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DIRECT TRANSPORTATION OF COTTON TO FACTORIES.
During the last ten years a large amount of cotton has been purchased at the South by manufacturers in the Northern States and in foreign countries, and transported by direct consignment from the point of production to the factory. This new mode of commercial intercourse is carried on through agents who make selections throughout the cotton States of the exact grades desired. By this means the incidental expenses of. commissions, warehousing, handling, &c., are saved. This has tended to increase the direct overland rail movement.
There are now inany routes for the transportation of cotton, and at all the important competing centers of the South the option is presented of shipment in several different directions. The competition between the rival routes is very sharp, and oftentimes a difference of 3 to 4 of a cent per pound will turn the course of the cotton trade in one direction or in another.
THE EXPORTATION OF COTTON.
The following table shows the quantity of cotton exported from the United States to Great Britain, to France, and to all other countries during the years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1871 to 1876, inclusive:
It appears that during the seven years, 1870 to 1876, inclusive, 70 per cent. of the exports of cotton from the United States was to Great Britain, 11 per cent. to France, and 19 per cent. to all other countries.
The following table, showing the exportation of cotton from northern and from southern ports, has been compiled from the annual reports of the commerce and navigation of the United States. By 6 northern ports” is meant all ports north of the mouth of the Potomac River, and by " southern ports" all ports south of the mouth of that river.
Eeports of cotton from northern ports and from southern ports of the United States from
1856 to 1876.
Per cent. from northern ports.
1359 1960 1861" 1862
1869. 1-70 1871.
1873 1074 1873. 1676.
22 19 22 21 21 17
No accurate reports were received or kept, owing to the rebellion. It appears from the foregoing table that during the five years 1856 to 1860, inclusive, 6.6 percent. of the total exports of cotton from the United States was from northern ports and 93.4 per cent. from southern ports, and that during the ten years 1867 to 1876, inclusive, 211 per cent. of the exports of cotton was from northern ports and 784 per cent. from
THE COTTON-TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Great Britain is the chief market for American cotton. The amount imported into that kingdom from the United States and from all other countries is shown in the following table:
1830 1310 1830. 1851 1852 1853 1854. 1815 1856. 1857 1858
1850. 1880 1861 1804
832, 000 1,250,000 1,514, 000 1,663, 000 1,861,000 1,904, 000 1,967, 000 2, 101, 000 2, 183, 000 2,031, 000 2, 175, 000 2, 297, 000 2, 523,000 2, 364, 000 1, 185,000
73. 4 1863.
48.8 47.6 45.3 39,5 59. 4 725 43.0 59. 6 56. 7 58.6
It will be seen from this table that the quantity of cotton exported to Great Britain during the five years from 1856 to 1860, inclusive, was about the same as during the five years from 1872 to 1876, inclusive, but that Great Britain has so far developed the importation of cotton from other countries that the exports from the United States have fallen from an average of 87.3 per cent. during the former period to 57.3 per cent. during the latter period.
Very interesting information in regard to cotton may be found in the statement made to this Department by Mr. H. G. Hester, secretary of the New Orleans Cotton Exchange. (Appendix, p. 166.)
Attention is also called to the statistics in regard to cotton. (Appen dixes 33, 34, 35, 36, and 37.)
These statements show the total exports of cotton and the quantity exported to each country, from 1856 to 1876, inclusive; the importation of cotton into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1853 to 1874, inclusive; the quantity of cotton consumed in Great Britain, and the quantity imported from the United States from 1830 to 1876, inclusive; the value per pound of upland cotton exported from the United States during each year from 1856 to 1876, inclusive, and the move. ments of cotton from the cotton States from 1855 to 1876, inclusive.
8.-FOREIGN COMMERCE IN ITS RELATIONS TO INTERNAL
A thorough development of this important subject would require much more space than can be given to it in this report. The following statement embraces a few of the more striking facts in regard to the foreign commerce of the United States. It relates chiefly to the move. ments of that commerce at the principal seaports of this country and especially to the movements of the grain crop.
The interests of the interior transportation-lines of the United States and the commerce over those lines are intimately related to the carrying trade upon the ocean and to our commerce with foreign nations. Nofixed relation exists between the magnitude of the home and of the foreign commerce of any seaport. A seaboard city of the United States may have a very large internal commerce and enjoy a high degree of com. mercial prosperity with little or no foreign commerce; but no city can enjoy the advantages of a large foreign commerce unless it has also a large internal commerce with its accompanying facilities of transportation. The relative magnitude of the internal commerce and the foreign commerce of the several seaports of the United States therefore differs very widely.
The magnitude of the foreigu commerce of a port depends mainly upon its geographical position, the depth of water in its harbor, its accessibility to the ocean, the force of established commercial relations, internal lines of transport, and the intelligence and enterprise of its merchants.
The statistics showing the growth of the foreign commerce of the principal seaports of the United States also indicate the advantages realized by those ports from their facilities of transportation to the interior.
The following table indicates the value of imports at the six principal commercial ports of the United States from 1860 to 1876, inclusive :
Imports at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and San Francisco,
1860 to 1876.
New York. Philadelphia. Baltimore. New Orleans. San Francisco.
$9, 577, 921 8, 506, 506 8, 366, 238 10, 682, 409 15, 065, 478 6, 173, 011
1863. 1264. 1865 1966
1671 1372 1873 1874.
19, 503, 987 18, 088, 901 21, 834, 103 20, 384, 907 33, 330, 501 39, 422, 604 32, 248, 320 29, 697, 483 34,085, 481
The relative growth of the import-trade of New York, as compared with that of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, is shown by the following statement. Value of imports at New York during the five years from 1860 to 1864, inclusive.....
$1,005, 635, 765 Valne of imports at New York during the five years from 1872 to 1876, inclusive.
1, 920, 321, 368 Increase of imports....
914, 685, 603 Valne of imports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore during the five years from 1860 to 1864, inclusive...
253, 726, 719 Value of imports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore during the five years from 1872 to 1876, inclusive
536, 580, 356
Increase of imports. ...
282, 853, 637
It appears from foregoing statement that during the latter period of five years there was an increase of 91 per cent. in the imports at New York and of 111 per cent. in the imports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The actual increase of imports at New York amounted, however, to $914,685,603, and the actual increase of imports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore to only $282,853,637; the increase of imports at New York exceeding the increase at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore by $631,831,966. In consequence of the events of the late war, no proper comparison can be made as to the growth of commerce at New Orleans.
The following table indicates the value of exports at the six principal commercial ports of the United States :
Value of exports at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and San Fran
cisco, 1860 to 1876.
New York. Philadelphia. Baltimore. New Orleans. San Francisco.
87,389, 394 10, 414, 468 11, 705,218
9,944, 114 48, 198, 072 12, 814, 694 23, 712, 255 23, 790, 164 27, 540, 018 32, 186, 021 20, 791, 414 26, 243, 051 38,716, 497 33, 563, 846 28, 919, 8-6 28, 867, 564
The relative increase of domestic exports at New York and at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore is indicated by the following compar. ative statements : Value of domestic exports at New York during the five years from 1860 to 1864, inclusive.....
$843, 544,072 Value of domestic exports at New York during the five years from 1872 to 1876, inclusive....
1,547, 811,721 Increase
704, 267, 649 Value of domestic exports at Boston, Philadelpbia, and Baltimore during the five years from 1860 to 1864, inclusive....
171,771, 295 Value of domestic exports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore during the six years from 1872 to 1876, inclusive....
413,088, 226 Increase
241, 317,511 This statement indicates an increase of $241,317,541, or 140 per cent., in the value of the exports at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and an increase of $704,267,649, or 83 per cent., in the exports of New York. The actual increase at New York exceeded the increase at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore by $462,950,108.
On page 237 of the Appendix may be found a table showing the tonnage entered at Montreal, Boston, New York, Philadelpbia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and San Francisco from 1853 to 1876.
The relative increase of tonnage at New York and at Boston, Phila. delphia, and Baltimore is shown as follows:
Tons. Tonnage entered at New York from 1860 to 1865, inclusive...
13, 817,015 Tonnage entered at New York from 1871 to 1876, inclusive..
25, 602,230 Increase
11,785, 215 Tonnage entered at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore from 1860 to 1865, inclusive......
6,024, 432 Tonnage entered at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore from 1871 to 1876,