« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
it can be produced by any other means of contagion. For a particular description of this experiment, see the article TRANSFUSION.
The analogy existing between the glanders and the venereal disease is exceedingly striking: unluckily, however, they vary in the most essential particular; for the glanders will not yield to mercury. A case indeed occurred at the Veterinary College, of a coach-horse, belonging to Mr. Houlston, one of the examining committee of that institution, supposed to have been perfectly cured by a long course of mercurials. Professor Coleman makes mention of this case in his Lectures, and certainly with good reason, as two facts were apparently established, which seemed to mark it with a degree of decision: these arc, first, that the horse was perfectly cured; and, secondly, that the disease of which he was so recovered was the glanders. No doubt would have arisen as to the nature of his disease, had it not yielded to the treatment employed, which was that of repeated and long continued doses of calomel, carried to the extent of salivation. To remove that doubt, however, the horse was kept in a stable with other glandered horses; so that if the disease had been any other than what was supposed, the animal could not fail of being infected: but the fact was, that he was sent from the infirmary of the College free from the complaint, and we have since had reason to know that he experienced no relapse. It may be supposed, that this case led to many trials of a similar nature, but, unhappily, without the success which was hoped for by the Professor, who exerted his wonted ingenuity to improve the hint which this solitary instance appeared to afford. We too have administered mercury in every way we thought the most promising of success; but, though we have sometimes flattered ourselves that the symptoms were abated by its assistance for a time, we have invariably suffered an ultimate disappointment.
Some years ago, great expectations were formed from the use of the mineral acids in the venereal disease, and, from the obvious resemblance that that complaint and the glanders bear towards each other, some trials were made on a few cases of the latter, but without the desired success. We have been informed, and from respectable authority, of horses decidedly glandered recovering spontaneously; but our own experience does not supply a single fact to countenance this suggestion. As the glanders are equally fatal and contagious, great attention ought to be paid to any discharge which may be perceived from the nostrils, or any swelling of the glands; for one of these circumstances does not invariably precede the other. Colds and strangles may be inistaken, by persons unacquainted with the nature of the discases of horses, for the glanders; but a considerable light will be thrown on the subject, perhaps, by the following observations. In the former complaints there is always some degree of fever, a dulness about the eyes, and a loss of appetite in glanders, none of these symptoms occur, except in its latest stages. In colds, and in the strangles, the swollen glands are painful to the touch, increase rapidly in bulk, and may be brought without much difficulty to suppuration: in glanders, they are nearly insensibe, and seldom become larger than a walnut. The discharge from a catarrh is usually from both nostrils, is plentiful in quantity, of a healthy colour and consistence, and inoffensive odour;
it will flow still more profusely by exposing the head to the steams of hot mashes: on the other hand, the discharge in consequence of glanders is originally very small in quantity, soon acquiring a strong and disagreeable smell and colour, and is very little affected by warm vapours. A cold does not always, though it does in general, attack both nostrils: the glanders most frequently affects one only, to which it may confine itself for many months, and the gland will most probably be found enlarged on the side of the affected nostril. In all cases, however, where there appears the most distant prospect of danger, it will be highly prudent to separate the diseased from other horses; and, before the expiration of any long period, we shall be pretty accurately convinced of the real disposition of the complaint.
As we are led, by experience and the information of others, to think that severe or tedious catarrh, attended with a discharge from the nose, is sometimes apt to degenerate into glanders, we conceive that, on such an occasion, the means recommended for the cure of the former (see the article CATARRH) should be particularly attended to, as they may possibly have the effect of preventing an evil of a more serious complexion. Wherever the matter may be supposed to be detained or lodged in the upper parts of the nostrils, the steams of scalded bran, and injections of milk-warm water, frequently employed, will be found of considerable advantage.
When a horse exhibits such appearances as hold out an undoubted proof of the disease being the glanders, the sooner he is destroyed the safer it will be to the proprietor, as well as more humane to the animal. Nothing but laudable motives of experiment should induce us to protract his tedious and melancholy existence.
We have observed, that, whenever a borse is in the least suspected of glanders, it is proper that he should be removed from other horses, and kept alone, sufficiently secure from all possible communication with them: but particular care is also to be taken that the rack, manger, and such other parts of the stable as he may have come in contact with, he thoroughly cleansed from every particle of the infectious matter, the virulence of which we know no means of destroying but by totally removing the matter itself. The most effectual way of accomplishing the above purpose will be by scraping the contaminated parts with knives, or other sharp instruments, scouring them afterwards with soap, sand, and boiling water, and repeating the process till we are convinced it has exterminated every source of contagion; and lastly, a thick coat of well-sized lime should be spread over the whole. It is scarcely necessary to add, that the litter must be swept completely away, and the stable-floor properly cleaned.
It is a common practice with the owners of horses, when they have had any one of them seized with the glanders, to bleed and purge the rest by way of prevention: the intention is certainly good, but the consequences cannot possibly prove what they are led to expect. The above method will serve rather to promote, than prevent the disease, as it will considerably increase the action of the absorbent vessels, by which action the glanders is conveyed into the system. All we would recommend on these occasions is, to remove them from that part of the stable in which
the suspected horse has been standing, until it shall have been made pure from all matters of an infectious quality, and their nostrils may be washed a few times with a sponge and warm
Great stress having been laid by writers on far. riery on the virtue of fumigations of brimstone and other substances, some persons, fully depending on their efficacy, have adopted them, without attending to such simple, yet much more powerful means, as we have already mentioned. It is from actual contact only with the matter of a glandered horse, and not from any vapour that arises from him, that other horses receive the infection; and although we admit that foul air will produce the glanders, the air we mean is what has become heated and vitiated by being respired by a number of animals for too long a period. We believe, that, by throwing open the doors and windows of the stable for several days, every purpose of fumigation will be answered; but where the mind can receive any satisfaction from their use, it will certainly be as well to employ them, at the same time attending to the other precautions.
Mr. St. Bel observes, he restored many horses that were "thought," by some, "to be glandered," because they had no " certain criterion for ascertaining the truc glanders;" but he candidly confesses, that he never succeeded "but in one instance," in effecting a complete cure of that disease. That instance, however, which might have been more valuable than all these instances of failure, he has not thought proper to detail. Nevertheless, if we are to give him credit for this assertion, in spite of his having withheld the particulars of so inestimable a fact, it will at least serve to strengthen the idea, that the glanders is not an incurable disease in all possible in
Mr. St. Bel, in a situation so favourable to trials of that nature, was induced to ascertain the effect of inoculation of the virus of glanders into the bodies of sound animals, as well as the production of the disease by contact.
1. "Two sound horses, the one fresh from grass, aged six years, and the other nine years, just come from work, were placed by a horse who
had the glanders, drinking out of the same pail, and eating at the same manger. The first shewed evident signs of the glanders at the expiration of thirty-four days. It fully declared itself in the
second at the end of six weeks."
2. “Two horses in good health, the one seven, the other eleven, years old, both just taken from work, were placed by a horse who had the glanders. The former caught the disease, and ran at the nostrils, fifty-two days afterwards, the se
cond in three months."
3. "A horse, thirteen years old, very lean, was made to drink the same water out of the same pail with a horse who had the glanders, and continued so to do for two months; but he was kept from the diseased animal during that time: He did not catch the glanders."
4. A horse, nine years old, in tolerable condition, placed by a horse who had the glanders in the last stage of the disorder, caught it at the end of forty-three days."
5. "Three old horses, destined to the anatomical investigations of the school, having been inoculated with the virus in the neck, did not catch the disease. This experiment was repeated on various horses of all ages, without producing
any effect. It was also performed upon an ox, a sheep, and a dog, without impairing in the least the health of those animals."
6. The coverings and saddles that had been used to glandered horses, being placed on several horses in good health for a month, and during the heat of summer, did not convey the distemper."
7. "The virus, mixed with a little flour, given to three horses for the space of a week, communicated the disease to the youngest at the end of a month. The two others did not sicken till some time after."
Mr. St. Bel observes, that, only by multiplying such'experiments, we shall be able, 1st, To ascer tain the degree of infection of the glanders. 2dly, To discover the first symptoms by which it is announced, and which have escaped our notice to this day. 3dly, We should, by such means, be certain of attacking it in its origin, and might attain to a probable method of cure: for, notwithstanding my failures," says this writer, "I think that a remedy may be found for the glanders. The animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms abound with an infinite number of substances, the combination and rational application of which will, perhaps, in time, overcome those obstacles which have hitherto opposed the progress of the veterinary art, in this and many other diseases. Discoveries wait only favourable op, portunities to disclose themselves; and the most favourable are those which are furnished by scientific associations extending their patronage and encouragement for the perfection of the arts."
In concluding the account of his experiments, he observes, that many circumstances have convinced him, that the virus of the glanders has more activity in southern than in northern countries; and that its progress is more rapid in the mule and the ass, than in the horse; but that the former are not so subject to receive it by infection or contact as the horse is.
Copper, as an internal medicine, has been used progressively to an extent of not more, at best, than from a dram to an ounce of verdigris only; but with even less effect than mercury.
GLANFORD BRIDGE. See BRIGG. GLANS PENIS, in anatomy. (Glans.) The very vascular body that forms the apex of the penis. The posterior circle is termed the corona glaudis. See CORPUS SPONGIOSUM GLANS UNGUENTARIA. See BEN NUX. GLANVIL (Joseph), a learned and ingenious, but fanciful and credulous writer in the 17th century, was born at Plymouth in 1636, and bred at Oxford. He became a great admirer of Mr. Baxter, and a zealous person for a commonwealth. After the restoration, he published The Vanity of Dogmatizing; was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society; and, taking orders in 1669, was presented to the vicarage of Frome-Selwood in Somersetshire. This same year he published his Lux Orientalis; in 1665 his Scepsis Scientifica; and in the year following, Some Philosophical Considerations touching the Being of Witches, and Witchcraft, and other pieces on the same sub ject. In 1660 he published Plus Ultra; or, The Progress and Advancement of Knowledge since the Days of Aristorle. He likewise pub lished A seasonable Recommendation and De fence of Reason; and Philosophia Pia, or A Discourse of the religious Temper and Tendencies of the Experimental Philosophy. In 1678 he was made a prebendary of Worcester, and died in 1680.
GLA'REOUS. a. (glarieux, French, glareosus, Latin ; from glane.) Consisting of viscous transparent matter, like the white of an egg.
GLAʼRING. a. Applied to any thing notorious; as, a glaring crime.
GLARUS, one of the thirteen cantons in Swisserland, bounded on the E. by the Grisons; on the S. by the same, the canton of Uri, and that of Schweitz; and on the N. by the river Linth. It is a mountainous country, and their chief trade is in cattle, cheese, and butter. The government is democratic: every person of the age of sixteen has a vote in the Landsgemeind, or General Assembly, which is held annually in an open plain. This asseinbly ratifies new laws, lays contributions, ente:s into alliances, declares war, and makes peace. The Landamman is the chief of the republic, and is alternately chosen from among the protestants and catholics; with this difference, that the former remains three years in office, the latter only two. Both sects live together in the greatest harmony in several parts, they successively perform divine service in the same church; and all the offices of state are ami čably administered by both. The executive power is in a council of regency, composed of 48 protestants and 15 catholics; each sect has its particular court of justice; and it is necessary, in all lawsuits between persons of differ gut religions, that the person having the casting voice among the five or nine judges, who are to delcamine the cause, should be of the same religion as the defendant. Glarus is surrounded by the Alps except towards the north, where is the only entrance. The capital of this can ton is of the same name, and is situated in lat. 40. 56 N. Lon. 9. 1 E.
GLARE, in oryctology. See ARENA. To GLARE. v. n. (glaeren, Dutch.) 1. To shine so as to dazzle the eyes (Fairfax). 2. To look with fierce piercing eyes (Shakspeare). 3. To shine ostentatiously (Felton).
To GLARE. v. a. To shoot such splendour as the eyes cannot bear (Milton).
GLARE S.. (from the verb.) 1. Overpowering lustre; splendour, such as dazzles the eyes (Popc). 2. A fierce piercing look (Milton). GLAREOLA: Pratincole. In zoology, aa genus of the class aves, order grallæ. Bill Strong, stout, straight, hooked at the tip; nos trils at the base of the bill linear, oblique, gape of the mouth large, feet four-toed; toes long, slender, connected at the base by a niem brane; tail forked, consisting of twelve feathers. Three species, as follow:
1. G. austriaca. Austrian pratincole. Above grey-brown; collar black; chin and throat
GLASGOW, a city of Scotland, in the county of Lanerk, situated on the banks of the Clyde, which, by an act of parliament, and at considerable expence, has been within these last thirty years made navigable for vessels drawing seven feet six inches of water. It was formerly the see of a bishop, said to have been founded in the sixth century, and erected into an archbishopric in the 15th. The cathedral escaped the ill-directed zeal of the reformers, and still remains at least a venerable monu. ment of Gothic architecture, preserved by the care of the inhabitants. In the year 1172,
Glasgow was erected into a royal borough. In the year 1611, the city received a charter from James VI., and, in 1636, another from king Charles I., with considerable power and pleges, which charters were confirmed by acts of parliament in 1661 and 1690. The principal trade of Glasgow formerly was the curing and exporting of salmon and herrings, the principal market for which was France, from whence they imported wines, brandy, and salt. On the union with England, in the year 1707, the merchants of Glasgow first entered into the American trade. And, in the year 1775, they imported upwards of 57,000 hogsheads of tobacco, 5000 of sugar, upwards of 110 puncheons of rum, and 500 bags of cotton. Since the decline of the American trade, the merchants have found out new channels, and the trade is still increasing. Varieties of manufactures are carried on at Glasgow, the principal of which seem to be in the article of cotton, pottery, coarse earthen-ware, hats, stockings, gloves, ropes, cordage, glass, and several others. The number of inhabited houses in Glasgow is upwards of 12,000, and 86,380 inhabitants. Glasgow was originally one parish, but now for the benefit of the poor and ease of ministers, divided into eight, with as many churches, besides three chapels of ease. Glasgow contains several hospitals and charitable foundations, and a public infirmary. The university of Glasgow was founded in the year 1454, under the direction of a chancellor, rector, dean, principal, and fourteen professors. Distance 45 miles from Edinburgh. Lat. 55. 42 N. Lon. 4. 2 W.
GLASGOW (Port), a town in Renfrewshire, on the S. side of the Clyde, erected in 1710, to serve as the sea-port of the city of Glasgow, from which it is distant about 21 miles.
them by their great Hermes. Aristophanes, Aristotle, Alexander, Aphrodiseus, Lucretius, and St. John the divine, put it out of all doubt that glass was used in their days. Pliny relates, that it was first discovered accidentally in Syria, at the mouth of the river Belus, by certain merchants driven thither by a storm at sea; who being obliged to continue there, and dress their victuals by making a fire on the ground, where there was great plenty of the herb kali; that plant, burning to ashes, its salts mixed and incorporated with the sand, or stones fit for vitrification, and thus produced glass; and that, this accident being known, the people of Sidon in that neighbourhood essayed the work, and brought glass into use; since which time the art has been continually improving. Be this as it may, however, the first glass-houses mentioned in history were erected in the city of Tyre, and here was the only staple of the manufacture for many ages. The sand which lay on the shore for about half a mile round the mouth of the river Belus was peculiarly adapted to the making of glass, as being neat and glittering; and the wide range of the Tyrian commerce gave an ample vent for the productions of the furnace.
GLASS, vitrum, a transparent, solid, brittle, factitious body, produced by a mixture of earthy or metallic, with saline substances fused together by the action of fire.
The word is formed of the Latin glastum, a plant called, by the Greeks, isa by the Romans, atrum; by the ancient Britons,aduma; by the English, woad. We find frequentention of this plant in ancient writers, particula Cæsar, Vitruvius, Pliny, &c. who relate, tha the ancient Britons painted or dyed their bodies with glastum, guaduni, vitrum, &c. i. e. with the blue colour procured from this plant. And hence the fartitious matter, we are speaking.o came to be called glass, as having always somewhat of
this bluishness in it.
At what time the art of glass-making was first invented is altogether uncertain. Sonie imagine it to have been invented before the flood out of this we have no direct proof, though theres no improbability in the supposition; for we know, that it is almost impossible to excite a very iolent fire, such as is necessary in metallurgicoperations, without vitrifying part of the brickor stones wherewith the furnace is built. This indeed, might furnish the first hints of glass-making; though it is also very probable, that such imperfect vitrifications would be observed a long time before people thought of making any use of them. The Egyptians boast, that this art way taught
Mr. Nixon, in his observations on a plate of glass found at Herculaneum, which was destroyed A.D. 80, on which occasion Pliny lost his life, offers several probable conjectures as to the uses to which such plates might be applied. Such plates, he supposes, might serve for specula, or looking-glasses; for Pliny, in speaking of Sidon, reflection of images from these ancient specula adds, siquidem etiam specula excogitaverat: the tinging them through with some dark colour. being effected by besmearing them behind, or Another use in which they might be employed was for adorning the walls of their apartments, by way of wainscot, to which Pliny is supposed to refer by his vitrea camera, lib. xxxvi. cap. 25. §64. Mr. Nixon farther conjectures, that these glass plates might be used for windows, as well as the lamina of lapis specularis and phengites, which were improvements in luxury mentioned by Seneca, and introduced in his time, Ep. xc. However, there is no positive authority relating to the using of glass-windows earlier than the close of the third century: Manifestius est (says Lactantius), mentem esse, quæ per oculos ea qua sunt opposita, transpiciat, quasi per fenestras lucente vitro aut speculari lapide obductas.
The first time we hear of glass made among the Romans was in the reign of Tiberius, when Pliny
relates that an artist had his house demolished for making glass malleable, or rather flexible; though Petronius Arbiter and some others assure us, that the emperor ordered the artist to be beheaded for his invention.
It appears, however, that before the conquest of Britain by the Romans, glass-houses had been erected in this island, as well as in Gaul, Spain, and Italy. Hence in many parts of the country are to be found annulets of glass, having a narrow perforation and thick rim, denominated by the remaining Britons gleineu naigreedh, or glass adders, and which were probably in former times used as annulets by the druids. It can scarcely be questioned that the Britons were sufficiently well versed in the manufacture of glass, to form out of it many more useful instruments than the glass beads. History indeed assures us, that they did manufacture a considerable quantity of glass vessels. These, like their annulets, were inost
probably green, blue, yellow, or black, and many of them curiously streaked with other colours. The process in the manufacture would be nearly the same with that of the Gauls and Spaniards. The sand of their shores, being reduced to a sufficient degree of fineness by art, was mixed with three-fourths of its weight of their nitre (much the same with our kelp), and both were melted together. The metal was then poured into other vessels, where it was left to harden into a mass, and afterwards replaced in the furnace, where it became transparent in the boiling, and was afterwards figured by blowing or modelling in the lathe into such vessels as they wanted.
It is not probable that the arrival of the Romans would improve the glass manufacture among the Britons. The taste of the Romans at that time was just the reverse of that of the inhabitants of this island. The former preferred silver and gold to glass for the composition of their drinking-vessels. They made, indeed, great improvements in their own at Rome, during the government of Nero. The vessels then formed of this metal rivalled the bowls of porcelain in their dearness, and equalled the cups of crystal in their transparency. But these were by far too costly for common use; and therefore, in all probability, were never attempted in Britain. The glass commonly made use of by the Romans was of a quality greatly inferior; and, from the fragments which have been discovered at the stations or towns of either, appear to have consisted of a thick, sometimes white, but mostly blue green, metal.
According to the venerable Bede, artificers skilled in making glass for windows were brought over into England in the year 674 by abbot Benedict, who were employed in glazing the church and monastery of Weremouth. According to others, they were first brought over by Wilfrid, bishop of Worcester, about the same time. Till this time the art of making such glass was unknown in Britain; though glass windows did not begin to be common before the year 1180: till this period they were very scarce in private houses, and considered as a kind of luxury, and as marks of great magnificence. Italy had them first, next France, from whence they came into England.
Venice for many years excelled all Europe in the fineness of its glasses; and in the thirteenth century the Venetians were the only people that had the secret of making crystal looking-glasses. The great glass-works were at Muran, or Murano, a village near the city, which furnished all Europe with the finest and largest glasses.
The glass manufacture was first begun in England in 1557: the finer sort was made in the place called Crutched Friars, in London; the fine flint glass, little inferior to that of Venice, was first made in the Savoy-house, in the Strand, London, This manufacture appears to have been much improved in 1635, when it was carried on with seacoal or pit-coal instead of wood, and a monopoly was granted to sir Robert Mansell, who was allowed to import the fine Venetian flint-glasses for drinking, the art of making which was not brought to perfection before the reign of William III. But the first glass plates, for looking-glasses and coachwindows, were made in 1673, at Lambeth, by the encouragement of the duke of Buckingham; who in 1670 introduced the manufacture of fine glass into England, by means of Venetian artists, with amazing success. So that within a century past, the French and English have not only come up to,
but even surpassed, the Venetians; and we are now no longer supplied from abroad.
The French made a considerable improvement in the art of glass, by the invention of a method of casting very large plates, till then unknown, and scarce practised yet by any but themselves and the English. That court applied itself with a laudable industry to cultivate and improve the glass manufacture. A company of glass-men was established by letters patent; and it was provided by an arret, not only that the working in glass should not derogate any thing from nobility, but even that none but nobles should be allowed to work in it.
An extensive manufactory of this elegant and valuable branch of commerce was first established in Lancashire, about the year 1773, through the spirited exertions of a very respectable body of proprietors, who were incorporated by an act of parliament. From those various difficulties constantly attendant upon new undertakings, when they have to contend with powerful foreign establishments, it has not, however, been conducted with any great degree of success.
The properties of glass are very remarkable, some of which follow.
1. It is one of the most elastic bodies in nature. If the force with which glass balls strike each other be reckoned 16, that wherewith they recede by virtue of their clasticity will be nearly 15.
2. When glass is. suddenly cooled, it becomes exceedingly brittle; and this brittleness is sometimes attended with very surprising phænomena. Hollow bells made of annealed glass, with a small hole in them, will fly to pieces by the heat of the hand only, if the hole by which the internal and external air communicate be stopped with a finger. Lately, however, some vessels made of such annealed glass have been discovered, which have the remarkable property of resisting very hard strokes given from without, though they shiver to pieces by the shocks received from the fall of very light and minute bodies dropped into their cavities. These glasses may be made of any shape; all that need be observed in making them is, that their bottom be thicker than their sides. The thicker the bottom is, the easier do the glasses break. One whose bottom is three fingers breadth in thickness flies with as much ease at least as the thinnest glass. Some of these vessels have been tried with strokes of a mallet sufficient to drive a nail into wood tolerably hard, and have held good without breaking. They have also resisted the shock of several heavy bodies let fall into their cavities, from the height of two or three feet; as musket-balls, pieces of iron or other metal, pyrites, jasper, wood, bone, &c. But this is not sure prising, as other glasses of the same shape and size will do the same: but the wonder is, that taking a shiver of flint of the size of a small pea, and letting it fall into the glass only from the height of three inches, in about two seconds the glass flier, and sometimes at the very moment of the shock; nay, a bit of flint no larger than a grain dropped into several glasses successively, though it did not immediately break them, yet when set by, they all flew in less than three-quarters of an hour. Some other bodies produce this effect as well as flint; as sapphire, diamond, porcelain, hard-tempered steel; also marbles such as boys play with, and likewise pearls. These experiments were made before the Royal Society, and succeeded equally when the glasses were held in the hand, when they were rested on a pillow, put in water,