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CANADA MONEY. 357. The Currency of Canada is the same as that of the United States, the table and denominations being the same.
358. The decimal currency was adopted in 1858, the Act taking effect in 1859, previous to which their currency was the same as the English.
I. Coins.—The coins consist of silver and copper. The silver coins are the 50-cent piece, the 25-cent piece, the shilling or 20-cent piece, the dime, the half-dime. The copper coin is the cent.
II. VALUE.-The coins are nominally equal to the corresponding coins of United States money, but the intrinsic value is a littl of the United States is the legal tender for sums of $10 and upwards.
III. COMPOSITIOX.—The silver coins consist of 925 parts silver and 75 parts copper ; or 37 parts silver to 3 parts copper, the same as the English silver coins.
FRENCH MONEY. 359. French Money is the legal currency of France. The unit is the franc, whose value is 19.3 cents.
360. The Franc is divided into tenths and hundredths, called respectively decimes and centimes. The decime, like our dime, is not used in business calculations, but is expressed by centimes; thus, instead of 5 decimes we say 50 centimes.
I. Coins.—The principal French gold coins are the 20-franc and 10-franc pieces ; in silver the 5-franc and 2-franc pieces and franc; in copper, 10centime and 5-centime pieces.
II. COMPOSITION.-The gold and silver coins, like those of the United States, are 1% pure metal.
GERMAN MONEY. 361. The German Empire has adopted a new and uniform system of coinage.
362. The Unit is the mark (Reichsmark) worth 23.85 cents, and this is divided into 100 pfennige, or pennies.
Coins. The principal German coins are gold coins of 20 marks, 10 marks, and 5 marks; silver coins of 5 marks, 2 marks, and 1 mark ; nickel tenpenny and five-penny pieces, and copper two-penny and penny pieces.
A pound of gold, 9 pure, is divided into 1391 coins, and the tenth part of this coin is called a mark.
EXAMPLES FOR FRACTICE. 1. How many pence in £26 15 s. 10 d. ?
OPERATION. SOLUTION.-In one pound there are 20 shillings,
£ S. d. and in £26 there are 26 times 20 shillings, which
26 15 10 increased by 15 shillings, are 535 shillings : in one
20 shilling there are 12 pence, and in 535 shillings
535 there are 535 times 12 pence, which, increased by
12 10 pence, equal 6430 pence.
6430, Ans. 2. How many pounds, shillings, and pence in 6430 pence? SOLUTION.—There are 12 pence in one shil OPERATION. ling, hence in 6430 pence there are as many 12) 6430 shillings as 12 is contained times in 6430, which are 535 shillings, and 10 pence remaining :
210)5315 – 10 d. there are 20 shillings in one pound, hence in £26 - 15 s. 535 shillings there are as many pounds as 20 is Ans. £26 15 s. 10 d. contained times in 535, which are £26, and 15 shillings remaining ; hence in 6430 d, there are £26 15 s. 10 d. 3. How many dollars in £16 ?
Ans. $77.864. 4. How many pounds in 40 guineas ? Ans. £42. 5. How many guineas in £8 8 s.?
Ans. 8 G. 6. How many dollars in £20 5 s.? Ans. $98.546. 7. How many dollars in 12 sovereigns ? Ans. $58.398. 8. How many francs in $22.45 ? Ans. 116 fr. 32 cent. 9. How many marks in $84.75? Ans. 355 marks, 34.6 pf. 10. How many dollars in 565.40 francs ? Ans. $109.12. 11. Dollars in 256 marks, 25 pfennige ? Ans. $61.115.
12. How many dollars in 6 sovereigns 8 crowns and 3 florins ?
Ans. $40.39. 13. A lady bought in Boston, in 1856, 56 yd. of merino at 7s. 6 d. a yard; what did it cost ?
Ans. $70. 14. A lady bought in New York, in 1846, 26 yd. of alpaca at 5 s. 3 d. a yard; what did it cost? Ans. $17.064.
15. What cost, in 1836, in Philadelphia, 25 lb. of candles, • at 2 s. 6 d. a pound?
Ans. $8.33. 16. What would a man's wages amount to for 17 weeks at 15 s. 9 d. a week, in Georgia currency ? Ans. $57.375.
17. In 1858 a young man living in New York visited Boston and bought a pair of kid gloves, the price being 11 s. 6 d.; he handed the clerk the exact change in New York currency; how great was his mistake? Ans. 4712 cents.
18. A gentleman returning from Europe, had 10 sover
eigns, 4 crowns, 50 francs, and 6 marks; what was their value in U. S. money?
MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 363. Weight is the measure of the force with which a body is drawn towards the centre of the earth by the attraction of gravitation.
364. There are three kinds of weight in common use: Troy Weight, Apothecaries' Weight, and Avoirdupois Weight.
TROY WEIGHT. 365. Troy Weight is used in weighing gold, silver, jewels, in philosophical experiments, etc.
TABLE. 24 grains (gr.) . = 1 pennyweight pwt. 20 pennyweights . = 1 ounce . . oz. 12 ounces . . = 1 pound . . lb. Ib. oz. pwt.
gr. 1 = 12 = 240 V = 5760
1 = 20 = 480 SCALE.— Ascending, 24, 20, 12; descending, 12, 20, 24. I. NAME.—The name Troy is derived from Troyes, the name of a town in France, where this weight was first used in Europe. It was brought from Cairo in Egypt during the Crusades of the 12th century. The name is derived by some, however, from Troy Novant, a name given to London in monkish chronicles.
II. TERMS.-The term pound is from the Latin pendo, to bend or weigh. The term ounce is from the Latin uncia, a twelfth part, the ounce being one-twelfth part of a pound. The pennyweight was the weight of the old English silver penny. The term grain is from grains of wheat which were formerly used for weighing. These were taken from the middle of the ear, and well dried ; at first the pennyweight contained 32 of these grains, but afterwards it was divided into 24 parts, which, though still called grains, were much heavier than a grain of wheat.
III. SYMBOLS.--The symbol oz. is from the Spanish word onza, signifying ounce, though Webster "derives it from the use of the termination 3, to express abbreviations, which was afterwards changed to z; lb, is from libra, the Latin for pound. Pwt. is a combination of p. for penny and wt. for weight; dwt., from denarius and weight, is nearly obsolete.
IV. UNIT.-The standard unit of weight is the Troy pound. It is equal to the weight of 22.791377 cubic inches of distilled water, at the temperature of 39.33° Fahrenheit, barometer at 30 inches, and is identical with the imperial Troy pound of Great Britain.
V. At the United States Mint, the Troy ounce is adopted as the standard, and all weights are expressed in multiples and decimal subdivisions of the ounce.
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APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 366. Apothecaries' Weight is used in prescribing and mixing, dry medicines. Medicines are bought and sold by Avoirdupois Weight.
3 scruples (Diij) = 1 dram
= 1 ounce
1 = 8 = 24 = 480. SCALE.— Ascending, 20, 3, 8, 12; descending, 12, 8, 3, 20. I. NAME.—The name arises from the weight being used by apothecaries.
II. TERMS.—The term scruple is from the Latin scrupulus, a little stone. The term dram is from drachma, a Greek weight.
III. SYMBOLS.-The symbols have been supposed to be modifications of the figure 3, suggested by there being 3 scruples in a dram. Champollion, however, has traced them back to the hieroglyphics of Egypt.
IV. UNIT.-The Unit is the pound, and is identical with the Troy pound, as are also the ounce and grain, the ounce being differently divided.
V. NOTATION.-Physicians use the Roman notation in writing prescriptions, using the small letters, preceded by the symbols, and writing j for i when it terminates a number. Thus, 12 gr. is written gr.xij.; 2 scruples, Dij. R is an abbreviation for recipe, take; a or aa (from the Greek avá) means of each, referring to two or more preceding ingredients; ss. for semis or half, as Zivss., means 41 scruples; P. for particula, or little part; P. aeq. for equal parts ; q: p., quantum placet, as much as you please.
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 367. Avoirdupois Weight is used for weighing everything except jewels, precious metals, etc.
16 ounces (oz.) . = 1 pound . . lb. 100 pounds . . = 1 hundredweight cwt. 20 hundredweight = 1 Ton . . T.
= 100 = 1600. SCALE.—Ascending, 16, 100, 20; descending, 20, 100, 16. I. NAME.—The term Avoirdupois is probably from the French avoir du poids, to have weight. It has also been derived from an old French verb
averer, to verify, from the old French aver de pes, goods of weight, and from the old Norman French avoir du poids, goods or chattels of weight.
II. TERMS.-The term ton is from the Saxon tunne, a cask. The origiu of the other terms has already been given. The symbol cwt. is from centum, hundred, and weight. The term dram has been used for to of an ounce, but is obsolete, fractions of an ounce being now used.
III. UNIT.-The unit is the pound. It is derived from the Troy pound, and contains 7000 grains Troy. It is equal to the weight of 27.7015 cubic
inches of water at 39.83° Fah., the barometer being at 30 inches, or to • 27.7274 cubic inches at 62° Fah., barometer 30 inches. The Imperial pound avoirdupois of Great Britain is derived by the latter method.
IV. In Great Britain 28 lb. equal 1 qr., 112 lb. equal 1 cwt., and 2240 lb. equal 1 ton. These are called the long hundred and long ton; they were formerly used in this country, but are now used only at the custom-houses in invoices of English goods, in the wholesale iron and plate trade, and in wholesaling and freighting coal from the coal mines of Pennsylvania.
V. OLD WEIGHTS.--A stone of iron or lead=14 lb. ; 211 stone=1 pig, and 8 pigs =1 fother; a stone of fish or butcher's meat=8 16.; a stone of glass =5 lb. A seam of glass = 24 stone ; a truss of hay = 56 lb ; a truss of new hay, until the 1st of Sept.= 60 lb.; a truss of straw = 36 lb. In weighing wool, 7 lb. =1 clove ; 2 cloves=1 stone ; 2 stones=1 tod; 61 tods=i wey; 2 weys=1 sack ; 12 sacks=1 last. A pack of wool=270 lb. In weighing cheese and butter, 8 lb. equal 1 clove. A bale of cotton in Egypt weighs 90 lb.; in America a commercial bale is 400 lb., though it varies in different localities from 280 to 720 lb. A bale of Sea Island cotton is 300 lb.
VI. The following denominations are frequently used : 25 lb. of powder make 1 barrel. 11.00 lb. of raisins make 1 cask. 56 “ " butter 66 1 firkin. 196 “ “ flour
66 1 barrel. 84 66 66 66 6 1 tub. 200 “ “ pork, beef or fish 1 barrel. 100 66 grain or flour 66 1 cental. 240 " " lime,
« 1 (ask. 100 6 " dry fish 66 1 quintal. 280 " " salt at N.Y.S.w'ks 1 barrel. 100 " " nails 16 1 keg. 1600 " " rice
16 1 barrel.
COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS. 368. The Troy Pound and the Apothecaries' Pound each contains 5760 Troy grains; the Avoirdupois pound contains 7000 Troy grains. From this we readily derive the following table : AVOIRDUPOIS. TROY GR. TROY OR APOTH. TROY GR. 1 lb. = 7000
5760 1 oz. = 4377
1 oz. = 480 144 lb. Av.=175 lb. Troy. 192 oz. Av.=175 oz. Troy.
DIAMOND WEIGHT. 369. Diamond Weight is used in weighing diamonds and other precious stones.
16 parts . . . equal 1 carat grain=.792 Troy grains. 4 carat grains " 1 carat =3.168 " "