when you can no longer endure it, you may install a slave in my stead, and substitute for the Bible the Books of Mormon or Koran of Mohammed."

While between him and his people there was the most perfect accord, he deemed it prudent to decline orders, and requested the Conference to make up the record, "Discontinued at his own request," and at once adopted the democracy of the Congregational church government.

Coming to Nebraska in 1858, and elected president of Brownville College, an institution on paper, he organized a Congregational society of sixteen members, out of new and old school Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists, which was dissolved by mutual consent when the war of 1861-4 unsettled residences on the border. Eligible to a chaplaincy, he entered the 1st Nebraska Infantry in 1861 and was mustered out of Veteran Cavalry in 1865, and on the same day was appointed United States Assessor of Internal Revenue by President Johnson.

During the war he was often in charge of subsistence and transportation for loyal refugees within the Union lines, and of applications for military emancipation of slaves.

On the 13th of February, 1864, at Batesville, Arkansas, Mr. Tipton addressed the Free State Convention ordered by Mr. Lincoln.

Chaplain Tipton was mustered out of service in July, 1865,

and on the same day commissioned by President Johnson as Assessor of Internal Revenue for Nebraska. He championed the cause of immediate state organization in the political campaigns that followed, and when the state constitution was adopted and the legislature met in special session on July 4, 1866, he and Gen. John M. Thayer were made the nominees of the republican party for the two United States senatorships. The journal of the joint session held on July 11, 1866, shows that a motion to proceed to election of U. S. senator for South Platte having carried, the first ballot resulted: T. W. Tipton, 29 votes; J. Sterling Morton, 21 votes. A motion prevailing to proceed to election of U. S. senator for North Platte, the first ballot resulted: John M. Thayer, 29 votes; Andrew J. Poppleton, 21 votes. So Nebraska came into the Union with two republican United States senators.


On the second day of the senate session, the following March, before the organization of the senate was completed, Mr. Sumner presented resolution No. 1, "Tendering the thanks of congress to George Peabody, with a gold medal, for having donated large sums of money to states and corporations for educational purposes." During the day he called it up and asked its immediate passage, which was objected to because it had not been to a committee, and there was no evidence before the senate on which the case was founded.

On the fourth day of the session Mr. Sumner delivered a speech, highly eulogistic of the donor, who had been in Massachusetts, lived in Baltimore and made most of his immense fortune by banking in London. In this he was followed by Johnson of Maryland, one of the ablest democrats of the nation.

Mr. Tipton was well aware that an opinion obtained, that a new senator should "sit at the feet of Gamaliel" during a probation and not dare to dissent from the great leaders on the ordinary questions; but in the case before the body he saw plainly a tendency to discriminate between private citizens, and to be

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