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sent at the time when they elevate the host, I have never bent a knee, a thing which many strangers scruple not to doe, the contrary being not without danger sometimes from the rudeness of the people. I have declined all intimacy with prelates and cardinals, passing my life much alone, either at home or taking the sun abroad. I have never been with the Pope, tho' sollicited to it by the offer of a treatment equall, if not more, than any of my rank have had. In my discourse among our countrymen, I have never omitted to expose the folly and superstition of that religion, infinitely more ridiculous here than it is in England or France; and to the Italians themselves I have done the same, as much as good manners and the Inquisition have allowed me to declare. Whoever is so stupid as to consider no further in Religion than outward shew, will be in danger to be charmed by this practised here. Their churches, the musick, illuminations, shews, and scenes delight the ear and ey beyond our operas. But whoever reflects that Religion is intended for something more solid, will never be satisfy'd by that bigotry and superstition calculated onely for outward appearance, and not in the least to correct human passions, and make men better. Í hope such an occasion will never again offer to shew my zeal for the maintenance of the Protestant religion, as that I did once not decline in king James's reign. But if ever it should, I assure you I shall be as forward to expose my fortunes and life in it's defence, as I was in the year 1688. It may be objected, why of all places, I chose Rome to stay so long in? my answer is, (Venice excepted, where, I fear, the moyst air will not agree with me) That the Pope's dominion is the least popish of any in Italy. In most other towns, I know by experience or enquiry, that knowing my pare ticular circumstances, they would make a difficulty to converse with me. Here they are less scrupulous in that point, tho’ very many I am sure, have declined it upon that account. If Portugall, by reason of the long voyage by sea, and France and Spain had not been impracticable for the war, I had never come into Italy; and in letters and discourse I have often lamented, that there is no where in Europe a Protestant country favor'd with the warm sun, a blessing the circumstances of my health so much want. I am not without hopes to have so better'd my health, that I may at my return be able to endure the air of my own country; and I would not spoil what I have taken so much pains and care to establish by exposing myself to a cold climate in the rigorous part of the year. So I resolve to see the worst of the winter over, before I quit Italy.
I ask your Lordship’s pardon for so long a trouble, which I should not have done, but that transported by the subject I write upon, I have said more than I designed, and if you find any body that this malicious insinuation has had any influence on, you will oblige me in showing them what I now write, or answering for me that I am incapable of so much baseness. And be assur'd that the whole course of my life shall shew me, if not a good Protestant, at least a true one, and, my Lord,
Your Lordship's most faithfull
and obedient servant,
SHREWSBURY. When James II. attempted to as- was William without a just sense of sume an arbitrary power, the Duke, his value, for on the landing of that then Earl, of Shrewsbury, was one of Prince, the Earl of Shrewsbury was the first peers who went over to the the person on whose opinion he Prince of Orange, whom he assisted chiefly acted; his declaration was in not only with his presence and coun-. great measure drawn up by his Lordsel, but with his purse also; for he ship's advice ; and he was, immediborrowed twelve thousand pounds in ately on the Prince and Princess being order to support the cause, and re- declared King and Queen of England, signed the command of a regiment of sworn one of the privy-council, and horse, which had been bestowed upon appointed sole principal secretary of him by James. This is what he al- state. The latter office he retained ludes to in the letter just quoted ; nor only a short time, for, not approving
some of the court measures, he re- his servants into the room, and telling șigned in 1690, but was again re- them, that let his physicians say what called to it in 1693. It was said of they would, he was sure he could him, that “he was always a courtier not live, desired, if death should as long as he was persuaded the carry him off suddenly, they would court acted for the interest of the do justice to his memory, by decountry, but whenever a step was claring, as he then did, that he died taken there which he thought against in the communion of the Church of that interest, he went out of the England. And on the very day he greatest offices with as much ease expired, he begged his Duchess and as he shifted his clothes.”
the Physician to go to dinner, and The Duke of Shrewsbury died on come and chat with him when they the first of February, 1718, in his had done; but before the dinner was fifty-eighth year. A few days pre- over, he had breathed his last. viously to his death, he sent for all
IT'S HAME AND IT'S HAME.
BY ALLAN CUNNINGHAM,
The following Song is noticed in the introduction to the Fortunes of Nigel, and part of it is sung by Richie Moniplies. It is supposed to come from the lips of a Scottish Jacobite exile—the chorus is old.
IT'S HAME AND IT'S HAME.
0, ame, hame, hame to my ain countree;
O hame, hame, hame to my ain countree;
O hame, hame, hame to my ain countree;
O hame, hame, hame to my ain countree;
POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS OF THE SWEDES. The people of Sweden, whether care is to be taken not to cut any high or low, are all particularly given down, especially those that are old. to tales of ghosts and spirits; with Many, who have neglected this cauthe latter, indeed, they are not only tion, have been punished for it by a passion as an entertainment, but a some incurable disease. serious matter of belief. A sufficient If any one has a sickness, the cause proof too that such superstitions are of which is beyond the intelligence not always confined to the common of the common people, it is immediclass may be found in the general ately believed to have originated in credence that was given, even in the guardian-spirit where he was Stockholm, to the dream of Charles first taken ill, or supposed that he XI. which with us, and in the pre- was so; hence the common expresa sent day, would be considered as the sion“ he has met with something mere creation of delirium. But with evil in the air,-in the water,-in the the peasant, such a belief seems to be field.” In such cases, it is essential a part of his habitual thinking; and to mollify the Nisse, which may be even the postilion will entertain his done thus: pour some liquid into a traveller on the journey with the goblet, and mix with it the filings of tales of his popular superstition. a bride-ring, or of silver, or of any These are perhaps more numerous metal that has been inherited, taking with the Swede than with the pea- care that the odd number, particularsant of any other country, each ele- ly the trine, be observed. With this ment having its peculiar spirits, and mixture, you go to the place where each spirit having some legend of love the man was supposed to be taken ill, or terror attached to his existence; and pour it over the left shoulder, but to make the subject more intelli- but you must not look round nor utter gible, it will be requisite to treat of a syllable. If there is any doubt as each class in its order.
to the place, the liquid must then be The Swedish word Troll is very poured out at the door-post, or on undefined; properly speaking it means some ant-hill.
, the little wood-and-mountain spirits; In addition to the belief in these but it is also applied, in a more gene things, which seems to be the peculiar ral sense, to the whole race of super- growth of the country, the Swedes natural beings in their various forms have the usual tales of dwarfs and and attributes. The wood-and-wa- giants, and the night-mare, and drater sprites are known more particu- gons whose office it is to watch conlarly under the names of Skogara and cealed treasures. Nor is there any Sjora, little beings that milk the want with them of elves or fairies, cows and lame the horses; but, if the lightest and prettiest creations of any thing of iron is cast over them, the popular superstition of the North! their power to work mischief ceases. Eļ, (in the plural
, Elfwor,) in its The cattle may be also secured from original and limited acceptation, sigthem by hiding garlic or assafoetida nifies a river-sprite; and hence, every about their heads.
great river is called Elf; for instance, Amongst the spirits that have most Gota Elf. Most probably too, the to do with the human race, the German river Elbe has taken its Kobolds play a conspicuous part. name from the same word, though They dwell in and about the habita- lost to the Saxon language by the tions of men, on which account they course of time; at all events, it is not are commonly called Tomtegubbar of French origin, as is evident from a (sing. Tomtegubbe, i. e. the old wo- remark in one of the French dictionman of the hearth), and sometimes aries under the head “ Alphes;-Chez Tomtebisar, and Nisse god drang, i.e. lez anciens peuples du Nord ; être Nisse good-lad, because they help the aerien, qui n'existe que dans les ima family in all its difficulties. These ginations du bas peuple en Suede." swarm in the lofty trees that grow (Alphes—in use amongst the ancient pear houses ; on which account great people of the North-an aerial being that exists only in the imaginations of custom of the peasants to taunt him the lower classes in Sweden.) with mocking verses, singing,
The mythology of these little be- Neck, Neck, you thief, you're on the land, ings is nearly the same among the but I'm in the water; Swedes as it was with ourselves about a century ago ; and when the and on coming out of the water again, Swedish peasant sees a circle marked they took back the metal, reversing
the words, out on the morning grass, he attributes it to the midnight dances of the Neck, Neck, you thief, I'm on the land, fairies. · With them, as with us,
but you're in the water.
Such mischievous beings, as well O'er the dewy green,
as magic animals, are not to be callBy the glow-worm's light,
ed by their own names, but by euDance the elves of night,
phemisms, or by slight allusions to Unheard, unseen;
In Yet where their midnight pranks have been, their peculiar characteristics. The circled turf will betray to-morrow.
beating cats, or speaking crossly to
them, their names must not be plainly Sometimes, however, the night spoken out, for they belong to the wanderer is unlucky enough to enter infernal host, and have acquaintances into their charmed circle, and then amongst the Bergtroll in the mounthey instantly become visible to him, tains, whom they visit frequently, and play him a thousand tricks; but The cuckoo, the owl, and the pie, always more in waywardness than are also birds of supernatural powers, in malice, for they are not really mis- and great care is to be taken how chievous. Their voice, too, is said you speak tð them, or you run the to be as gentle as the murmuring of risk of being choked. They are not the air ; and, indeed, the only point to be killed either without good reain which they are not quite so poeti- son, for their adherents might revenge 'cal as the English fairy is the place their deaths. But it is still more of their dwelling, which, instead of dangerous to harm toads, for enbeing a cowslip-bell, is the hollow of chanted princesses are often hidden a round little stone, called an elf in them; and many, who have nemill.
glected this caution, have been struck The fable of the spirit called lame for their temerity, without Strömkari
less beautiful, either fall or blow. If you speak of though belonging to another element. the Trollpack (the witch host), you According to the old belief, he sits in must name fire and water, and the his blue depths, playing constantly name of the church that you belong on the harp; and when any children to; this prevents them from doing any by chance have seen him in his lone- injury. The weasel must not be ly waters, they have always had from called weasel, but Aduine ; the fox him the gift of harnony, for he him- you must call Blue-foot, or, he who self lives in one eternal music. He runs in the woods; the wolf, Greywill play, too, by lakes and streams, foot, or, Gold-foot ; and the bear, the to the dancing of the elves, who, on Old-man, or, the Grandfather. With his account, generally choose the these precautions you may shoot river-meads for the place of their them, and they lose the power of midnight revelling, a superstition in- harming you. finitely more beautiful than the Children born on a Sunday can sweetest of Greece or Rome.
see spirits, and tame the dragon The Skogara is a spirit of a darker who is said to watch over hidden nature, whose cry is often heard at treasures. Even the horse is a pronight in the woods; on such occa- phetic animal; should he neigh much sions you must answer it by calling when a bride is entering the church, out He! which prevents its doing you she is supposed not to be a virgin. any injury.
The same inference is drawn in her The Neck is no less evil; but he disfavour if the strings of the harp, belongs to the water; and formerly that is played before her, happen to those who intended to bathe used break too frequently. first to charm him by flinging any A Tomtegubbe is generally imathing metallic into the stream ; at gined in the shape of a deformed such times of security, it was the dwarf, whose favourite colour is
grey,—that is, as applied to his own the merriment of the time, a fresh person, for he cannot bear it in course was ordered, but even then it others, and hence the grey cattle of was evident that more mouths were some places never prosper. But a at work than were visible. Still no good Tomtegubbe is a friendly crea- notice was taken of this astonishing ture, who protects the house in all its consumption of the meats, except dangers, and often does the work of by an old knight, who happened to the servants when they sleep too long have more courage, as well as more o' mornings. This superstition ex- wit, than his neighbours. He listtends even to Stockholm; and if one ened attentively, till he heard a of these spirits is visible any where munching at the table, as if so in the evening, something extraor- many pigs were eating at a trough, dinary is expected ; according to the whereupon he mounted his horse, popular belief, they have always been and rode to a neighbouring mounseen roaming disquietedly about the tain, the abode of a kindly spirit, to royal castles, and the parts adjacent, whom he said, “ Lend me thy cap, on the eve of any of those revolutions and take mine in pledge for it.” The so frequent in Swedish history. I mountain spirit made answer, and once, during my residence at Stock- said, “I will lend it to thee, but holm, had a convincing proof of the promise me to return it before set of prevalence of this superstition, when sun.” The knight promised, they. a multitude was actually collected exchanged caps, and he returned about a house, under the idea that a with this prize on his head, which, Tomtegubbe had crept in, and was while it made himself invisible, openstill sitting there. To get rid of the ed his eye to the unearthly beings crowd, an examination took place, that were sitting among the guests, and it then turned out that a boy in cramming themselves as fast as they grey clothes had for this once been could from the dishes before them. mistaken for a spirit.
On these he fell might and main, Words connected with Troll, Hel- with his whip, flogging them on the vete (Hell), and Diefvul (Devil), al- hands till not one dared to move a ways express something great and finger, and then turned them head daring; as for instance," the water- over heels out of the chamber. falls of Trollhatta ;” and indeed this Having settled this, he took off his part of the subject deserves more cap to become visible to the guests, attention than our narrow limits will and said, “ Hitherto the devil has allow of; as it is, we must content been feeding with you; now sit down ourselves with giving one tale, illus- to your dinner in peace, and I am trative of the Swedish superstitions, your guest instead.” And they sate though, independent of that, it has down and ate in peace, and, after the very little merit either to the scholar expulsion of the unbidden guests, or to the novel reader.
there was still much meat remaining. A rich peasant, who lived in a vil- Towards evening the knight relage of the southern Bahus-Lan, turned to the mountain, flung off the was celebrating his daughter's mar- cap in the place where he had reriage. The tables were covered, the ceived it, and set off again at a hard meat served up, and the guests were gallop. Scarcely, however, had he conversing together in expectation of turned his horse's head about, than their host's arrival, when on a sudden a whole rout of goblins were after they perceived that the dishes va- him, and had just caught the tip of nished. At the same moment too the animal's tail,t to pull him into the host entered, and, seeing this, the abyss, when he got to a bridge. exclaimed : “ Why, the fiend has But the good horse was too quick been here and eaten up our dinner!” for them; he got safely over the That he might not, however, disturb bridge, and the goblins fell back again.
* These caps were said to render the wearer himself invisible, while they made him capable of seeing the world of spirits. They were supposed to be the peculiar property of the mountain gnomes. According to the German superstition, the dwarf lost his power with his cap, and became the servant of him who was fortunate enough to get possession of it. There is a beautiful story on this subject in Arndt's Tales, called, The Nine Mountains at Rambin.
+ This will, no doubt, strongly remind every one of Tam O'Shanter's mare.