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RULE. Find the value of that commodity, whose quantity is given; then find what quantity of the other, at the rate pro. posed, you may have for the same money, and it gives the answer required.
1. How many dozen of candles at 5s. 2d. per dozen, must be given in barter for 3cwt. 2qrs. of tallow at 375. 4d. per cwt. ?
186 Ans. 25 doz. and 3.
2. How This mle is evidently, only, an application of the rule of three. 2. How much tea at gs. per ib: can I have in barter, for 4.cwt. 2qrs. of chocolate at 45. per lb. ?
Ans, 2cwt 3. How many reams of paper at 25. 9 d. per ream must be given, in barter, for 37 pieces of Irish cloth at il. 125. 4d. per piece ?
Ans. 42839 4. A delivered 3 hogsheads of brandy' at 6s. 8d. per gal. to B, for 126 yards of cloth; what was the cloth per yard?
Ans. Ios. 5. A and B barter ; A hath 41cwt. of hops at 3os. per cwt. for which B gives him 20l. in money, and the rest in prunes at 5d. per pound; what quantity of prunes must A receive ?
Ans. 17cwt. 3qrs. 416. 6. A has a quantity of pepper, weight net 1600lb. at 17d. per Ib. which he barters with B for two sorts of goods, the one at 5d. the other at 8d. per lb. and to have in money, and of each sort of goods an equal quantity : how many pounds of each must he receive, and how much in money ?
Ans., 13943. Ib. and 371. 158. 6jd.
LOSS AND GAIN.
LOSS AND GAIN is a rule that discovers what is got or lost in the buying or selling of goods ; and instructs merchants and traders to raise or lower the price of their goods, so as to gain or lose a certain sum per cent. &c.
Questions in this rule are performed by the Rule of Three.
EXAMPLES 1. How must I sell tea per pound, that cost me 135. 54. to gain at the rate of 25 per cent. ?
165. gd. or the answer.
16s. 9 d. the same as before. 2. At 35. 6d. profit in the pound, how much per cent. ?
Ans. 171. 1os. 3. Bought goods at 4 d. per lb. and sold them at the rate of 21. 75. 4d. per cwt. what was the gain per cent. ?
Ans. 121. 135. Iid. 4. Bought cloth at 78. 6d. per yard, which not proving so good as I expected, I am resolved to lose 17 per cent. by it : how must I sell it per yard ? Ans. 6s. 20.
5. If I buy 28 pieces of stuffs at 41. per piece, and sell 13 of the pieces at 61. and 8 at 5l. per piece ; at what rate per piece must I sell the rest to gain 20 per cent. by the whole ?
Ans. 21. 6s. 10 d. 6. Bought 40 gallons of brandy at 35. per gallon, but by accident 6 gallons of it are lost ; at what rate must I sell the remainder per gallon, and gain upon the whole prime cost at the rate of 10 per cent ?
Ans. 35. 100.
7. Sold a repeating watch for 175 dollars, and by so doing lost 17 per cent. whereas I ought in dealing to have cleared 20 per cent. how much was it sold for under the just value ?
Ans. 231. 8s. 04d.
FELLOWSHIP is a general rule, by which merchants, &c. trading in company, with a joint stock, determine each person's particular share of the gain or loss in proportion to his share in the joint stock.
By this rule a bankrupt's estate may be divided among his creditors'; as also legacies adjusted, when there is a deficienoy of assets or effects.
SINGLE FELLOWSHIP. Single Fellowship is when different stocks are employed for any certain equal time.
As the whole stock is to the whole gain or loss, so is each man's particular stock to his particular share of the gain or loss.
METHOD OF PROOF. Add all the shares together, and the sum will be equal to the gain or loss, when the question is right.
* That the gain or loss, in this rule, is in proportion to their stocks is evident : for, as the times the stocks are in trade are equal, if I put in of the whole stock, I ought to have of the whole gain ; if my part of the whole stock be š, my share of the whole gain or loss ought to be ţ also. And, generally, if I put in of the stock, I ought to have i part of the whole gain or loss; that is, the same ratio, that the whole stock has to the whole gain or loss, must each person's particular stock have to his particular gain or loss.