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The tonnage entered at New York during the latter period of six years was 85 per cent. greater than during the former period; and the tonnage entered at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore during the latter period was 80 per cent. greater than during the former period. The actual increase at New York was, however, 11,785,215 tons, while at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore it was only 4,856,950 tons.

The statistics indicating the growth of the foreign commerce of Bos. ton, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore serve to illustrate the extent of the diversion of commerce from the northern water-line, as well as the development of commerce in consequence of the construction of railroads.

Prior to the year 1865 the exportable products of the Western States reached the Atlantic seaboard chiefly by the lakes, the Erie Canal, and the Hudson River, and New York City enjoyed almost a monopoly of that commerce; but, as shown in another connection, the trunk lines extending to the West from the other seaports have to a considerable extent diverted this trade from the canal. The trunk lines of railroads bare, however, developed commerce to a greater extent in sections of the country which did not before contribute to the traffic of the north. ern water-line than they have diverted commerce from that line. These trunk lines, by their rail and water connections at the East, tend somewhat to distribute the foreign commerce of the country among the principal seaports.

The foreign commerce of Boston, in so far as it embraces the exportation of products of the West and the shipment of foreign imports from that city to the West, either through the markets of that city or by direct trade between the West and Europe, is in a large degree dependent upon the New York Central Railroad, the interests of which road are more closely identified with the commercial interests of the city of New York than of Boston. The Grand Trunk Railroad of Capada, although a somewhat circuitous route, is also a very important highway of commerce between the New England States and the Western States. The interests of this line are mainly identified with the commercial interests of Montreal. But, as already explained in another connection, neither of these roads nor any combination of roads between Boston and the West can afford to maintain a policy in contravention of the natural course of trade, and, therefore, notwithstanding the partiality which the managers of these lines may entertain toward the cities with which their interests are inost intimately connected, they are to a certain extent compelled to favor the commercial interests of Boston.

There are several steamer lines connecting Philadelphia and Bal. timore with ports in Europe, and the railroads terminating at those cities have secured such terminal facilities as to afford the means of through transportation from interior points in this country to ports in Europe with the least possible delay and at the smallest possible cost. The interests of these roads are mainly identified with the commercial

interests of Philadelphia and Baltimore, respectively. Yet the Pennsylvania Railroad has termini at New York and at Baltimore, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is within certain commercial and terri. torial limits a competitor of the direct rail lines to Philadelphia, to New York, and to Boston, by means of its eastern rail and water line connections. The railroads to the West from New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore are also by means of connections with coastwise steamerlines, to a certain extent competitors for the western trade of Boston. Through these facilities of transportation the markets of the four princi. pal Atlantic seaports are brought into close competition with each other, in so far as relates to the foreign commerce of the country.

THE EXPORTATION OF BREADSTUFFS AT THE PRINCIPAL ATLANTIC

SEAPORTS.

The transportation of breadstuffs affords a larger amount of employ. ment to the East and West trunk railroads, to the northern water-line, and to ships upon the ocean than any other product of the country. The following facts in regard to the exportation of grain from the principal seaports of the Atlantic and Gulf coast have, therefore, an important bearing upon the changes which have taken place both in the course of the foreign and of the internal commerce of the United States.

The following table indicates the quantity of wheat, wheat flour, and corn exported from the five principal ports on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from 1856 to 1876, inclusive:

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Ports.

Year ending June 30—

Boston.

New York.

Philadel.

phia.

Baltimore.

New Or-
leans.

Bushels
5, 170, 238
4, 315, 844
3,867, 666

862, 847
589, 005
167, 630

169, 521
184, 598
138, 751

1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1665
1866, (no record)
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876

Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. Bushels.

840, 972 16, 492, 538 2, 441, 178 3, 530, 783
956, 197 21,011, 750 2, 845, 474 3,987, 607
734, 150 10, 706, 395 1, 810, 558 3, 218, 459
684, 941 6, 263, 722 999, 027 1, 791, 848

794, 800 8,803, 327 1, 202, 651 1, 874, 815
1, 247, 355 40, 189, 883 4, 207, 207 4,111, 310
2, 257, 460 56, 943, 942 5, 334, 523 2,736, 347
1, 666, 514 49, 567, 522 3, 631, 859 2, 566,964
1,380, 663 30, 018, 158 1, 863, 970 1, 663, 219
1, 122, 132 13, 864, 147 1, 306, 435 1, 302, 750

506, 051 14, 240, 247 1, 222, 829 1, 407, 678
838, 163 17, 224, 452 552, 1, 735, 791

802, 945 29, 011, 391 1, 710, 202 2, 517, 794
1, 232, 515 31 941, 546 1,571, 478 3, 477,532
2, 282, 955 41, 341, 341 4, 435, 8856, 572, 375
1,896, 217 41, 432, 766 3, 893, 167 7, 520, 930
2, 480, 235 71, 476, 486 6, 854,91811, 984, 120
3, 169, 833 50, 295, 189 7, 306, 033 10,988, 031
4,648, 947 57, 263, 122 15,921, 711 18,542, 161

150, 666

807, 559 1, 391, 194 1, 717, 183 1, 255, 612 1, 195, 558 1, 189, 484 2, 123, 239

818, 955 1,987, 483

It appears from the foregoing table that during the last five years there has been a much more rapid increase in the exports of grain at Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore than at New York, although at the close of the year 1876 ihe latter port maintained its position as the first grain-exporting port of the country.

Comparing the exports of wheat and corn at each one of these ports during the last ten years with the exports during the first ten years, we obtain the following expression of the growth of the grain-trade at the several cities :

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The increased exports of wheat and corn from New York amounted to 119,944,692 bushels, and the increased exports at all other ports amounted to 62,822,560 bushels. The increased exports at New York appear to have exceeded the increased exports at all other ports by 57,122,132 bushels.

THE COUNTRIES TO WHICH BREADSTUFFS ARE EXPORTED FROM THE

UNITED STATES.

Of the total exports of grain from the United States to foreign countries about 96 per cent. consists of wheat and corn. For the purpose of illustrating the subject to which this section of the present report relates, we may, therefore, confine our attention to the exportation of these grains.

The following statement indicates the total number of bushels of wheat (including wheat-flour) and corn exported from the United States each year from 1865 to 1876, inclusive:

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Wheat.—The quantity of wheat exported from the United States to each one of the principal foreign countries is shown in the table on page 233 of the Appendix. It appears from this table that during the last five years 65 per cent. of the wheat and wheat flour exported from the United States was shipped directly to Great Britain. Besides, almost all the wheat and wheat-flour exported to Canada was afterward shipped from Montreal to Great Britain. Adding the latter to the direct exports, it appears that about 74 per cent. of our exports of wheat and wheat flour was to Great Britain.

The following table shows the quantity of wheat exported from the United States to each of the principal grain-importing countries of the globe during the year 1876 :

Wheat exported to each foreign country during the year ending June 30, 1876.

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As already stated, almost all the wheat exported to Canada was afterward shipped from Montreal to Liverpool, and therefore constituted a part of the wheat-export from the United States to Great Britain.

Corn.—On page 234 of the Appendix may be found a table indicating the number of bushels of corn, including corn-meal, exported from the United States to foreign countries from 1850 to 1876, inclusive.

It appears from this table that during the last five years 76 per cent. of all the corn exported from the United States was shipped direct to Great Britain.

The following table shows the quantity of corn exported during the year 1876 to each one of the principal grain-importing countries of the globe :

Corn exported to each foreign country during the year ending June 30, 1876.

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Almost all the corn exported to Canada was afterward shipped from Montreal to Liverpool, and therefore constituted a part of the corn export from the United States to Great Britain.

The quantities of both wheat and corn exported to each foreign country and the total quantity exported from the United States appear to be subject to great fluctuations. Since 1860 our annual exportations of wheat have ranged from 12,000,000 bushels to about 90,000,000 bushels, and our annual exportations of corn have ranged from 2,000,000 to 50,000,000 bushels.

THE GRAIN-TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN.

It appears from the foregoing tables that of the total quantity of wheat and corn exported from the United States during the last five years, about 82 per cent. was shipped to Great Britain, our principal customer in the grain-trade. The general facts as to the sources of supply of Great Britain are, therefore, of especial interest in this connection. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is the chief grainmarket of the world. All the Indian corn and about 50 per cent. of the wheat consumed in Great Britain is imported from foreign countries.

Wheat.-The principal competitors of the United States in the British wheat market, as appears from the table on page 235 of the Appendix, are Russia, Germany, Egypt, Turkey, Wallachia, Moldavia, Chili, Australia, Denmark, France, Austria, India, Spain, and Italy.

Including in the imports of wheat from the United States into Great Britain the wheat imported from British North America, all of which is produced in the United States and exported via Montreal, it appears that during the five years from 1862 to 1866 31 per cent. of the total quantity of wheat imported into Great Britain was imported from the United States and 19 per cent. from Russia, and that during the five years from 1870 to 1874 47 per cent. of the wheat was imported from the United States and 28 per cent. from Russia.

The following table shows the total quantity of wheat and wheatfoar imported into Great Britain, the total quantity imported from the United States, the percentage of the quantity imported from the United States, the average value per bushel of the total quantity of wheat imported, and the average value per bushel of the wheat imported from the United States during the period from 1860 to 1874 inclusive. Statement showing the quantity of wheat and wheat-flour imported into Great Britain from 1860 to 1874, with the quantity of the same imported from the United States.

[Compiled from the British reports of Trade and Navigation.]

Wheat and wheat-fiour im.

ported.

Year.

Per cent. from

the United
States.

Average value of
the total wheat
imported.

Average value of

wheat imported from the United States.

Total.

From the
United States.

1800 1061 1862 1263 1864 1-65 1806

Bushels.
58, 915, 534
69, 659, 375
92, 570, 775
57, 157, 618
53, 829, 443
48, 241, 295
54, 827, 133
73, 055, 321
68, 144, 617
82, 969, 172
68, 891, 418
82, 709, 501
88, 877, 406
72, 241, 038
68,532, 516

Bushels.
17, 254, 953
28, 916, 637
40, 287, 083
21,977, 249
18, 811, 204
2, 797, 347
1, 840, 960
9, 504, 567
12, 606, 326
28, 597, 813
28, 106, 839
29, 167, 285
17, 984, 117
32, 994, 023
30, 483, 485

29. 2
41.5
43. 5
38.4
34.9
5.8
3.3
13.0
18.5
34.4
40.8
35. 2
22. 4
45.0
44.5

81 68
1 66
1 48
1 29
1 19
1 20
1 45
1 87
1 75
1 34
1 36
1 53
1 62
1 82
1 71

$1 74
1 68
1 52
1 31
1 21
1 24
1 53
2 01
1 90
1 40
1 37
1 56
1 69
1 85
1 72

1868 1869 1870 1871 1972 1873

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