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Plaie et bosse. The former is an open wound, a sore; the latter, a bruise : 'ne demander que plaie et bosse,' to wish for nothing but quarrels, for mischief.
Je le laissai s'épanouir la rate, I let him have his laugh out; lit. I let him drive out his spleen.
Tout beau, gently.
Assassinats : of doubtful etymology. Some refer it to the followers of the Old Man of the Mountain, Haschischin, who murdered all those pointed out to them by their chief, Others derive it from a word ‘sasis,' i. e. knife; as sicarii' from 'sica.'
Le Sage (Alain René), born at Sarzeau, dep. Morbihan, 1668 ; went early to Paris to follow philosophical studies. He wrote “ Crispin, Rival de son Maître ;"
Turcaret," a satire against the financiers of the time; " Le Diable Boiteux;" “ Gil Blas," the plot of which he found in the Spanish novel of Volez de Guerara, “El Diabolo Cojuelo;" “ Le Bachelier de Salamanque;" and others. He died 1747
PAGE 7. Gibier, game; from Lat. 'cibaria.'
Faible. Comp. Eng. ' feeble;' Sp. 'feble;' from Lat. ' flebilis,' i. q. debilis, pitiful, weak, etc.
ouvre, whence Eng.'cover,' from Lat. cooperire.' Qu'un roi prenne, let a king take, etc.
Payer, whence Eng. 'pay;' probably from Ital. ' pagare,' or Sp. 'pagar,' from Lat. pacare."
Tuer. Comp. Gr. QÚELV, Germ. 'tödten,' and Engl. " death.'
Prends garde, derived from the Saxon 'warican,' whence Germ. 'wahren, Eng.ward,' a. o.
PAGE 8. Médecins: through Lat. medicina,' from Gr. undouai.
Alors, from Ital..allora,' i. q.' à l'heure,'' maintenant. Note, that the final & is never joined to the following word in pronunciation : alors il dit,' pr. "alor il dit.'
Hache : old Sax. root “ haccan,' whence Germ. “ hacken,' Eng.hack.'
9. Frédéric II. roi de Prusse. Born 1712, Jan. 12; died 1786, Aug. 17; reigned 1740-86.
Page, probably from Gr. Taidíov.
PAGE 9. Chambre, from Gr. kauapa, through Lat. camera;' Germ. “ kammer; Eng. chamber.' Comp. Heb. 07, a. o.
Bourse. Comp. Gr. Búpoa; whence Lat. "byrsa ;" Germ. "börse ; Eng. purse.'
Poche. Comp. Eng. pouch,'' poke," pocket.'
Maniait, from Lat, manus, corresponding to the literal English rendering to handle,' from 'hand.'
Atelier. The old spelling 'âtelier' or 'astelier' seems to point to 'hastella,' from Lat. hasta.'
Il écartait, he put aside, kept off. The etymology is obscure; perhaps from the game at cards, to put aside, to discard valueless cards for others.
PAGE 10. Cour, from Med. Lat. curtis, derived from ' cohors.' Comp. Gr. Xóptos, Germ. "garten.' The word is derived apparently from some verb signifying enclose, surround; perhaps Sax. 'gyrdan,' whence Eng. yard.' Comp. * basse-cour,' poultry-yard.
Ecu, from Lat. scutum,' okúros, shield, the coat-of-arms which the coin bore.
Cardinal Richelieu (Armand Jean Duplessis), born Sept. 5, 1585, in Poitou, of noble family; studied divinity, and became bishop when only twenty-two years of age. Marie de Médicis promoted him, and he became grand almoner, and soon after minister of the interior and foreign affairs. In 1622 he obtained the dignity of cardinal, and was made a member of the Council of State, 1624. Despite many plots to undermine his position and ruin him, he became prime minister, 1629; peer of France and duke, 1631. Died Dec. 4, 1642.
Cardinal, from Lat. 'cardo,' hinge.
Brusque, rough, blunt, abrupt; an old Gaelic root. The Breton brisg,' Welsh brys, Eng." brisk,' all belong to the same stock.
Souverain. Comp. the Eng., and Ital. sovrano,' from Lat. supernus, superus ;' like 'pauvre,'' cuvre,'' recevoir,' from ' pauper,' opera,' recipere.'
PAGE II. S'assouvir, to satisfy, especially the cravings of hunger or thirst. The etymology is very doubtful. The derivation from the Gothic 'ga-sothian, xopráČELV; the changing th into v is hazardous.
Eblouir, to dazzle. Comp. Germ.. blöde,' “ blödsichtig.'
Boutique, shop, with the cognate forms, Sp. “botica,' Ital. “ bottega,' from åtoonan, a storehouse.
Accueil, reception: ‘faire accueil,' or 'bon accueil,' to receive kindly ; derived from Lat. 'ad' and colligere.' The French have changed the conjugation of the Lat. verb from third to fourth conj.
Petits-pieds, game, epecially fowl.
PAGE 12. Foule, crowd. Comp. Germ. 'voll, fülle ;' Eng. 'fill,' . full.'
Tocsin, alarm-bell; from old French . toquer,' i.'q. 'toucher,' and 'sein' or seint,' bell; the latter word probably from . signum.
Escalier, staircase ; from Lat. scalæ,' whence p. cl. "scalarium.'
PAGE 13. Coup, in this sense, is repeatedly used in French: 'coup de l'étrier,' stirrup-cup. Compare ' bumper.'
Faire raison, in this sense, 'honour their toasts.
Butin, with Eng. 'booty;' Germ.“ beute;' Ital. “ bottino ;' from an old Saxon
Chameau, with the cognates, Eng. "camel;' Lat. camellus ;' Gr. káunlos, from Arabic ' djamal; Heb, ypa.
Courroie, strap; with Sp. correa ;' Ital. "correggia,' from Lat. 'corrigia.
Nuancé, shaded ; from Lat. ' nubes.'
Essai, with the cognates : Eng.“ assay' and“ essay,' Lat. ' sequi, Germ. “suchen, Eng. 'seek,' belong to one root signifying to follow, etc.
14. Fléau. Comp. the Eng. 'Hail;" Germ, . flegel ;' Lat. ' flagellum;' Gr. Tanto; Eng. "flog.'
PAGE 16. Genghis Khan: a celebrated Mongol leader, whose proper name was Temudschin, was the son of the Mongol leader Yesukaik; born 1155. After the death of his father he took refuge with the chief of a larger Mongol tribe, Ung, whose daughter he married. He eventually, after the death of his father-in-law, who fell in battle, and after having taken Kara-Korum, the capital of the Naiman Tartars, resolved to invade China ; passed across the Great Wall 1209, and took Pekin 1215. The murder of his ambassadors by the Sultan of Khiva determined him to attack Turkestan, with an army of 700,000 men. He took by storm the cities Bokhara, Samarkand, and Kowharesm, and extended his dominion as far as the Dnieper. He died 1227, Aug. 24.
15. Oter. Comp. Eng. 'oust;' probably from 'haustare,' formed of 'haurire.'
PAGE 17. Marteau, mallet, hammer. Comp. Ital. “ martello,' from Lat. ' martulus,' i. q. 'marculus,
Estropiés, mangled, murdered. The etymology is not clear. The Gr. otpépelv seems unsatisfactory. The Ital.' . stroppiare,' whence the French
is taken, gives no clue. “Storpiare,' and thence extorpidare,' have been suggested.
Tombeau. Comp. Lat. 'tumulus ;' Gr. Túußos ; Eng. 'tomb.'
Employer, with the cognate forms, plier ; Ital. "piegare ;' Sp. plegare, from Lat. plicare.'
Coûter. Comp. Germ. 'kosten ;' Eng. ' cost.'
PAGE 18. Coiffures, head-dress. The derivation is by no means clear. Compare Eng.'coif;' Ital. - cuffia.'
Mouche, patches ; Lat. "musca.
Montesquieu (Charles de Sécondat, baron de Brède et de): born Jan. 18, 1689, near Bordeaux; became (1714) councillor at the parliament of Bordeaux, and, two years later, president; was founder of the Academy of Bordeaux. His first great work was the “ Lettres Persanes,” followed by his “Considérations sur les Causes de la Grandeur et de la Décadence des Romains," 1734; and “ Esprit des Lois," 1748. He died in Paris, Feb. 10, 1755.
17. Guérite, sentry-box.
PAGE 19. Banc. Comp. Eng.' bench ;' Germ. “ bank;" Sp. and Ital. “banco,' from the German.
Embarcation, from barque,' derived from a Celtic root' barc. Comp. Germ. * barke;' Eng. bark' and · barge;' Jtal. 'barca.'
Mât. Comp. Eng. and Germ. “mast.' In German and Dutch the word is used in connection with baum,' i. e. ' beam,
Lieue. Sp. * legua ;' Ital. “ lega, from p. class. Lat. ' leuca.' The etymology is doubtful. The word is evidently of Celtic origin : the Irish as well as the Gaelic 'léig' signify the same.
Hutte, with Eng. 'hut,' from O. H. Germ.'hutta.'
PAGE 20. Naguère, or 'naguères,' adv.; from ' il n'y a guère' ("temps' understood).
Désormais, from dès,'ore' (old word, from Lat. ' hora'), and magis,' i. q. dès ce moment.'
Cabane, with Eng. ' cabin,' from Gaelic. caban.' Compare Gr. kabávn, Lat. caupona.'
Brûler : Ital. "brustolare,' from Lat. urere,' through a frequentative formation ustulare '—' perustulare,' which is found in the Provençal form of bruslar.' Briser. Comp. Eng.' bruise,' . burst;' Germ..bersten.'
Guizot (François P. G.): born at Nismes, Oct. 4, 1787; educated, after the death of his father, 1794, in Geneva ; returned, 1806, to Paris ; 1809, his first work, “Nouveau Dictionnaire Universel de la Langue Française," appeared ; 1811-14, he wrote his “ Etat des Beaux Arts en France," " Annales de l'Education," and " Vies des Poètes Français du Siècle de Louis XIV." His political career began with the Restoration. He had been recommended to Montesquieu, then minister of the interior, who appointed him to a secretaryship. After a series of writings, more or less touching upon social and political questions, 1820-1822, he, in conjunction with several other literary men of note, published the celebrated “ Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l'Histoire de France depuis la Fondation de la Monarchie jusqu'au Izme Siècle," and the “ Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l'Histoire de la Révolution d'Angleterre.” He wrote further - Observations sur l'Histoire de France," “ Histoire de la Révolution d’Angleterre," and conducted the “ Encyclopédie Progressive" and the
" Revue Française." In 1828, when the government allowed him to resume his lectures on Modern History, he produced his “ Histoire de la Civilisation en France depuis la Chute de l'Empire Romain jusqu'à la Révolution Française ; 1830, he entered the French Chamber as representative of Lisieux. After the revolution of July he became minister of the interior, and remained in the cabinet, with short interruptions, until 1837; 1840, he was sent as ambassador to England, and in October of the same year assumed the direction of foreign affairs, and was eventually, from 1847, premier. Since the revolution of 1848 he has occupied himself almost exclusively with literature. I need only quote a few of the works : “ Monk;' “Chute de la République;" " Etude sur les Beaux-Arts ;"
Shakespeare et son Temps ;" “ Corneille et son Temps ;" and other memoirs.
19. Narbonne : the ancient Narbo Marcius or Narbona in the old province of Languedoc, founded 118 A. C., was the capital of the provincia romana, or 'Gallia Narbonensis,' is a small town of about 15,000 inhabitants.
Fenêtres en ogive, pointed or arched window, ogive window.
Joue. Diez gives it from Ital. 'gota,' from Med. Lat. "gabatæ,' hollow eating-vessels ; more probably from Lat. “ gena.'
Lavater : born 1741, at Zurich; died Jan. 2, 1801; known chiefly on account of his physiognomical speculations.
Moustaches, with Eng. and Ital., from Gr. júoraš.
PAGE 22. Féodal, with the Eng: * feudal' (a. o. not found before the eleventh century); low Lat. “feudum.' Derivation perhaps from .fee,' i. e. stipend, and 'odal' or 'udal,' signifying property; whence 'fee-oth' (Lat. "foedum'), stipendiary property.--Blackstone. "Others derive from Lat. “ foedus.'
Cadet, younger son. The old spelling 'captet' seems to favour the etymology of capitetum,' Low Lat., from . caput,' in the sense of • little chiet?