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These, Mr. President, are the men and these the women and children for whom, before all others, I make this appeal. If you could save to these the possible one-third of the nutrition element of their food supplies which is extracted to be replaced by that which is only bulk, only the form and semblance of which they are robbed by the dishonest manipulator and trader, you would go a long way toward solving the great problem of the laboring masseswhether for them it is "better to live or not to live," whether it is "better to endure the ills they have, rather than flee to those they know not of," that lie beyond in the realm of governmental and social upheaval and chaos. There is a good deal in the way of comic "asides" as the momentous social drama which holds the boards at this time, and whose dramatis persona are the so called common people, rapidly advances to the epilogue. Be not deceived, the storm doth not abate. It is ever rising. Its violence is ever increasing. Take heed when the people demand bread that you continue not to give them a stone, lest the angry waves of discontent may some time, perhaps in the near future, rise so high as to overwhelm and engulf for ever all that we most greatly value-our free institutions, and of the glories and hopes of our great Republic-which are not ours alone, but which belong, and, if they are preserved and shall permanently endure, will be an ever continuing blessing to all mankind.


March 24th, 1892, Mr. Paddock affirmed that there was "a universal demand in the West for some legislation on the bill to regulate speculation in fictitious farm products," and hoped the committee in charge of the same would make verbal report thereof. Again on the 16th of June following he congratulated the senate that the committee of the Judiciary was giving attention to the constitutional aspect of the question.

Once more, he appears on the succeeding 20th of July injecting questions into a very searching speech of Senator Vest of Missouri; and finally just before the conclusion of the 1st session of the 52d congress holds the attention of the senate with a speech upon "Options and Futures," in which he charged that gambling in grains "made impossible the direct, free, and safe distribution to, and the storage and holding of the same at points of consumption in non-producing sections, remote from

the fields of the producer;" and that the system neutralized the conditions of "supply and demand, filling the coffers of speculators and brokers at the expense of the farmers and honest purchasers."

We have in conclusion:

"Mr. President, it will not do to trifle with this matter. This bill must not be set aside because the people who are carrying on this business demand to be let alone. This is always the prayer behind which men profiting by evil methods seek to intrench themselves.

This fiction trading is the most prolific source of dissatisfaction, disgust and apprehension that has ever existed in this country. The bases of many colossal fortunes which have been the marvel of the present generation are believed by the masses of the people to be traceable directly to this system, and the ruin of thousands of men all over the country is known to have the same origin.

The system is universally reprobated. And certainly such a system, which all mankind believe to be hurtful to legiti mate commerce, to public morals, and generally prejudicial to the general welfare, ought to receive the attention of congress to the end that at least it may receive the seal of its condemnation.

Though the bill passed the senate, it met the most energetic opposition of those who believed there was no warrant for it in the constitution of the United States, inasmuch as it proposed to prohibit the business by excessive taxation, while the only province of national taxation should be "for revenue only."

And again that these contracts for future consummation were simply between citizens of the same state and in no respect of an interstate character, subject to that clause of the constitution regulating commerce between states; and that if an evil it fell under the jurisdiction of local state legislation.

They denied utterly, that the price of grain or cotton could be affected by the guessing or betting upon their prices at any future time; but that the price would be governed by the "demand and supply," going up when the demand was great and the supply small and down with reversed conditions.

As the end of his second term was approaching in 1892 his

admonition to the Democratic party in 1887 became painfully applicable to his political allies in Nebraska.

I beg to warn our friends that the deluge is at hand, and there will have to be some very lively swimming on their part or they will go down beneath the waves of popular disfavor and distrust, which their own administration has set in motion by its incompetency and its blunders.

And after the Populist ark had found its Ararat, and the senatorial succession became the prize in conflict, how expressive his words in the 52d congress:

Be not deceived; the storm doth not abate. It is ever rising. Its violence is ever increasing. Take heed when the people demand bread, that you continue not to give them a stone.

After twelve years of faithful service, on the 4th of March, 1893, his Populist successor, Judge W. V. Allen, assumed the duties of Senator.


March 4th, 1877-March 4th, 1883.

Governor Alvin Saunders was elected to succeed Senator P. W. Hitchcock, in the United States Senate, in 1877, in the 45th congress. As an appointee of Mr. Lincoln, in May, 1861, he became the successor of Governor Samuel Black of Pennsylvania, and assumed the duties of Territorial Governor. His incumbency of that office, for six years, covered the most eventful period in Nebraska history. It wound up the life of a territory, and hailed the rise of a state.

It bridged the gulf between the charred and desolate realm of slavery, and the vernal, captivating dominion of freedom. As Black was the last official of the aggrandizing South, so Saunders became the first of the dominating North. In his first official proclamation, he sounded the tocsin of war, and denounced treason and the traitor. In his first official message he urged material aid for the Union treasury, in his second felicitated the people on the steady advance of the Union arms, eulogized the Territorial troops, advocated monuments and rolls of honor, and emancipation as a military necessity.

In his message of 1865, was heralded the march of Sherman to the sea, and in that of 1866 came the joyous acclaim: "Our flag, emblem of the unity of justice, power and glory of the nation now floats in triumph over every part of the Republic."

Thus upon the pages of state history he erected the milestones of national progress. While the commerce of the old world was seeking a new passage to the new and the visions of Fremont and Whitney had been cheered with the glimpse of an iron track across the American desert, and over the Rocky Mountains, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific, in 1861, the new Governor pointed to the great Platte Valley as the future route. Two years pass by and spade in hand he "broke ground" for "the greatest internal improvement ever projected by man." while from the summit of the Sierra Nevadas he viewed the

coming of "the silk of the Indies, the manufactures of England and France and the teas of China." His message of 1854 recounted in appreciative terms the great Union Pacific charter of 1862; and in 1865 reported cheering progress toward a splendid consummation. In 1866 his bulletin announced 55 miles of track, while in 1867 it read, "Cars running a distance of 293 miles." Here official exhibits and prognostications ceased, on retiring from office; but in a short time the reportorial pencil, in other hands wrote out: "Hon. Alvin Saunders, of Omaha, Pullman passenger for San Francisco." His connection with this stupendous enterprise might of itself have satisfied the most exacting ambition; but there were other monumental shafts on which to carve a name.

January, 1861, he urged the legislature to call upon congress for the passage of a bill to secure homes for permanent settlers on the public lands, and in 1864 congratulated the body on the passage of the "beneficent homestead bill." The question of state organization received commendation, and on the 27th of March, 1867, his valedictory proclaimed exultation and thanks. How well Governor Saunders was to serve the State of Nebraska as senator may be inferred from his personal knowledge of her perilous march amid savage attacks, national alarms and financial reverses.

On calling up the bill to establish the Territory of Lincoln, June 19, 1877, in the 45th congress, Mr. Saunders gave a brief description of the people and their wants.


MR. SAUNDERS: There is a thorough and clear report made by the committee and I believe no objection ought to intervene in the way of the passage of the bill for the reason that the people are fully established out there. They have now all the elements of civilization and success and everything for making permanent homes. They have churches; they have school houses; they have daily papers and weekly papers; they have more than fifty mills in the mining region. The lowest estimate of the number of people in the mining region is fifteen thousand, besides five thousand people in and around Bismarck, so that there is

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