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of each one of the principal articles exported direct from Chicago to Earope during the year 1876, and the route by which transported, may be found on page 252 of the Appendix.
The growth of the direct exportation of western products from Chicago to Europe is shown as follows:
79, 767 83, 280 2, 440, 713 1, 199, 718 708, 979 2, 316, 206
485, 715 43, 213 57, 606
1, 733, 835 2,725, 164 4,372, 007
325, 044 458, 559 13, 177 58, 426 280, 717 453, 512 115, 165 184, 912 55, 425 66, 910 4, 169
7, 200 5, 138, 950
888, 603 13, 860
Packages. In regard to this movement, the secretary of the board of trade of Chicago makes the following statement in his report for the year 1876 :
Of the shipments by the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, 136,484 tops were forwarded by the “ Black Star Line” and 1,387 by the “Red Star Line.” The - Red Star Line” also forwarded to Europe, in addition to that included in the statement, 1,849 tons of valuable goods from California, Alaska, and Japan. Much the largest portion forwarded by the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway was exported via Philadelphia. Of the shipments by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, 55,923 tons went via New York Central Railroad to Boston, 26,699 tons via New York Central to New York, and 2,425 via the Erie Railway to New York, tbe wbole being forwarded by the “Merchants' Dispatch” freight-line.
of the shipments by the Michigan Central Railroad, 28,864 tons was via Boston, and 6,493 was via New York by the “Blue Line," and 12,482 tons was via New York by the " Erie and North Shore Line."
Shipments by the Grand Trunk Railway were by the way of Montreal, Portland, and Boston. Shipments by " Erie and Pacific Dispatch," about 3,500 tons, were made via New York. Those by the “National Line” went largely via Philadelphia, and those by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad were exported entirely by the way of Baltimore.
The agency of the "American Line” of ocean steamers from Philadelphia to Liverpool forwarded by that line 46,988 tons, and the same agency forwarded by the “Red Star Line" of steamers, Philadelphia to Antwerp, 12,040 tons, and also via Philadelphia to Cork for orders or to direct ports in the United Kingdom nearly 1,500,000 bushels of grain, a small portion of which was shipped hence by lake. The agency of the “Ane hor Line” ocean steamers forwarded nearly 10,000 tons, all via New York, and that of the "State Line” forwarded nearly 4,500 tons, also via New York. Searly all the ocean-steamer lines to Europe from Montreal, Boston, New York, Philadelpbia, and Baltimore now employ agents in Chicago and in Saint Louis, who issue bills of lading direct to Great Britain and to tbe continent. The several trunk-railroads also employ agents at
these points and at other trade centers, who issue through bills to Europe.
Direct shipments to Europe from Saint Louis.—The shipments on through bills of lading to foreign countries from Saint Louis during the year 1875 were as follows:
Tons. Via Baltimore..
2,721 Via New York..
11,821 Via Philadelphia
783 Via Boston .....
1, 498 Via New Orleans
6,857 Total ...
23, 6:2 The direct shipment of the products of the interior to foreign countries is chiefly carried on from Chicago, Saint Louis, Cincinnati, and Louisville. Within the last two or three years, however, direct shipments abroad have been made in considerable quantities from points west of Saint Louis and Chicago, and it is believed that this trade is gradually expanding. Already flour has been shipped on direct consignment from Minnesota to Great Britain, and pork has been shipped during the past year from points in Iowa to Belfast and Dublin, Ireland. No means have as yet been provided for ascertaining the quantities of the principal western products exported on bills issued at the West through each one of the chief Atlantic seaports It is stated upon reliable authority that about one-half the grain and flour exported from Bos. ton to Europe during the year 1876 was shipped on through bills issued at the West. It is also stated that only 1,565,920 bushels of grain (including flour) were exported from New York on through bills issued at the West, or a little less than 3 per cent. of the total exports of grain at that port. No information can be gained in regard to such direct shipments of grain through Philadelphia. In regard to this direct more meat through Baltimore, the secretary of the board of trade of that city says:
Ten per cent. of the grain shipped bence to foreign ports would fully cover all on through bills in the past and be an over-estimate for the last three months.
In a recent communication to this office, Mr. S. H. Grant, superintendent of the New York Produce Exchange, has expressed a regret that means have not yet been adopted for procuring statistics in regard to this important movement.
In this connection whe following extract from a letter to this Departmeut, from Col. Milo Smith, of Clinton, Iowa, is of interest :
Shipments from Clintou are made this year on account of foreigu purchasers. The money is furnished by a house iu Belfast, Ireland. The shipments from Cedar Rapids are largely sent to the same place, and the product is drawn against on the bill of lading. The original proprietors of both these establishments came from Belfast, and have their business connections there still. I think there is a steady increase in this mode of doing business, and the indications are that the time is not far distant when not only pork but fresh beef will be prepared here in the West and shipped direct to Europe in large quantities. The tendency here in the West is, so far as possible, to ship direct to the final market, saving thereby all intermediate commissions.
It is stated that those who hare embarked in this direct traffic hare found that the business could be prosecuted more advantageously at points remote from the chief centers of trade than at such trade centers. The direct importation of merchandise from foreign countries to interior
points in the United States. The direct importation of merchandise from Europe to interior points in the United States involved a radical change in the customs-regulations of the country. Prior to the establishment of this trade all imported inerchandise was required to be inspected and appraised for the imposition of customs duties at the sea-ports. No foreign goods could be shipped to interior points, unless the duties were either paid or secured through a system of transportation in bond. This involved delays and inconvenience, besides damage to goods by improper repacking, and in cases wbere merchandise was required to be delivered very quickly, serious losses and embarrassments were sustained by merchants at the interior cities. It was proposed about ten years ago to open this direct import trade, but the objection was urged that it would add greatly to the difficulties of protecting the revenue from customs, and that the necessary precautions for meeting such increased risks would involve so many inconveniences as to counterbalance the advantages which might possibly be realized from the trade. But the facilities which were soon afterward provided for direct transportation on railroads by means of “through freight-lines," affording security, accountability, and dispatch, led to the passage of the act of July 14, 1870, and to acts amendatory thereof, for the transportation of merchandise in bond without appraisement at the seaport.
The ports from which goods can thus be transported are New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Portland, (Me.,) Port Huron, New Orleans, San Francisco, Detroit, aud Toledo. The ports of destination to which goods can be transported directly from the ports of arrival are New York, Boston, Providence, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, Portland, (Mo.,) Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Saint Louis, Evansville, Milwaukee, Louisville, Cleveland, San Francisco, Portland, (Oreg.,) Memphis, Mobile, Detroit, Toledo, and Pittsburgh.
The act of July 14, 1870, not only permits the shipment of goods from the seaports mentioned to the several points in the interior, but also the shipment of such imported merchandise from one seaport to another. The principal requirements of the acts in relation to the direct importation of foreign goods are as follows:
First. The importation of all classes of merchandise is permitted ex. cept wine, distilled spirits, perishable and explosive articles, and articles in bulk.
Second. Merchandise to be conveyed in cars, vessels, or vehicles securely fastened with locks or seals, under the exclusive control of officers of the customs.
Third. Common carriers engaging in this traffic are required to give security by bond to the United States in a penalty of not less than $100,000, with at least two securities, conditioned for a faithful compli. ance with the laws of the United States and the regulations made in pursuance thereof.
Fourth. Only those common carriers are designated who have exclusive direction and control over suitable and sufficient cars or other vehi. cles for the transportation of such merchandise to the port of final destination, and no vehicles or modes of conveyance are allowed to be employed for this purpose except steamboats, making regular trips between the port of first arrival and the port of final destination, and railroad freightcars. This requirement limits the traffic to “through" or "fast-freightline cars” and to steamboats on the Mississippi River running from New Orleans to ports above that city on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.
Chicago and Saint Louis are the principal western points at which direct importations are made.
The following facts in relation to the direct foreign trade of Chicago were furuished by Mr. Charles Randolph, secretary of the board of trade of tbat city. The foreigu valuations are given.
The following table gives the quantity of tea imported at Chicago directly during the year 1876.*
It is stated that large quantities of tea consigned to Chicago merchants on account of New York and San Francisco commission mercbants are not iocluded in this statement.
The direct importation of coffee at Chicago is indicated by the follow. ing table :
Direct importations of coffee at Chicago during the year 1876.
The direct importation of merchandise at Saint Louis.—The following facts in relation to the foreign trade of Saint Louis were prepared by Mr. George H. Morgan, secretary of the Merchants’ Exchange of that city. The direct importation at Saint Louis began in 1871, soon after the passage of the act providing therefor, but it was greatly restricted by certain customs-regulations which have since been abrogated. In 1871 there were but thirty entries at the Saint Louis custom-house, and in 1876 nearly three thousand. In 1875 there were imported at Saint Louis through New Orleans 27,629 tons of merchandise, and through eastern ports 945 tons of merchandise.
It is believed that this direct trade will be greatly increased during the present fiscal year.
The following table gives the foreigu values of merchandise imported at Saint Louis and the duties thereon :
tion of goods
1869. 1670 1871, 1872. 1973. 1874. 1975, 1876.
$3, 272, 276 | $1, 711, 256 19 3, 848, 000 1,996, 083 49 5, 129, 000 1, 874, 907 20 5,060, 000 1, 697, 563 27 4,055, 000 1, 376, 466 32 4, 469, 000 1, 674, 116 53 2, 292, 000 1, 159, 849 17 3, 100, 000 1, 748, 374 30
NOTE- This table embraces both goods imported under the act of July 14, 1870, and forwarded with eat appraisement at the seaports and goods appraised at the seaports and forwarded in bond.
The foregoing table indicates an increase in the amount of duties col. lected at Saint Louis in 1876, over the amount collected in 1875, of nearly 60 per cent., notwithstanding the general falling off in the total customs-revenues of the country.
No statistics of the direct importation of merchandise at interior ports were published by the Treasury Department prior to the year 1873