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When, therefore, we consider the receiving instruction, the whole numEnglish Universities in a literary ber would not amount to more than point of view, it will appear evident, one a-day during a year, or in which, from what has been already observed, much disadvantage would not be how very far in this respect likewise found to have been occasioned by they differ from ours. In an English frequent interruptions. Besides, as University, one may ask in vain for a the qualifications of those who are list of the lectures. The catalogues candidates for official situations are of lectures in our Universities would extremely moderate, one powerful there produce a singular effect. A stimulus is entirely taken away, great part of them would scarcely be which amongst us exerts a great inunderstood. Then, how entirely dif- fluence upon those whose ardour in ferent is the course of study! How the pursuit of knowledge we could entirely are they ignorant of the na- not well expect to be altogether disture of separate lectures upon the interested. When, therefore, even different branches of theology, phi- in such a faulty constitution of things, losophy, jurisprudence, and their any distinguish themselves by real auxiliary sciences! How little value learning, as very many have done, is there in general attached either to this is unquestionably due rather to systematic method, or to universality their own meritorious exertions, than of knowledge! The young students to be attributed to the merit of their advancement in knowledge, after his literary education. school education, and the direction Besides the above-mentioned exerto be given to his mind, almost en- cises, in order to obtain a general tirely depends upon one or two tutors, view of the employment of their to whom the head of the college may time, examinations are held at the recommend him on entrance. From end of the several terms, as they are these tutors, whom the young men called, in which the students must attend in their chambers, without the give an account of the authors they most rigid regularity of the hour, have read, and whatever they have and to whom they pay a considerable done besides. Prizes likewise of diffee, they receive instruction, together ferent kinds, which are proposed, exwith others who have made the same cite their emulation. After a resiprogress with themselves, for three dence of four years, the lowest or four years; they read ancient au- degree, that of bachelor of arts, is thors, and study a little philosophy, taken. mathematics, or physics. The tutor The strict adherence to ancient gives them assistance, prescribes forms and established customs, and them exercises, repeats these with the mutual rivality of different instithem, or requires an account of what tutions, which have so much influthey have read or prepared. The ence in preventing any deviation .consequence of this will clearly be, from existing rules, in order that all that the indolent and the dull will cause of reproach may be avoided, make but little advancement. Many have unquestionably contributed English authors, who have them- greatly to maintain that strictness of selves lived in such colleges, have discipline which we have before dedeclared, that one had frequently scribed, while this has likewise prereason to be satisfied, if he had not served a certain character and cerunlearned at the University what he tain manners. It is evident, at the had brought to it from school (as is same time, that, while severe pufrequently the case amongst us), nishment may be sufficient to repress since so much depended upon the any public eruptions of insolence or circumstance, whether the tutors passion, it does not necessarily amewere not only experienced in teach- liorate the character, or render the ing, but whether they faithfully and manners pure and guileless; and he skilfully fulfilled their charge, and would betray the greatest ignorance whether the directing person had of human nature, especially in young sufficient influence and zeal to make men, who should consider the English them adhere to their duty. For Universities as the abodes of every there are not wanting cases, in which, virtue, and as preservatives against if we reckon the hours employed in all those moral aberrations, to which

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the students are exposed in our Uni- means, as in other elections of memversities, which we call free. Every bers of parliament, every fellow or unprejudiced observer must confess, master may attain to that honour, and many sensible persons, with and even, inasmuch as he may bewhom I became acquainted there, come a bishop, may aspire to a seat did not deny, that there was no want and voice in the upper house. Hence of irregularities, and even of flagrant each of them has at all times mainoffences of every sort, although per- tained a certain political character, haps committed more cau sly and sometimes supporting the party of more secretly than among us; that the Whigs, and at other times that of even within those monastic walls the Tories. Enjoying likewise a free there dwelt indolence, and luxury; constitution, so long as they continue that the long vacation, and frequent faithful to their statutes, they are inresidences in the capital, favoured but dependent of the royal or ecclesitoo much that tendency; and that astical authority; and on this account even the severe judgment of Knox, their opinion has been on certain ocwho had been a member of St. John's casions expressed with great freeCollege, although embittered by his dom, and has not been without inprivate feelings, had not yet altoge- fluence. As, besides, the English conther lost its truth. Too little, cer- stitution finds its greatest support in tainly, in proportion to their number, the members of the episcopal Church, is contributed to the advancement of the Universities, which are entirely the sciences by the ordinary mem- of the same church, are of the greatbers, in their happy and enviable est importance to the state. No one literary ease. The unprejudiced will who has not subscribed the thirtylook for the causes of this in their nine articles, the symbolical book of advantageous and delightfully tran- their church, whether or not he has quil condition itself, which, as for- duly weighed their contents, can merly in the rich convents, affords have the smallest participation in any too rich nourishment to indolence and of their rich livings, or look to any sensuality, to allow intellectual cul- office in a college, and cannot obtain tivation to flourish with the general even a professorship. Therefore, all number. Nor need this appear dissenters, in the widest sense of the strange to us, since in Germany also word, those who have not sworn to 80 many ecclesiastics, as soon as they the articles of that church, have their have obtained through a rich bene- own literary institutions and places fice a quiet and easy existence, either of education. In this respect, then, neglect entirely all cultivation of the Presbyterian Universities of Scotknowledge, or make cards the sub- land have preserved much more the stitutes for books; whilst others, character of real Christian freedom. animated by an inward impulse,

From all that I have said of these having studied not merely for the remarkable establishments, in which sake of a livelihood, amidst hard op- I have studied to represent the real pression and sorrow of life, still re- truth, and abjure all intention of mismain faithful to the advancement of representation, it will appear suffiknowledge, and by their literary acti- ciently clear to any one, why they vity acquire to themselves deserved are, like the English schools, at one reputation. Probably, too, with many time blindly admired, and at another members of those Universities, the treated with the bitterest censure. lively interest which they take in po- This censure does not perhaps prolitical matters may be sufficient to ceed from the dissatisfaction fest at account for their little exertion in being excluded by a difference of literature; since, wherever political faith from the enjoyment of their rich ideas are dominant, it seldom happens livings and extensive emoluments ; that scientific knowledge is encou- for many even of their former memraged and promoted in the same pro- bers, who had the best opportunities portion. Each University has two re- of examining carefully the interior presentatives in parliament; and as arrangement of those institutions, are they elect these themselves, and that of the same opinion. Even German certainly without any corrupt influ- authors, who, like Meiners, represent ence, or the use of any unworthy the whole system of the English Uni


versities as requiring a radical trans- cumstances, occasioned by a differformation, and even do not hesitate ence of times, any pertinacious adto call them the sources of the most herence to ancient forms is always degeneral ignorance and immorality, do serving of blame, is evident; but, but repeat the very words of the at the same time, that, in an old English themselves, such as Knox, building, where every thing hangs and Gibbon, especially of that son of firm and fast together, the effect of earth (Terræ Filius), who treated Ox- any shaking of its walls, or disjointford with the same severe and bittering of its parts, must be extremely censure, as an anonymous person a- doubtful, is a truth confirmed by exmong us did the school of Pforta. perience, which, in most things, is That under an entire change of cir- the surest instructress.



ELEANOR (commonly called the damsel of Britain) sole daughter of Geoffrey, Earl of Britain, and only sister and heir of Earl Arthur, was sent into England by her uncle, King John, and imprisoned in Bristol castle, for no other crime than her title to the crown; but that was sufficient to make her liberty both suspected and dangerous. In durance there she prolonged her miserable life until the year of our Lord 1241, which was the 25th of King Henry III. at which time she died a virgin, and lieth buried in the church of the Nunnery at Ambresbury, unto which Monastery she gave the Manour of Melkesham with its appurtenances.

Sandford's Genealogical History of the Kings of England.

Printed in the Savoy, for the Author, 1677.
A quiet knell the convent bell

Of Ambersbury knollid;
And quietly the moonlight fell

On tower, and stream, and fold.
When towards the tower a shepherd old

A look of wonder cast,
As by the stream, and near his fold,

The sad procession past.
By pairs they came, the virgins all

Clad in snow-white array,
Save that a sable velvet pall

On the twain foremost lay.
Upon that cloth in golden woof

A regal crown was wrought:
The moon a watry glimpse thereof,

As if in sadness, caught.
On a grey stone the bier is laid,

Which soon that pall must hide;
And therein lies a royal maid

Who of long sadness died.
Ah, who can tell her heavy years,

Dragg'd on by Avon's side?
Ah, who can tell the scalding tears

She mingled with his tide?
How oft on Arthur's name she cried,

At the still midnight hour,
When nought but echo's voice replied

Amid the lonesome tower?

How oft she saw him, 'mid her dreams,

Now smiling on a throne,
Now struggling in the fatal streams,

Dash'd from the heights of Roan?
Nor of a crown alone debarr'd

She lost her rightful due,
But in the tyrant's jealous guard

Had pined a prisoner too.
The horsemen train have laid her down

Upon that stone so grey,
And homeward straight to Bristow town

They slowly wend their way.
At stated hour the virgins come

To meet the expected bier,
And circling stand amid the gloom

In silent love and fear.
The wondrous pile is gleaming nigh,

Believed by giant hands
Brought hither through the murky sky,

At Merlin's stern commands.
The moon, that labour'd through the cloud,

Shot sudden from a rift,
As their white arms the sable shroud

Upon the coffin lift.
No longer sinking, as before,

It flapp'd and idly hung,
But its full plaits extended o'er

Upon the coffin flung.
Toward the pall that shepherd old

A look of sorrow cast,
As down the stream, and by the fold,

Again the virgins past.
And now entomb’d, in lowly guise,

'Neath Ambersbury's floor, In holy peace for ever lies

The saintly Eleanor.
In Worcester’s dome the tyrant king,

Reclined by Severn's wave,
Hears the stoled priests their anthem sing

Around his gorgeous grave.
3o long the vengeful demons sleep;

But when the strain is done,
Once more in furious mood they leap

Upon the heart of John.
His princely son the sceptre sways:

In vain it fills his hand :
Distrust, and dread, and pale amaze,

Pursue him through the land.
’Neath Ambersbury's floor she lies:

Her slumbers there are sweet,
For Arthur's spirit comes and cries;

-In joy at last we meet.

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HALIDON HILL, BY SIR WALTER SCOTT.* The day seems drawing to a close vours all other inferior enchantments. for dramatic composition and dra- Thus the dramatic poet has to promatic enjoyment. If the fair, the ceed by rule and pattern; and the gay, and the gallant, who fill the lets and incumbrances are so great seats of our theatres, have a whim- and manifold, that the native powers sical taste, and capricious fancy-are of the English mind have not free much too wise, and by far too critical, exercise in dramatic composition. to be readily pleased-it must be There are many lesser causes which owned that they are seldom presented combine to occasion the fall of the with aught but cold, timid, and cor- drama- the total scorn with which rect productions; where there are the town regards all superstitious befew faults, and few excellencies, and liefs, and supernatural influences, is little of the bold manly character, not the least; even the Author of and fresh and glowing language, Waverley was obliged to find a wild of our elder dramatists. Most of the Northumbrian nurse for his young higher poetical spirits of the age, citizen, Francis Osbaldistone, to one after another, have seceded elevate the youth to the level of rofrom the stage in scorn or in pity; mantic history. The town is a merry Southey, it is true, has remained si- and a pleasant place; the region of lent; but Lord Byron speaks out wits, and parodists, and punsters; with proud and undisguised con- where amusement is wrung from the tempt; and the poet of Halidon Hill most obstinate words, and merriment says, that his dramatic sketch is in no from the most perverse appellations; particular either designed or calcu- and an innocent and useful name is lated for the stage, and that any at- hunted down through fifty wicked tempt to produce it in action will be meanings, and pursued like the viat the peril of those who make the zier's spouse into many strange transexperiment. A legion of lesser spi- formations. All this is exceedingly rits have preceded or followed this delightful ; but it is not the best way defection of the higher powers; each to prepare one for the natural, the lifting up his voice against being superstitious, the romantic, and nacarted across the stage, and insulted tive beauties of the drama. in his last moments by dramatic exe- When we look back, we are surcutioners, and a critical and capri- prised at the multitude of dramatic cious crowd. They have found out miscarriages; a correct and a wella far safer and surer way to equitable told story fails from the want of glow, judgment and fame, than trusting to animation, and original freshness of the hazardous presentment of the the characters and language; while characters they draw, by the heroes others, seemingly possessed in an emiof the sock and buskin, and to the nent degree of those rare and shining dubious and captious shout of the qualities, owe their oblivion to the pit and the galleries.

want of a clear and obvious plot, and One cause of the unwillingness of a regular succession of visible and authors to approach the public, well-connected action. That Halithrough the limited avenue of the don Hill is a native, heroic, and chistage, is the necessity of chipping valrous drama, clear, brief

, and and shaping the story, and casting moving in its story-full of pictures, and drawing thecharacters, according living and breathing, and impressed to the will or the vanity of actors. with the stamp of those romantic The craving of each for an important and peculiar times, and expressed in and characteristic part is equal to the language rich and felicitous, must be demand of the insubordinate spirits felt by the most obtuse intellect: yet of Michael Scott for employment, we are not sure that its success would while the monopolizing spirit of the be great on the stage, if for the stage favourite of the hour demands a it had been ever designed. The part, which, like Aaron's rod, de- beauties by which it charms and en


* Halidon Hill, a dramatic Sketch, by Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 8vo.

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