HTE POWER OF THE POPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES; OR, AN HISTORICAL INQUIRY INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE TEMPORAL POWER OF THE HOLY SEE, AND THE CONSTITUTINAL LAWS OF THE MIDDLE AGES RELATING TO THE DEPOSITION OF SOVERRIGNS.

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Περιεχόμενα

Laws of the twelve tables
15
Permanence of those laws even in the decline of the republic
16
Privileges granted to ministers of religion
18
Title of sovereign pontiff given to the first Christian emperors
20
Privileges of the pagan priests maintained under Constantine and his successors
21
Prohibition of foreign religions by the ancient Romans
22
This prohibition in force under the empire
23
It was a pretext for the pagans for persecuting the Christians
24
That injustice often acknowledged by the pagans
26
Obvious inference from all these factsStrict union of religion and the state under the Christian emperors
27
Honours and temporal privileges conferred on religion and its Ministers under the first Christian emperors
28
Deplorable state of the empire under the first Christian emperors Powerful resources of religion and its ministers
29
Eminent virtues of the clergy and especially of the bishops
30
How much they were respected by the faithful and by the pagans themselves
33
The clergy distinguished by the same virtues long after the con version of Constantine ?
35
Remarkable admissions of Julian on this point
37
The empire sustained against its foreign enemies by the Christian religion
38
Rome and many other cities saved by the influence of the bishops
39
This consequence acknowledged by unimpeachable authorities Admissions of Dupuy
40
Admissions of M Guizot
41
The divine and ecclesiastical laws sanctioned by the authority of the Christian emperorsOrigin of the temporal penalties against idolatry Judaism heres...
43
These facts admitted by pagan authors themselves
45
The triumph of Christianity over paganism assured before the conversion of Constantine
46
First edicts of Constantine in favour of the Christian religion
48
His exertions to bring idolatry into disrepute
50
Edicts against secret divination
51
His leniency to the pagans
52
His prudence in this respect imitated by Constantius and Constans
53
Moderation of Jovian
54
The altar of Victoiy sometimes replaced in the senatehouse some times removed according to circumstances
55
Final blow given to paganism by Theodosius
57
Laws of the Church confirmed by the laws of the emperors
60
Temporal penalties against the transgressors of those laws
62
The edicts of the Christian emperors in favour of religion were founded on those principles
63
These principles admitted by the most celebrated modern writers
64
Application of these principles often difficult
66
In what sense princes are called bishops exterior
67
Never to extort by violence a profession of the faith
69
To oppose vigorously heresy at its birth
70
The severe provisions of the Roman law on this point not ap proved by the Church
71
Penal laws generally severe in those ages
72
Laws against the Jews
74
Motives of this severity
76
Laws against heretics and apostates
77
Laws of Theodosius the GreatOrigin of the Inquisition
79
Laws of Honorius and Theodosius the YoungerHeretics dis qualified for all civil offices
81
Laws of Marcian confirming and renewing the preceding
82
Similar laws of Justinian in his Codex and Novellae
83
Special enactments against sacrilege and apostasy
84
The Roman law on these points adopted by all the Christian states of Europe during the middle ages
85
The patronage of princes insufficient for the protection of the ChurchNecessity of the Divine assistance
88
Property and riches of the clergy during the primitive ages of the Church especially under the Christian emperorsHoly use which they made of them
91
Practice conformable to those principles
92
Biches of some churches during the persecutions
94
Augmentation of ecclesiastical property after the conversion of Constantino
96
His liberality to the Church of Kome
98
Sources of this liberalityImmense revenues of the empire
102
Other sources of wealth for the ChurchRestitutionsLiberality of the faithful
106
TithesFirstfruitsDonationsLast wills
109
They disapprove of excessive or indiscreet donations
112
Wealth of the patriarchal churches
114
Wealth of the Boman ChurchIts numerous patrimonies
115
Beneficial influence of the wealth of the clergy on the good of society
118
Charitable establishmentsHospitals
120
Bedemption of captives and enfranchisement of slaves
122
Generous charity of the Boman Church
124
The increase of the wealth of the Church generally beneficial to society _
126
Injustice of the invectives against the clergy on this subject
127
Answer of St John Chrysostom to those invectives
129
Ecclesiastical immunities under the Christian emperorsBight of sanctuary
131
Personal immunities
133
Beal immunities
136
The Church always submissive to the laws
138
Error of Baronius on this subject
141
Judicial power of the bishops in temporal matters under Con stantine
153
This power more or less restrained under he successors of Con stantine
155
This power much more extensive with regard to clerics
156
Enactments of the Justinian code on this subject
157
Decrees of many councils explained by these laws
158
Temporal penalties inflicted on criminals by the ecclesiastical tribunals
159
Great labour and embarrassment imposed on the bishops by this temporal jurisdiction
160
Influence of the clergy in the civil administration under the Christian emperors
161
Powers of bishops in general
162
These powers much more extensive in the West under the mo narchy of the Lombards
166
Use made by St Cyril of Alexandria of his power
168
Use made of it by Dioscorus
170
Extraordinary power given by Justinian to the patriarch of Alexandria
171
Influence of the patriarch of Constantinople on the election of the emperorOath required from the elected
172
Reasons for exacting the oath
173
Consequences of this oath with regard to the deposition of an heretical emperor
174
Important conclusions from the facts developed in this Intro duction
176
Origin and grounds of the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See
177
Deplorable condition of the empire of the West after the fourth century
178
Powerful resources for Italy in the wisdom and virtue of the popes
179
Object and plan of this first part
180
Pretended donation of Constantine
181
Proved from history to be spurious ib 8 Increase of the temporal power of the pope under Honorius
182
This increase authorized by the emperorDoctrine of Pope Gelasius on the distinction of the two powers
183
This doctrine inculcated by Pope Symmachus
185
Motives for the generosity of the emperors to the popes
186
These motives still more powerful under the monarchy of the Lombards
187
Temporal power of St Gregory the Great
189
Embarrassments and difficulty of his positionHis prudence
191
His principles and conduct with regard to the submission due to the emperor
192
His example on this point followed by his successors
194
Imprudent conduct of the emperors with regard to Italy and the Holy See
195
Bevolution in Italy under the pontificate of Gregory II Its true causes
197
The account of Paul the Deacon confirmed by Anastasius
198
Remarkable inferences from the narrative of these authors
201
Greek historians give a different account of those events
202
Importance of discussing the credit due to the Greek authors on this subject
203
Impossibility of reconciling the Greek with the Latin accounts
205
The narrative of the Greek authors entitled to very little credit
206
It is contrary to the principles and character of Gregory II
207
The conduct of this pope approved by modern authors who are beyond all suspicion of partiality
210
His moderation imitated by Gregory III
211
Leo the Isaurian by his excesses provokes Italy still more
212
This measure easily justified by circumstances
214
Good understanding between the pope and the emperor during the pontificate of Zachary
215
Pope Stephen II implores the protection of Pepin against the Lombards
217
Favourable dispositions of PepinHis first expedition into Italy
218
Rome again besieged by the LombardsUrgent letter of Pope Stephen II to Pepin
221
The language of the pope in those letters unjustly criticised by some modern authors
222
Second expedition of Pepin to ItalyDonation made to the Holy See by Astolphus and Pepin
224
These two princes never pretended that they were making a donation strictly so called but a restitution to the Holy See
226
Unavailing protests of the emperors against this deed of donation
227
From that period the pope looked on himself as sovereign of Rome and of the exarchate
228
This opinion shared by the Roman senate and people and by the king of France
230
Temporal sovereignty of the Holy See extended and consolidated by Charlemagne
231
Solution of some difficulties on this point
233
Charlemagne receives the imperial crown from Pope Leo III
235
Conduct of the pope on this occasion easily justified
237
Increase of the temporal power of the pope under the successors of Charlemagne
239
CHAPTER II
241
Plan of this discussion
242
The origin of the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See cannot
248
From Charlemagnes election to the empire the pope continued
258
before the close of the eighth century
271
Charlemagne and his successors
280
reduced to three propositions
288
The temporal sovereignty of the Holy See was founded originally
295
PAGE
303
On the value of Constantines offerings to the principal churches
309
On the value of the three talents and a half of gold the annual
315
forged? _
321
On some circumstances relating to Charlemagnes coronation in 800
327
Second question
333

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Δημοφιλή αποσπάσματα

Σελίδα 15 - Fremant omnes licet : dicam quod sentio : bibliothecas, mehercule, omnium philosophorum unus mihi videtur XII tabularum libellus, si quis legum fontes et capita viderit, et auctoritatis pondere, et utilitatis ubertate, superare.
Σελίδα 44 - Hesterni sumus, et vestra omnia implevimus, urbes, insulas, castella, municipia, conciliabula, castra ipsa, tribus, decurias, palatium, senatum, forum; sola vobis reliquimus templa.
Σελίδα 139 - Caesar the things that are Caesars, and to God the things that are God's...
Σελίδα 5 - ALIO DIE dixerit? Quid magnificentius, quam posse decernere ut magistratu se abdicent consules ? Quid religiosius quam cum populo, cum plebe, agendi jus aut dare aut non dare ? Quid? Legem, si non jure rogata est, tollere?
Σελίδα 44 - Potuimus et inermes, nee rebelles, sed tantuinmodo discordes solius divortii invidia adversus vos dimicasse. Si enim, tanta vis hominum, in aliquem orbis remoti sinum abrupissemus a vobis, suffudisset utique dominationem vestram tot qualiumcunque civium amissio, immo etiam et ipsa destitutione punisset. Procul dubio expavissetis ad solitudinem vestram, ad silentium rerum et stuporem quendam quasi mortui orbis.
Σελίδα 5 - ... quid enim maius est, si de iure quaerimus, quam posse a summis imperiis et summis potestatibus comitiatus et concilia vel instituta dimittere vel habita rescindere? quid gravius quam rem susceptam dirimi, si unus augur "alio die"1 dixerit?
Σελίδα 32 - Placuit in totum prohibere episcopis presbyteris et diaconibus vel omnibus clericis positis in ministerio abstinere se a coniugibus suis et non generare filios. Quicumque vero fecerit, ab honore clericatus exterminetur
Σελίδα 129 - Pretextus à Damase, et je me fais chrétien 3.»-.. * Neque ego abnuo ostentationem rerum considerans urbanarum , hujus rei cupidos ob impetrandum quod appetunt omni contentione laterum jurgari debere . cum id adepti, futuri sint ita securi, ut ditentur oblationibus matronarum procedantque vehiculis insidentes, circumspecte vestiti, epulas currentes profusas, adeo ut eorum convivia regales superant mensas.
Σελίδα 100 - Behold the lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sins of the world; and that other: As many as have been baptized, have put on Christ.
Σελίδα 129 - Esse poterant beati revera, si, magnitudine urbis despecta, quam vitiis opponunt, ad imitationem antistitum quorundam provincialium viverent, quos tenuitas edendi potandique parcissime, vilitas etiam indumentorum, et supercilia humum spectantia, perpetuo numini verisque ejus cultoribus ut puros commendant et verecundos.

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