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Perugia, and in his turn became the teacher of Raphael. Perugino excelled chiefly in the manner of painting the heads of his subjects, and in the architectural arrangements of his paintings, many of which are to be seen in Naples, Rome, Florence, and Perugia. He died at the mature age of 78.
Bramante (Francisco Lazzari), born at Castel Durante, in the principality of Urbino, two years before the former; was likewise destined to become a painter, but turned his attention to architecture, and found a worthy employer in the person of Pope Julius II. The basilica of St. Peter was his chef-d'oeuvre; other works are the fountain of Transtevere, and the round temple in St. Peter's convent in Montorio. He died 1540, at the age of 70.
Michel-Ange (Buonarotti), belonging to the noble house of Canossa, was born 1474 at Caprea, and died in Rome 1564; was a pupil of Domenico Ghirlandago and of the sculptor Bertoldo. Hewas called to Rome by Pope Julius II., and ordered to build a mausoleum, which work was twice interrupted in consequence of the jealousy of Bramante, who persuaded the pope to order Michael Angelo to execute fresco paintings for the Sistine chapel, a species of painting in which he as yet had no experience. Nothing daunted, he undertook the work, and in twenty months finished this masterpiece, which more than any other gives evidence of his sublime genius. Before he could resume his labours at the mausoleum, Julius II. died, and Leo. X. sent him to Florence to superintend the building of the facade of the library of St. Laurence. Under Adrian VI. he executed the famous statues of Moses and Christ for the tomb of Julius II., which latter statue was afterwards placed in the Minerva church at Rome. He likewise sculptured a Descent from the Cross, and a statue of Bacchus and Cupid. As late as the year 1546 he undertook to finish the church of St. Peter, but did not live to see the termination of his labours.
Cellini (Benevenuto), born at Florence 1500, a celebrated goldsmith and sculptor. Amongst his famous works the Perseus holding the Head of Medusa, which stands in the market-place in Florence, and a Christ in the chapel of the Pitti palace, are the most celebrated. He died, after a life full of vicissitude, in his native town, 1570.
PAGE 216. Bizarrerie, oddity; of Spanish origin,
54. PAGE 219. Lacune, drawback; Lat. ' lacuna.'
PAGE 220. Tamisées, sifted ; from 'tamis,' i. q. hétamine,' from Greek στήμων. .
Budget, the annual estimate of the public revenue and expenditure, with a demand of supplies. The original meaning is “pouch,' or hollow vessel ; derived probably from Lat. bulga.' Comp. Gaelic bolg' or “ builg ;' Ital. • bolgia ;' other French form · bougette.'
PAGE 221. Son moulin de Sans-Souci. Proverbial from the fact that Frederic the Great of Prussia, when erecting the palace of Sans-Souci, would not interfere with the property of a miller situated in the midst of the royal park,
55. PAGE 223. L'essor. Comp. Ital. ' sorare;' Eng. soar.
Prosélyte, one who has come over, a convert; with the equivalents, from Gr. πρός and ελεύθειν. .
PAGE 224. La Fontaine, Jean de, born 1621 at Château-Thierry, is one of the most famous of older French writers. His education seems to have been very neglected ; and after an attempt to reconcile his wayward mind with monastic life, at the seminary of St. Magloire, he gave himself up to the full enjoyment of all life's pleasures. He had not written anything up to his 23rd year. It is said that the recital of Malherbé's ode on Henry IV's death awoke in him the desire of composing similar verses, and he gave himself up to the study of that writer, but, following the advice of a friend, exchanged him for the purer models of classic literature, Horace, Homer, and Virgil, and read, not without being greatly influenced, the Italian works of Ariosto, Bocaccio. and Machiavelli. The faults of his writings are those of his age. His volume of Tales, “ Contes," appeared in a collected form 1633. His Fables rank among the best ever written. He became academician 1684, and died 1695, at the age of seventy-three.
PAGE 227. Victor Hugo, born at Besançon, 1802, is one, if not the most important, of modern French writers. His youth was very eventful; and, after following his father's fortunes and occasionally residing with his mother, he came to Paris 1812, and, with his brothers, entered the Collège Louis le Grand. When only fifteen years of age he wrote a poem,
he wrote a poem, “ Sur les Avantages de l'Etude," and his pieces, “ Les Vierges de Verdun,” and “ Moïse au bord du Nil,” were crowned by the Academy of Toulouse 1820.
The romance Bug-Jargal” originally appeared under the title of “ Contes sous la Tente,” followed by “ Han d'Islande," Cromwell,” “Odes et Ballades," “Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamné," and - Hernani," 1822–30. When the struggle between the classical and romantic school broke out, he became leader of the latter. The celebrated romance 66 Notre Dame de Paris" and the beautiful
and the beautiful “ Feuilles d'Automne" fall into this period. The tragedies “ Lucrecia Borgia,” “ Angelo,” and “ Marie Tudor” were for a long time on the Paris stage. He became academician 1841, peer of France 1845. After the revolution of 1848 he became the representative of Paris in the National Assembly, but retired, after the coup d'état (1852), to Guernsey, where he still resides. His latest great
His latest great work appeared last year, and is entitled “Les Misérables."
PAGE 228. Huppe, lapwing. The French is onomatoëpic, in imitation of 64.
Ronsard (Pierre de), born in Vendôme, 1524, of a noble (originally) Hungarian family, became early a favourite of both muses and princes. (He was page of Francis I., son of the duke of Orleans ; followed Mary Stuart to Scotland ; and Charles IX. would not live without him.) He died 1585, at the priory of St. Côme, full of honours, and worshipped by his cotemporaries. Some of his minor pieces are very good; but, on the whole, his indulgent or blind cotemporaries overrated his works.
PAGE 230. Belleau (Rémi); born at Nogent le Rotrou 1528; died in Paris 1577. He is well known as translator of Anacreon, and writer of idyls. His versification, of which the extract is a fair specimen, is very graceful and smooth.
PAGE 230. Abois, bay; from “aboyer,' to bay, from Lat. · baubari,' and Gr. Baica (onomatoepic).
Gave, from Lat.'cavus.'
PAGE 231. Les étoiles qui filent, shooting stars.
67. PAGE 235. Delavigne (Casimir), born at Havre 794 ; studied at Paris in the Lycée Napoléon.
Napoléon. His first work, * Dithyrambe sur la Naissance du Roi de Rome," which appeared in 1811, created some sensation. The appearance of the “ Messéniennes" (1818) marks almost a political epoch. He is essentially national, and the résumé which he gives of his writings in the final verses of the fifth Messénienne, and which I subjoin, indicates the tendency of his works very fairly :
“ Poéte et Français, j'aime à chanter la France :
Qu'elle accepte en tribut de périssables fleurs !
J'ai des chants pour toutes ses gloires,
His piece " Les Vêpres Siciliennes" had a successful run at the Odéon, and was followed by the superior one (testifying at once to the versatility of the author's talent and to the progress he had made), the “Comédiens.” Still more renowned was his tragedy " Le Paria." He became academician 1825. Among others of his later works, I notice specially “ Marino Faliero," 1829; “ Louis XI.,' 1832 ; “ Don Juan d'Autriche," 1835. a. o.
PAGE 238. Musset (A. de), born in Paris 1810, was, before he had quite finished his eighteenth year, a prominent member of the romantic school. His first work, " Les Contes d'Espagne et d'Italie,” is not without many beauties. Interesting in many respects are his “Confessions d'un Enfant du Siècle," 1846; so are some of his “ Comédies et Proverbes en Prose," 1840. He became academician 1852, and is one of the most esteemed of contributors to the “ Revue des Deux Mondes."
PAGE 239. Béranger (Pierre Jean de), was born in Paris 1780, and spent the first few years of his life in the house of his grandfather, a poor tailor. He subsequently resided with an aunt at Peronne, where he was apprenticed to a printer. When seventeen years of age he returned to Paris, and resolved to write a comedy; but, afraid of the difficulties, he gave up this plan, and conceived a new one, viz. of writing an epos on
“ Clovis.” This idea was also abandoned, and, upon the recommendation of Arnault, a small post in the Bureau de l'Université was procured for him, which he held until the year 1821. His songs became very popular, and, as he had not been servile and cringing to Napoleon I., neither did he abuse him when it was the fashion to do so, and he fell in consequence into ill odour with the existing government. Condemned to fines, which his friends ever paid, and to imprisonment, which he suffered, his popularity grew in proportion to the prosecution instituted against him by the government. Since the July revolution he has written but little, and lived a quiet and retired life at Passy, near Paris, where he died not long since.
PAGE 241. Chénier (André), born at Constantinople Oct. 29, 1762, was the son of the French Consul-General, by a Greek lady. He was, at an early age, sent to France, and educated at the Collège de Navarre. At the age of twenty he obtained a lieutenancy in a regiment of the line stationed at Strasburg, but soon grew weary of the monotony of garrison life, and returned to Paris, where he enjoyed the friendship of Lebrun, David, Palissot, and others. In consequence
of too arduous a course of study, he was obliged to go to Switzerland, whence he proceeded to London, and was for some time employed by the French ambassador, the Count de Luzerne. He returned to Paris 1790, and was drawn into political controversies ; founded and edited the “ Journal de Paris," a paper alike hostile to the royal and extreme republican party. He took an active part in the defence of Louis XVI. ; and wrote with his own hand the letter in which the unfortunate monarch, after his condemnation, claims the right of appeal to the people. This course of action brought upon him the hatred of the dominant party, and he was imprisoned and executed July 25, 1794, two days before Robespierre's death. An elegy which he wrote shortly before his death, entitled “ La Jeune Captive,” ranks deservedly very high, as also the elegy “Le Malade."
PAGE 242. Lâchant leur bordée, pouring in their broadside.
PAGE 245. Marengo (battle of), took place June 14, 1800, between Napoleon and the Austrian general Melas.
Arcole (battle of), resulting in a victory over the Austrians under Alvinczy, took place November 17, 1796.
76. PAGE 246. Mazeppa ; descended from a noble Polish family; became early a page at the court of King John Casimir. To punish him for an intrigue, he was condemned to be tied naked to a wild horse. He found his way to the Ukraine, where he distinguished himself among the Cossacks so much that the Hetman chose him for his aide-de-camp and secretary. After the death of Samoilowitsch, he was chosen Hetman, and gained the confidence and esteem of Peter the Great; took part in the wars of Charles XII. against the Czar, and after the battle of Pultowa accompanied the king of Sweden to Bender, where he died the same year (1709).
PAGE 247. Ebloui, dazzled. Comp. Germ. 'blode' and its compounds.
Gonflés, swelled, swollen ; with the Ital. equivalent 'gonfiare,' from Lat. * conflare,' i.q. 'inflare.
PAGE 248. Orfraie, with the equiv. osprey ; Ital. 'ossifrago,' from Lat. Ossifraga.
Yeuse ; Lat. ilex." Erable, maple.
77. PAGE 249. Galilée; Galileo, an eminent philosopher, born at Pisa February 18, 1564; studied medicine and philosophy at Pisa 1581, where he became professor of mathematics 1589, and made a series of discoveries, astronomical, physical, &c. His disquisitions on the relative merits of the two systems of Ptolemy and Copernicus, entitled “ Dialogo di Galileo Galilei, dove ne Congressi di Quattro Giornate si Discorrè de due massimi Sistemi Tolemaico e Copernicano," (1632), drew upon him the violent hatred of the Inquisition. He was imprisoned in Rome, and was finally condemned to revoke his heresies. This he did ; but, when rising, he turned round and exclaimed “ e pur si muove !" (" and she moves notwithstanding !"), referring to the earth's motion. After a further imprisonment he was sent to Siena, and lived the remainder of his years on his estate near Florence, chiefly studying the remoter branches of mathematics. He died January 2, 1642, and lies buried in the church of Sta. Croce in Florence.
78. PAGE 256. Révolté contre d’Albe. The revolt of the Netherlands dates from the successor of Charles V., Philip II. Although a violent persecution of the Protestants took place under Charles, yet no open resistance was attempted. The viceroy Granvella, recalled '1564, to make room for Alba, had overstepped all bounds of prudence, and the cruelties of his successor only made the breach between monarch and people wider. The latter declared their independence July 26, 1581.