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Don Juan de Braganza, who afterwards, under the name of John IV, ascended the throne of Portugal, and from whom the present royal line of Portugal and the imperial house of Brazil are descended.


S'appuyer, to lean against; from the Low Lat. appodiare;' Lat. ' podium.' PAGE 23. Capucin, from the Ital. cappucino,' which again is derived from the Low Lat. capa,' cloak or hood; connected thus with chapeau,' a. o. Araignée, spider; Gr. åpáxvŋ.

Ralentir, with the corresponding Eng. 'relent;' Ital. rallentare,' from Lat. 'lenire.'

PAGE 34. Rayon, with Eng. 'ray;' Sp. ' rayo;' from Lat. ' radius.'

Rêveries. The etymology is doubtful: some derive it from péμßŋ, others from Lat. ' rabies,' or 'rapere,' through 'rêve.'

Boisrobert (Francois de), born at Caen in 1592; wrote a great number of plays, epistles, odes; was always a great favourite of Richelieu, from whom he obtained several valuable livings.

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Colletet (Guillaume), born in Paris 1596, member of the Academy. A prolific writer in prose and verse, and especially noted for a history of French poets and poetry brought down to his day. Died 1659.

Corneille (Pierre), born at Rouen June 6, 1606. Brought up by Jesuits, he was at first intended for the bar, but, disheartened by want of success, turned his energies towards the stage, and is properly called "créateur du théâtre Français." His first comedy "Mélite," represented 1626, established his reputation; and was followed by "Clitandre," given 1630; “La Veuve,” 1634; and others. He was early known and patronised by Richelieu, but not liking the criticisms passed by the latter on matters where he deemed his opinion sufficiently good, he withdrew from the court and lived at Rouen. The study of Spanish literature, especially the works of De Castro, influenced his writings. The "Cid" was the result of his labours in this new field, followed by "Les Horaces" (1639), "Cinna," "Polyeucte," "La Mort de Pompée" (1641), the comedy of "Le Menteur," tragedy of "Theodore, Vierge et Martyre,” “Rodogune" (1646), and "Héraclius" (1647), “ Andromeda,” comedy of "Don Sanche d'Aragon," "Nicomede," a. o. He wrote on a variety of other subjects, especially an Imitation du Jésus Christ," some Latin verses. He died October 1, 1684.

PAGE 25. Fauteuil, arm-chair; from O. H. Germ. falt-stuol,' i. e. folding chair.

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PAGE 26. Vigny (A. de), born March 27, 1799, entered the army 1814, but retired 1828, and devoted himself to literature. His lesser poems were colJected and appeared 1828. His great work "Cinq-Mars," whence the extract is taken, appeared 1826; another work " Stello," 1832. He also wrote some translations; among others that of " Othello," 1830; and the Merchant of Venice." In 1831 he brought out his drama "La Maréchale d'Ancre ;" 1835, h's "Chatterton."


Fier, proud; from Lat. 'ferus.'

PAGE 27. Gustave-Adolphe, king of Sweden, leader of the Protestants during the early portion of the Thirty Years' War.

Bannier, or Banner, one of his generals.

Walstein, or Wallenstein, imperial leader.
Duc de Weimar, Protestant general.
Wert (Jean de), imperial general.
PAGE 30. Etincelants, from Lat. 'scintilla.'




PAGE 31. Caraco, a kind of jacket or spencer.


Marraine; Ital. and Sp. madrina;' formed similarly to 'parrain,' from Med. Lat. patrinus.'

PAGE 32. Neveu, with Eng. nephew;' Germ. 'neffe:' from Lat. ' nepos.'

Chagrin, grief, chagrin; derived generally from a Turkish root 'sagri.'
Veuve, widow; Lat. vidua ;' Germ. wittwe.'


Fouasse, 'espèce de galette;' generally spelt fouace;'fouasse de froment,' cheesecake.

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Maître-cidre, i. q. cidre de première qualité.

Convoitise, like cognate Eng. covetousness;' Ital. cubitare; from Lat. cupidus.'

Migeoter, or mijoter, to simmer.

Armoire, originally probably armarum repositorium.'

Giron, lap; from Gr. yupòs.

Bordées (courir des), to tack about.

PAGE 34. Singe; Lat. 'simia.'


Note the change in the con

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Nappe, table-cloth; i. q. 'mappe,' from Lat. * mappa.'
Cuiller, spoon; from Lat. cochlear.'

Guet, snare, watch; Gaelic root 'gaiste,' signifying the same; so also the old Irish form.


PAGE 33. Seuil. Comp. Eng. sill;' Germ. ' schwelle;' Lat. 'solium.'


PAGE 38. Filin goudronné, tarred rope.
Bourrant sa pipe, filling his pipe.

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Estomac, with Eng. stomach;' Lat. from Gr. oтóμAXOS.


Vaquer, to be vacant; from Lat. ' vacuus; vaquer à,' to attend to.
Rouet, spinningwheel; Lat. 'rota.'

PAGE 35. Coude, Lat. cubitus.' Comp. Ital.cubito.'

Grain blanc, white squall.

Tâchons: an old Gaelic root, 'tasg; Eng. task.' The derivation from Lat. ' taxa' seems less likely.

Epanouis: Lat. ' expandere.'

Piot, fam. for 'vin ;' probably through Gr. ivw.


PAGE 36. Crémaillère, iron hook: Sp. gramallera;' Low Lat. 'cramaculus.' The derivation from Gr. «péμaodai, to be suspended, is at least doubtful; the Lat. cremare,' to burn, equally so. The old radical 'a' in the Lat. form points to an old root 'kram,' still existing in Dutch, in the sense of 'hook.' PAGE 37. Marsouin, from O. H. Germ. meer-suin;' Germ. 'meerschwein,' porpoise, sea-hog.

Gueux of doubtful origin; perhaps the Dutch 'guit,' i. e. rascal, rogue, might give a clue. The word became famous by being opprobriously applied to the league of Flemish nobles 1566, (temp. Philip II,) by the Comte de Barlaimont. Nippes, fam. things, clothes.


PAGE 39. Comte, count; from Lat. ' comes.'

Souvestre (Emile), born at Morlaix in Brittany in 1806, passed his early years at the college of Pontivy, whence he was to proceed to the Ecole Polytechnique, to study mathematics. He preferred however a legal career, and graduated at Rennes, 1826. The death of his father, which happened during his sojourn there, put him in possession of a small competency, and he determined to visit Paris, in order if possible to bring out a tragedy of his, "Le Siège de Missolonghi." He failed in this design, and returned rather crestfallen to Brittany, and worked hard at an account of his native province (published as late as 1836), when his eldest brother died, leaving a widow and child totally unprovided for. He undertook to maintain them; and we find him in various places-at Nantes as a bookseller's assistant and schoolmaster, at Morlaix as barrister, at Brest as editor of a newspaper, at Mulhousen as professor of rhetoric. He wrote for various papers, and was engaged on the famous work "Les derniers Bretons" (published 1836), followed by "Riche et Pauvre," "L'Homme et l'Argent," " Du Philosophe sous les Toits." The revolution of 1848 found him still in the midst of his literary labours, and his friends persuaded him to take a part in the political movement. He offered himself as candidate for Finisterre, but was rejected, and he devoted himself entirely to the organisation of an "Ecole d'Administration," lectured to working men, and commenced evening classes in various quarters of Paris, until the police put an end to his philanthropic endeavours. He died suddenly 1854.


PAGE 40. Aine, groin; Lat. 'inguen.'

PAGE 41. Bière: Eng. 'bier;' Germ. bahre;' connected with Gr. and Lat. 'fero."

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PAGE 42. Cortége: Fr. cour.' Vide note above.

Dépourvus, from Lat. ' privare.'


Bétail, from Lat. bestialia;' pl. neuter, used collectively.

Boccace: Giovanni Boccacio, born 1313, died December 21, 1375. His writings embrace a variety of subjects; the most remarkable is the De


PAGE 43. Sismondi (Jean Charles), the historian, born May 9, 1773, at Geneva; resided from 1793-5 in England. After his return to Geneva he suffered imprisonment and had to pay a heavy fine for having assisted political refugees, which induced him to live near Pescia; but he underwent further molestation by the French and Italians, so that he returned again to Geneva. Among his many literary works I would specially instance his "Histoire des Républiques Italiennes du moyen Age," Zurich 1807-8; and the still more celebrated "Histoire de la Renaissance de la Liberté en Italie" (Paris 1832); nor ought his work "De la Littérature du Midi de l'Europe" (Paris 1813) to be forgotten. He died at Geneva, June 25, 1842.


PAGE 44. Baronage. The root of the word the Semitic languages have it in various forms. signifying strength, manhood, and similar ideas.) under this category, as well as the Lat. 'vis.'

Race, with the same Eng. word, from Ital. ' razza ;' from Lat. ' radix.'

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baron' is found in Celtic barr;' (Comp. Pharaoh, Heb. 23, The Gr. Bapús would fall

Brigand. The very same form occurs in Welsh: brigant,' mountaineer, highlander, depredator; from 'brig,' i. e. summit.


Vicomte, with Eng. ' viscount;' from Lat. vice comes.'
PAGE 45. Moisson, from Lat. 'messio."
Bandits. Comp. Eng. ' bind ;' Germ. binden.'
PAGE 46. Entendre l'office, to attend the service.
Ménétriers: Eng. ' minstrel.'

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Hameau: Eng. hamlet;' from an old Saxon root, 'ham,' signifying home. PAGE 47. S'anéantit: root 'néant;' from Lat. ' ens' and negation.

Puits, pron. puí: from Gr. Búbos; Lat. 'puteus.'

PAGE 48. Beaucoup: for it we find occasionally 'grand coup.' Derivation of coup,' vide above.

Thierry (Augustin), born at Blois, May 10, 1795, one of the best modern historians; was educated at the college of Blois and the Ecole Normale. In 1814 he went to Paris, and was a warm adherent of St. Simon; became 1817 a contributor to the journal "Le Censeur Européen," and 1820 the "Courrier Français." From 1820-5 he devoted himself to the study of French and English history, the result of which was his "Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands." He published further some "Lettres sur l'Histoire de la France." He became a member of the Academy 1830. Among his other works the "Récits des temps Mérovingiens," and the "Recueil des Monuments inédits de l'Histoire du Tiers-état," deserve notice.


PAGE 49. Greffier, clerk; Gr. ypápeiv.


Cramoisi: Eng. crimson; Germ. 'karmosin;' from an Arabic root.
PAGE 54. Requête, with Eng. ' request;' from Lat. ‘requiro.'
Alléguant, with Eng. ' allege;' from Lat. allego.'
PAGE 55. Barre. Comp. Eng. bar,' Germ.

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PAGE 57. Rudoyaient, treated harshly; from rude.' Echafaud. Comp. Ital.catafalco;' Eng.' scaffold;' Germ.' schafott." Guère, or guères; the Ital.' guari ;' from the O. H. Germ. 'wari ;' Lat. ' verus :' others derive it from Germ. 'gar,' or Lat. ' parum.'

PAGE 58. Angoisse; Lat. angustia.' Comp. Eng. 'anguish ;' Germ. angst.' Cheveux: Ital. ' capello ;' Lat. ' capillus.'

S'agenouilla, from 'genou.'

Cercueil. Comp. Germ. ' sarg;' from O. H. Germ. sarc.'

PAGE 60. dos.'

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barre,' with the sibilant


PAGE 59. Dauphin; derivation from Lat.' delphinus;' Gr. deλpís. The title Dauphin, borne by the eldest sons of the kings of France, was originally a surname of the lords of Viennois, and transmitted to the royal house of France after the cession of the Dauphiné, anno 1349.

Douairière, dowager; from Low Lat. dotarium;' from Lat.

PAGE 61. Capefigue (Baptiste H. R.), born 1799 in Marseilles; studied law at Aix, which study he forsook after his arrival in Paris, and devoted himself entirely to journalism and literature. He is a most prolific writer. His more remarkable works are "Charlemagne," 1841; Histoire Constitutionelle et Administrative de la Renaissance," 1844; "Histoire de la Réforme, de la Ligue, et du Règne de Henri IV." He is by no means an accurate historian, though a brilliant and taking writer. His best work is "Histoire de la Restauration.'


Caustique, from Gr. KavσTikós; from kaiw.

PAGE 62. S'entassa, from 'tas,' an old Gaelic and Erse root taisg;' the old

Eng. tasse,' in the sense of heap, occurs in several old writers.

PAGE 63. Païenne, with the Eng. 'pagan;' from Lat. 'paganus,' he who lives in the country, i. e. who (since Constantine the Great) confessed the old religion in consequence of seclusion in the country. Comp. Germ. and Eng. ‘heide,' heathen;' from 'heide,' i. e. 'heath.'


PAGE 64. Bougeoir, candlestick. The word 'bougie,' according to Menage, derived from Bougie, a town in North Africa, whence they used to obtain wax and candles.

L'ail, garlic; from Lat. alium' or 'allium;' pronounced 'a-ie.' As a rule, the termination ‘ail' is pronounced in the manner indicated; so ' évantail,' 'travail,' a.o. Haie. Comp. Germ. hecke,' from Sax.heag ;' Eng. hedge.' PAGE 65. Mesquin, with Ital. meschino' from Arab. meskîn,' i. e. poor, miserable.




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PAGE 66. Picux. Comp. Eng. 'pile;' Germ. ' pfahl.'
Claie, hurdle; from an old Celtic root cliath."

Haubert. Comp. Germ. ' Comp. Germ. hellebarte;' Eng. halbert; from M. H. Germ. 'helmbarte.'

Rochet, with the Eng. and Ital. forms; Germ. 'rock."

from A. H. Germ. 'roc. Comp.

PAGE 67. Aventurier.

Comp. Germ. abenteucr;' Eng. ' adventure,' from

Lat. advenire.'

Manseaux, i. q. 'manceaux,' inhabitants of Le Mans (now departement de la Sarthe).

Fantassin, footsoldier; the same root occurs in 'infanterie.'

Pélerinage, with Sp. ' peregrino;' from Lat. ' peregrinus.' Compare Germ. and Eng. ' pilgrim.'

PAGE 68. Broussailles. Comp. Eng. 'brush,' and Welsh 'brwys,' i. e. thick branching.

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Redoute, with Eng. equivalent; from Lat. ' reducere.'

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PAGE 70. Choix, with Eng. choice;' from an old Gothic root 'kiusan;' Anglo-Sax.ceosan;' Germ. kiesen;' Eng. choose;' Fr. choisir." PAGE 71. Hâte, from an old Germ. root hasten; whence Eng. ' haste." Prêtre, with Eng. ' priest;' Germ. ' priester;' from Gr. πpeoßútepol.

Otages, from Med. Lat. hostagium;' contracted from obsidiaticum;' from Lat. obsidatus."


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