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coucher a Cambridge, ville savante et pauvre, où il y a trois mille pédans et pas un pavé de grès." The following is a translation of some portions of the Doctor's work relating to the two Universities, which perhaps you may deem worthy of a place in your valuable Magazine.
That the public establishments for his observation to such institutions. education in Great Britain have for Alike avoiding all inclination indiscritheir general object a certain more minately to admire or to condemn elevated and scientific information of either what is foreign or domestic, he the student, together with those of has endeavoured to draw an imparGermany, particularly the Protes- tial comparison; and, in the commutant, but are at the same time mate- nication of his results, he has sought rially different from these in their that moderation which he has himconstitution, I may consider as a fact self found wanting in many authors already known to a considerable por- who have preceded him. tion of my readers. Whoever has We shall first take a view of the read upon this subject the well-known general state, the discipline, the liteworks, not unfrequently contradictory rary and political constitution of the to one another, of Wendeborn, Kütt- two Universities of Oxford and Cams ner, Göde, and Meiner, to him, per- bridge, such as they appear to an haps, I shall not be able to communi- observer, these being very similar in cate much additional information both. Then, after having taken such upon this subject.
a survey of these celebrated seats of I have frequently observed, that the Muses, and formed a clear idea even men of letters have had but a of their exterior and interior, the very faint and general idea of this short description which I shall give difference, and by no means any clear of my stay in both places will become perception of what is peculiar to the more intelligible, and perhaps be read British Universities. Having, there with greater interest. fore, had an opportunity of becoming The peculiar constitution of these acquainted particularly with those of two learned establishments bears the Oxford and Cambridge, I shall here decided stamp and character of their confine myself to a description of founders, as well as of the time in them: for Dublin in Ireland, as well which they were instituted. Every as Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aber- thing in them shows the most intideen, in Scotland, are very differently mate connexion with ecclesiastical constituted; the three latter, indeed, and religious objects. As in all Cahave a much greater resemblance to tholic countries, it was believed in those of Germany.
England, where the system of the I hope the following account, Romish hierarchy was established at which I have made as concise and an early period, that the existing recomprehensive as possible, will be ligion would be best supported by acceptable to many besides academi- those institutions in which a number cal men, since Universities are insti- of young men should devote themtutions in which all educated mem- selves entirely to theological studies bers of a state, and all fathers and and regular prayer; whether thereby mothers, should take the most lively to prepare themselves for ecclesiastiinterest. Besides, such institutions cal duties, or whether, renouncing have not unfrequently, in these our the world, they were to dedicate troublous times, afforded matter of themselves to an ascetic life. But discussion and controversy: the pub- colleges, understood in that sense, lic voice upon this subject has of late which were founded partly by rich been expressed louder than ever; and individuals, and partly by kings and it has even been conceived, by more queens, differed from the ordinary than one person, that all the faults of convents in this, that most of them our German Universities would be even at the beginning had at least effectually remedied, if they were some scientific tendency, and that re-modelled according to the English the business of scholastic teaching fashion. It may also be expected, properly fell within the plan of their that an old member of an University founders. Since, however, the twelfth has directed no inconsiderable sbare of and thirteenth centuries, the idea of an University was gradually extend- ber even of sixteen or twenty persons ed; the teachers of the sciences were possesses in Oxford full authority on no longer chosen from the clerical the occasion of conferring or proorder, and the objects of instruction posing a degree. In Oxford, this is were no longer confined to Theology, called congregation ; in Cambridge, but, besides the preparative branches the caput; to form which, four perof classical and philosophical studies, sons are sufficient. Each University, Medicine and Jurisprudence were besides many offices and denominaadmitted. The professors enjoyed tions differing from those among us, great privileges, given them by has its chancellor and high steward, popes, emperors, kings, and cities, elected by itself
. Both of these are, by means of which they by degrees as is still the case with the rectors in formed an independent body, which many German Universities, always produced long before the Reformation persons
of the first rank in the kingthe most learned men and writers in dom. These hold offices of dignity all departments. The extraordinary merely, and not of employment. The conflux of scholars, who were at, representative of the chancellor, and tracted by the fame of celebrated properly the administrator of the professors, soon introduced all those University business, is the vice-chanevils which are inseparable from the cellor, who is chosen annually from free association of a great number of the heads of colleges. He is, as the young men, in those years in which pro-rector amongst us, the ever preall inclinations are excited, and the sent head of the University; conducts passions burn with violence. It was all business in the convocation or seto check these evils, that, instead of nate as president; and has likewise, allowing the students an unrestrained in matters that are not of such imfreedom, without any directing su- portance as to be brought before the perintendence, the idea was conceive proper courts, a peculiar jurisdiction, ed of separating them into smaller to which even the citizens are aa societies, and of providing them menable, in so far as they are conmaintenance and accommodation in nected with the University. Besides large buildings, now called Colleges, four assistants, the pro-vice-chancelwhich should be richly endowed, and lors, the next in rank to the viceshould offer advantages to those who chancellor are the two proctors, and resided in them. Such were the in- next the pro-proctors. These are stitutions in the Universities of Sala- likewise chosen annually from the manca, Bologna, and Paris ; but in masters, and, properly speaking, are none has there been shown such libe- the directors of the police, and are rality as in the foundations and en- empowered to banish from the city, dowments of Oxford and Cambridge. arrest suspicious persons, and to The colleges of these two cities, visit improper houses.
* The which derive their celebrity from discipline is strict, duly enforced, and them only, considered as the several appears to have an almost unlimited parts of a whole, form, properly influence. Here, however, it is espeaking, the University. The heads qually unable to prevent all excesses of these, as well as all members who and violation of rules as it is in the enjoy a dignity or degree, whether German Universities. Yet here it is called doctors, masters, or fellows, exercised on a more regular prinhave a seat and a voice in the greater ciple, exactly according to the estacouncil, or convocation, as it is called blished law, and extends itself even in Oxford; the representatives of the to the townsmen, in as far as they several colleges form the lesser coun- may be the aiders and ahettors of cil. This council, therefore, does not any transgression of the laws. In consist of professors only; but these this case, a townsman, who allows in belong to it only as being members of his house any riot, disturbance, or a college, or as having an academical unlawful behaviour, may soon be dignity. Full convocation may pro- deprived of his livelihood, as soon as bably contain a thousand members. the vice-chancellor finds it salutary But as these cannot always be pre- for the good of the whole. At the sent, a certain number has authority very time I was in Oxford, there arto decide on any measure. The numa peared on the walls a printed adver
tisement, by which a horse-dealer the young men. These studies con was suspended from his business, be sist chiefly in the continuation of the cause he had lent to some students a knowledge acquired at school, parti, light, dangerous vehicle, called a cularly in the study of Greek and gig, which is forbidden by the sta- Latin authors, or what is called in tutes, and I was assured the decree England classical learning. At this was irrevocable.
The lightest pu- period, no one thinks of any definite nishments for any violation of the profession to which he may devote discipline on the part of the students himself; and the course of education are additional exercises to be per- is exactly the same for those who are formed in writing. Repeated trans- destined for the church, the law, or gressions are frequently followed by for medicine. After each one has dismission from the college, which decided on his profession, the lecmay, as among us, either be accom- tures of the professors are panied by a Consilium abeundi, or in sionally attended; but that neither by more aggravated cases be made pub- all, nor with any regularity. The licly known. This necessarily im. course of instruction, however, is plies the loss of numerous advan- scarcely to be compared with that in tages and privileges. The refusal, our Universities. Many courses of likewise, of a degree, or any con- lectures contain during a whole year siderable delay in receiving it, is fre- only twenty lectures of an hour's quently attended by the most pain- length, or at most forty. Dodwell, ful consequences.
the celebrated professor of hisIf, then, the English Universities, tory, gave only twenty lectures in as we have hitherto considered them, three years. At present, however, I have been found in no inconsiderable would not speak of regular courses degree to resemble our own, particu- of lectures so much as of professions. larly if we regard these in their an- Many students leave the University cient constitutions, and as possessed without having determined whether of all their ancient rights, although they are to be divines or lawyers. they are much more independent of The celebrated physician, Dr. Wilthe government than ours; we shall, lis, who attended the late king, had on the other hand, find a still greater previously been a clergyman. The difference between them in every professorships are either royal or prithing that relates to the method of vate foundations. The king nomiteaching, and study. Among us, the nates for the several departments of lectures of the professors are the es- theology, law, and medicine, for the sential part of the whole system, but Hebrew language, the Greek lanin England these are almost entirely guage, and for natural history, only of inferior consideration. When the one professor. All other appointyoung student has left one of the ments have been founded and enpublic schools, such as Eton, West- dowed by private persons, and geneminster, or Harrow, and intends to rally bear the name of the founder. go to Oxford or Cambridge, he enters Thús in Oxford there is the Marin one of the colleges, becoming, ac- garet's-professorship, founded by cording as he may obtain a sti- Margaret of Richmond, mother of pendium, a scholar, exhibitioner, or Henry the Seventh; the Camdenian servitor; but if he lives upon his professorship of ancient history, own means, a nobleman, gentleman- founded by William Camden ; and commoner, or commoner. The name the Laudian professorship of Arabic, of student, instead of fellow, is used by Archbishop Laud. The same is in only one college, Christ Church, the case in Cambridge. Of any kind where it denotes the members on the of emulation or rivality between the foundation. Any person may live in professors, there is not even a thought. one of the colleges for three or four They are generally the only ones in years, without being required to at- their departments, and are little sotend the university lectures. Each licitous whether their lectures are college has a greater or less number attended or not. Notwithstanding of tutors, whose business it is partly this, one must pay for attendance, to give instruction themselves, and and there are few lectures to which partly to direct the private studies of there is free admission.
When, therefore, we consider the receiving instruction, the whole numEnglish Universities in a literary ber would not amount to more than point of view, it will appear evident, one a-day during a year, or in which, from what has been already observed, much disadvantage would not be how very far in this respect likewise found to have been occasioned by they differ from ours. In an English frequent interruptions. Besides, as
. University, one mạy ask in vain for a the qualifications of those who are list of the lectures. The catalogues candidates for official situations are of lectures in our Universities would extremely moderate, one powerful there produce a singular effect. A stimulus® is entirely taken away, great part of them would scarcely be which amongst us exerts a great inunderstood. Then, how entirely dif- fluence upon those whose ardour in ferent is the course of study! How the pursuit of knowledge we could entirely are they ignorant of the na- not well expect to be altogether disture of separate lectures upon the interested. "When, therefore, even different branches of theology, phi- in such a faulty constitution of things, losophy, jurisprudence, and their any distinguish themselves by real auxiliary sciences! How little value learning, as very many have done, is there in general attacheil either to this is unquestionably due rather to systematic method, or to universality their own meritorious exertions, than of knowledge! The young student's to be attributed to the merit of their advancement in knowledge, after his literary education. school education, and the direction Besides the above-mentioned exerto be given to his mind, almost en- cises, in order to obtain a general tirely depends upon one or two tutors, view of the employment of their to whom the head of the college may time, examinations are held at the recommend him on entrance. From end of the several terms, as they are these tutors, whom the young men called, in which the students must attend in their chambers, without the give an account of the authors they most rigid regularity of the hour, have read, and whatever they have and to whom they pay a considerable done besides. Prizes likewise of diffee, they receive instruction, together ferent kinds, which are proposed, exwith others who have made the same cite their emulation. After a resiprogress with themselves, for three dence of four years, the lowest or four years; they read ancient au- degree, that of bachelor of arts, is thors, and study a little philosophy, taken. mathematics, or physics. The tutor The strict adherence to ancient gives them assistance, prescribes forms and established customs, and them exercises, repeats these with the mutual rivality of different instithem, or requires an account of what tutions, which have so much influthey have read or prepared. The ence in preventing any deviation consequence of this will clearly be, from existing rules, in order that all that the indolent and the dull will cause of reproach may be avoided, make but little advancement. Many have unquestionably contributed English authors, who have them- greatly to maintain that strictness of selves lived in such colleges, have discipline which we have before dedeclared, that one had frequently scribed, while this has likewise prereason to be satisfied, if he had not served a certain character and cerunlearned at the University what he tain manners. It is evident, at the had brought to it from school (as is same time, that, while severe pufrequently the case amongst us), nishment may be sufficient to repress since so much depended upon the any public eruptions of insolence or circumstance, whether the tutors passion, it does not necessarily amewere not only experienced in teach- liorate the character, or render the ing, but whether they faithfully and manners pure and guileless; and he skilfully fulfilled their charge, and would betray the greatest ignorance whether the directing person had of human nature, especially in young sufficient influence and zeal to make men, who should consider the English them adhere to their duty. For Universities as the abodes of every there are not wanting cases, in which, virtue, and as preservatives against if we reckon the hours employed in all those moral aberrations, to which
the students are exposed in our Uni- means, as in other elections of memversities, which we call free. Every bers of parliament, every fellow or unprejudiced observer must confess, master may attain to that honour, and many sensible persons, with and even, inasmuch as he may bewhom I became acquainted there, come a bishop, may aspire to a seat did not deny, that there was no want and voice in the upper house. Hence of irregularities, and even of flagrant each of them has at all times mainoffences of every sort, although per- tained a certain political character, haps committed more cautiously and sometimes supporting the party of more secretly than among us; that the Whigs, and at other times that of even within those monastic walls the Tories. Enjoying likewise a free there dwelt indolence, and luxury; constitution, so long as they continue that the long vacation, and frequent faithful to their statutes, they are inresidences in the capital, favoured but dependent of the royal or ecclesitoo much that tendency; and that astical authority; and on this account even the severe judgment of Knox, their opinion has been on certain ocwho had been a member of St. John's casions expressed with great freeCollege, although embittered by his dom, and has not been without inprivate feelings, had not yet altoge- fluence. As, besides, the English conther lost its truth. Too little, cer- stitution finds its greatest support in tainly, in proportion to their number, the members of the episcopal church, is contributed to the advancement of the Universities, which are entirely the sciences by the ordinary mem- of the same church, are of the greatbers, in their happy and enviable est importance to the state. No one literary ease. The unprejudiced will who has not subscribed the thirtylook for the causes of this in their nine articles, the symbolical book of advantageous and delightfully tran- their church, whether or not he has quil condition itself, which, as for- duly weighed their contents, can merly in the rich convents, affords have the smallest participation in any too rich nourishment to indolence and of their rich livings, or look to any sensuality, to allow intellectual cul- office in a college, and cannot obtain tivation to flourish with the general even a professorship. Therefore, all number. Nor need this appear dissenters, in the widest sense of the strange to us, since in Germany also word, those who have not sworn to so many ecclesiastics, as soon as they the articles of that church, have their have obtained through a rich bene- own literary institutions and places fice a quiet and easy existence, either of education. In this respect, then, neglect entirely all cultivation of the Presbyterian Universities of Scotknowledge, or make cards the sub- land have preserved much more the stitutes for books; whilst others, character of real Christian freedom. animated by an inward impulse, From all that I have said of these having studied not merely for the remarkable establishments, in which sake of a livelihood, amidst hard op- I have studied to represent the real pression and sorrow of life, still re- truth, and abjure all intention of mismain faithful to the advancement of representation, it will appear suffiknowledge, and by their literary acti- ciently clear to any one, why they vity acquire to themselves deserved are, like the English schools, at one reputation. Probably, too, with many time blindly admired, and at another members of those Universities, the treated with the bitterest censure. lively interest which they take in po- This censure does not perhaps prolitical matters may be sufficient to ceed from the dissatisfaction felt at account for their little exertion in being excluded by a difference of literature; since, wherever political faith from the enjoyment of their rich ideas are dominant, it seldom happens livings and extensive emoluments ; that scientific knowledge is encou- for many even of their former memraged and promoted in the same pro- bers, who had the best opportunities portion. Each University has two re- of examining carefully the interior presentatives in parliament; and as arrangement of those institutions, are they elect these themselves, and that of the same opinion. Even German certainly without any corrupt influ- authors, who, like Meiners, represent ence, or the use of any unworthy the whole system of the English Uni