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rate can be bought for the same money, and it gives the

answer.

EXAMPLES

1. What quantity of flax at 9 cts. per lb. must be given in barter for 12 lb. of indigo, at 2 dols. 19 cts.

per

lb.? 12 lb. of indigo at 2 dols. 19 cts. per lb. comes to 26 dols. 28 cts.-therefore, As 9 cts. : i lb. : : 20,28 cts. : 292 the answer.

2. How much wheat at 1 dol. 25 cts. a bushel, must be given in barter for 50 bushels of rye, at 70 cts. a bushel ?

Ars. 28 bushels. 3. How much rice at 28s. per cwt. must be bartered for 3 cwt. of raisins, at 5d per

Ib. ?

Ans. 5 cwt. 3 qrs. 9}}ll. 4. How much tea at 4s. 9d. per lb. must be given in warter for 78 galions of brandy, at 12s. 3 d. per gallon ?

Ans. 2011b. 133 oz. 5. A and B bartered : A had 8; cwt. of sugar at 12 cts. per lb. for which В gave him 18 cwt. of flour ; what was the flour rated at per lb. ?

Ans. 5; cts. 6. B delivered 3 hhds. of brandy, at 68. 8t. per gallon, to C, for 126 yds. of cloth, what was the cloth per yard?

Ans. 108. 7. D gives E 250 yards of drugget, at 30 cts. per yd. fur 319 Rs. of pepper; what does the pepper stand him in per lb.

Ans. 23cts. 570 m. 8. A and B bartered : A had 41 cwt. of rice, at 118. per cwt. for which В gave him 20l. in money,

and the rest in sugar at 8d. per lb. ; I demand how much sugar B gave A besides the 201. ? Ans. 6cwt. Oqrs. 1976.

9. Two farmers bartered : A had 120 bushels of wheat al !dols, per Lushel, for which В gave him 100 bushels of barley, worth 65 cts. per bushel, and the balance in Oats at 40 cts. per bushel ; what quantity of oats did A receive from B?

Ans. 287} bushels. 10. A hath linen cloth worth 20d. an ell ready money ; but in barter he will have 23. B hati, broadcloth worth 14s. 6d. per part ready money, at what price ought B to rate his broadcloth in barter, so as to be equivalent to A's bar tering price?

Ans. 178. 4d. 37.gra.

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11. A and B barter: A hath 145 gallons of brandy at i dol, 20 cts. per gallon, ready money, but in barter he will have 1 dol. 35 cts. per gallon: B bas linen at 58 cts. per yard, ready money; how must B sell his linen per Fard in proportion to A's bartering price, and how many yards are equal to A's brandy ?

Ans. Barter price of B's linen is 65cts. 2.. and he must give A 300 yds. for his brandy.

12." A has 225 yds. of shalloon, at 2s. ready money, per yard, which he barters with B at 2s. 5d. per yard, taking indigo at 12s. 6d. per ilj. which is worth but 103. how much indigo will pay for the shalloon; and who gets the best bargain?

Ans. 43;lb. at barter price will pay for the shalloon, and B has the advantage in barter,

Value of A's cloth, at cash price, is £22 10
Value of 43}lb. of indigo, at 105. per lb. “21 15

B. gets the best bargain by £0 15

LOSS AND GAIN, Is a rule by which merchants and traders discover their profit or loss in buying and seiling their goods : it also instructs them how to rise or fall in the price of their goods, so as to gain or lose so much per cent. or otherwise. Questions in this rule are answered by the Rule of Three.

EXAMPLES,

1. Bought a piece of cloth containing 85 yards, for 191 dols. 25 cts. and sold the same at 2 dols. 81 cts. per yard; what is the profit upon the whole piece ?

Ans. $47, 60cls. 2. Bought 12} cut. of rice, at 3 dols. 45 cts. a cut. and sold it again at 4 cts. a pound; what was the whole gain?

Ans. $12, 87cis. 5m. 3. Bought 11 cwt. of sugar, at 6.5 per Ib. but could not sell it again for any more than 21. 16s. per cwt.; did I gain or lose by my bargain ? His. Lost €2 118. 4d.

4. Bought 44 lb. of tea for 61. 12s. and sold it again for kl. 108. 6d..; what was the profit on each pound ?

dn. 1050

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5. Bought a bhd. of molasses containing 119 gallons, bet 52 cents per gallon ; paid for carting the same i dollar 25 cents, and by accident 9 gallons leaked out ; at what rate must I sell the remainder per gallon, to gain 13 dol. lars in the whole ?

Ans. 69cts. 2in. +

II. To know what is gained or lost per cent.

RJLE. First see what the gain or loss is by subtrartion; then As the price it cost : is to the gain or loss :: sɔ is 100l. or $100, to the gain or loss per cent.

EXAMPLES, 1. If I buy Irish linen at 2s. per yard, and sell it again, at 23. 8d. per yard; what do I gain per cent. or in laying out 1001. : As : 23. sd. : : 1001. : £33 68. 8d. Ans.

2. It I buy broadcloth at 3 dols. 44 cts. per yard, and dell it again at 4 dols. 30 cts. per yard; what do I gain per cent. or in laying out 100 dollars ?

$ cts. Sold for, 4, 30

$ cts.' cts. Cost

As 3, 44 : 86 : : 100 : 25

Ans. 25 per cent. Gained per yd. 86

3. If I buy a ewt. of cotton for 34 do!s. 86cts, and sell it again at 41.4 cts. per lb. what do I gain or lose, and what per cent. ?

$ cts. I cwt. at 41} cts. per lb. comes to 46,48

Prime cost 34,86

3, 44

Gained in the gross, $11,62 As 34,86 : 11,62 : : 100 : 334 Ans. 33 per cent. 4. Bought sugar at 8 d. per lb. and sold it again at 41 178. per cwt. what did I gain per cent. ?

Ans. £25 198. 5jd. 5. If I buy 12 bhds. of wine for 2041. and sell the same again at 141. 178, 6d. per hhd. do I gain or lose, and what

Ans. I lose 12, per 6. At 11d. profit in a shilling, how much per cent?

Ans. £12. 108.

per cent. ?

cent.

17. At 25 cts. profit in a dollar, how much per cent. »

Ans. 25 per cent. Notes-When goods are bought or sold on credit you must calculate (hy discount) tlie present worth of their price, in order to find your true gain or loss, &c.

EXAMPLES. 1. Bought 164 yards of broadcloth, at 14s. 6d. per ya ready money, and sold the same again for 1541. 108. or. 6 months credit ; what did I gain by the whole; allow ing discount at 6 per cent. a year?

£. £. £. £.
As 103 :100 : 154 10 : 150 O present worth

118 18 prime cost,

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Gained £31 2 Ansuer. 2. If I buy cloth at 4 dols. 16 cts. per yard, on eight months credit, and sell it again at 3 dols. 90 cts. per yd. ready money, what do I lose per cent. allowing 6 per ent. discount on the purchase price?

cent.

Ans. 2, per

II. To know how a commodity must be sold, to gain or lose so much per cent.

RULE. As 100: is to the purchase price : : so is 100l. or 100 dels. with the profit added, or loss subtracted : to the selling price.

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1. If I buy Irish linen at 23. 3d. per yard; how must I sell it per yard to gain 25 per cent. ? As 1001 : 2s. 3d. :: 1251. to 28. 9d. 3

qrs.

Ans. 2. If I buy Rum at 1 dol. 5 cts. per gallon ; how must I sell it per gallon to gain 30 per cent. ?

As $100 : $1,05 :: $130 : $1,36} cts. Ans. 3. If tea cost 54 cts. per lb. ; how niust it be sold per kb. to lose 124 per cent. ?

As $100 : 54 cts. : : $87, 50 cts. : 47 cts. 21m. Ans.

4. Bought cloth 173. 6d. per yard, which not proving as good as I expected, I am obliged to lose 15 per cent. by it ; how must I sell it per yard ?

Ans. 148 104

5. If 11 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lb. of sugar cost 126 dols. 50 cts. how must it be soli per lb. to gain 30 per cent. ?

Ans. 12cts. 8in. 6. Bought 90 gallons of wine at 1 dol. 20 cts. per gall. but by accident i 0 gallons leaked out, at what rate must I sell the remainder per gallon to gain upon

the whole

prime cost, at the rate of 12per cent. ? Ans. $1,51 cts. 8,76 m.

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3. d.

IV. When there is gaired or lost per cent. to know what the commodity cost.

RULE. As 1001. or 100 dols. with the gain per cent. added, or loss per cent. subtracted, is to the price; so is 100 to the prime cost.

EXAMPLES. 1. If a yard of cloth be sold at 14s. 70. and there is gained £16. 138. 4d. per cent. ; what did the yard cost ? £. S. d.

£. As 116 13 4 : 14 : : 100 to 12s. 6d. Ans. 2. By selling broadcloth at 3 dols. 25 cts. per yard, 1 lose at the rate of 20 per cent. ; what is the prime cost of said cloth per yard ?

Ans. $4,06 cts. 2 m. 3. If 40 H. of chocolate be sold at 25 ets. per lb. and I guin 9 per cent. ; what did the whole cost me ?

Ans. $9, 17cis. 4m. 4. Bought 5 cwt. of sugar and solid it again at 12'cts. per

Ib. by which I gained at the rate of 25 per cent. í what did the sugar cost me per

cuit.
Ans. $10,70 cts. Im. +

V. If by wares sold at a given rate there is so much gained or lost per cent. to know what would be gained or lost per cent. if sold at another rate.

RULE. As the first price: is to 100l. or 150 dols. with the profit per cent. added, or loss per cent. subtracted: : 80 is the other price : to the gain or loss per cent. At the other rate

N. B. If your inswer exceed 100!. or 100 dols. the excess is your gain per cent. ; but if it be less than 100, that deficiency is the loss per

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