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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, &c. Italy.--An interesting work by Ripetti has been found to answer its intended purpose appeared at Florence, entitled Sopra l'Alpe exceedingly well, in making trigonometriApuana ed i Mormi di Carrara, a Dissercal observations, but obviates the inconvetation on the Apuan Alp and the Quarries of nience of making the operations by night. Carrara, illustrated with a map. This Poland.- The great Polish poet, Jan country is now remarkable as the great Woronicz, Bishop of Cracow, whose nastorehouse from which is obtained the finest tional epic, Assarmos (which appeared in material for sculpture. The work is divided 1818), is so noble an ornament to the into four sections, treating of the geology, literature of his country, has fitted up the topography, chemical mineralogy, and his. episcopal palace at Cracow as a museum for tory of this district.

Polish antiquities. The collection is ar. The Cavalier Vacani is about to publish ranged in the separate lalls of this vast a history of the military actions of the Ita- edifice, according to different periods and lians in Spain, Storia delle Campagne ed ages. Many of these apartments are em. Assedi degli Italiani in Ispagna del anno bellished with paintings, the subjects of 1808 al 1813, in 4to. illustrated with maps which are taken from the Assarmos, and and plans. Memorie sulla Vita e sulle from the ancient Polish mythology. A Opere di Hassc detto il Sassone. Cenni catalogue raisonnè has been published. Storici-Critici salle Vicende, die della Mue Corrosive Sublimate.Dr. Taddei has sica in Italia di F.S. Kandler, has been pub. discovered, that gelatine mixed with corrolished at Naples, and, although a work of sive sublimate renders it innoxious. He inconsiderable extent, is valuable from the gave 12 grains of it to two rabbits, and information it contains. It is dedicated they did not exhibit any symptom of have to the King of Naples, and embellished ing suffered from it in the least degree; with portraits of Hasse and Faustina Bou. whereas a single grain of the sublimate, doni. The author exhibits to us Ilasse's administered in its pure form, was sufficient brilliant career for more than fifty years, re- to kill them. The injurious effects of a Jates all the remarkable events of his life, grain of sublimate are neutralized by 25 and gives a catalogue of his theatrical com- grains of fresh, or by 13 grains of dry, positions, oratorios, pieces of sacred music, gelatine. &c. He then examines his characteristics Natural History.-A most perfect and and merits as a composer, and shows how beautiful specimen of the hippopotamus has greatly he contributed towards perfecting lately been added to the extensive and inthe orchestra, the influence he had on his teresting museum of Joshua Brook, Esq. age, and the rank which he deserves to hold. This is the first time the animal has ever -The Vision of Alberico, a manuscript of been exhibited in London in an entire state, which has been discovered in the libra. no other part than the head having hitherto ry of the ancient convent of Monte Cassino, been brought over. is preparing for publication. From this It has been discovered that the operwork, which was written about the begin. culum, or lid that covers the mouth of ning of the 12th century, Dante is sup- many shells, serves to distinguish the vaposed to have taken the idea of his Divina rious classes, and materially to assist the Vormmedia. It relates the vision of a pea- conchologist in determining to what fasant of the village of Settefrati, in the mily they belong. Thus, in the cyclosdistrict of Atina, who continues in a trance tyma and turbo the operculum is spiral; for nine entire days, during which he sup- in the paludiria regularly annulated, and poses himself to be conducted by St. Peter in the murices irregularly annulated. Of through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. these families cach has different habits;

Heliotrope.- Professor Gauss, of Gottin. the first lives upon land, the second in the gen, having remarked, while making some sea, the third in fresh water, and the fourth trigonometrical observations, that the reflec- is marine and carnivorous. tion of the sun upon a window was visible Bistrom.— This sculptor (of whom some at the distance of seven miles, was induced account was given in our third volume) has to make some experiments, by which he as- finished a groupe, representing Harmony, certained, that a small mirror, not more with Hymen and Cupid reposing on her than 2 or 3 inches in diameter, is sufficient bosom. The first holds a lyre in her hand ; to reflect the sun 10 German miles, or even the second, a fascinating youth, entwines more. This discovery is of great import- his delicate arms around his brother, while ance in measuring large triangles, the me- a slight, playful smile is perceptible on his thod now adopted being to fix, at night, lips, and indicates the nature of his slumseveral Argand lamps, with reflectors, at bers. Hymen is more serene and tranthe place which is intended to be observed quil. The goddess contemplates them with from a great distance. In consequence a lively expression of maternal affection. of what he had observed, the professor This fine groupe forms a satisfactory comconstructed an instrument which he has panion to the artist's former one of Juno named the Heliotrope ; this has not only and Hercules.


The accounts from Greece present but the current rumour is that the the same picture which we have Sovereigns do not take their deparplaced before our readers since the ture for Italy till the middle of Sepcommencement of this contest; on tember, which would necessarily dethe one side, a brave people nobly lay the opening of Congress till the struggling for the recovery of their latter end of October. It is a sinindependence, rising with renewed gular fact, that the high allied powers courage from defeat and disaster, and have issued a preparatory mandate, in the midst of Christian Europe, excluding from Verona, during their without an ally or a friend, sustaining temporary residence there, every the cause of letters, liberty, and reli- stranger who is not either attached gion, against the concentrated fury to, or in possession of, a protection of barbarism and superstition !-On from some of the diplomatic body. the other, their oppressors, fired by Before his departure from Petersthe spirit of tyranny and revenge, burgh, Alexander issued an imperial recruiting their diminished ranks by rescript to the Minister of the inteexhaustless numbers, and avenging rior, commanding the immediate supeach defeat by reiterated cruelties. pression of all secret societies, but How long is Christendom to endure particularly of the Freemason body; the disgrace of such a spectacle! the reason he gives for this is, that Since our last, the destruction of the “ he may create a firm bulwark Turkish fleet' has been followed up against every thing that is injurious by the memorable defeat of their to the empire, and especially at a army, under Chourschid, in the clas- time like the present, when unhappily sical defile of Thermopylæ, where so many states offer sad examples of the Greeks are said to have almost the ruinous consequences of the phirivalled the glories of Leonidas. We losophical subtleties now in vogue." are sorry to say, however, that this The rescript is particular and severe. success has been more than counter. It ordains, 1st, that all secret societies balanced by the loss of Corinth, the (and particularly Freemasons), under key of the Isthmus. This blow was at whatever name they exist, shall be first represented as a fatal and a final closed, and the establishment not alone to the Greek cause; their troops lowed; 2d, that all the members of were said to have been paralyzed, such societies, as soon as they shall be and their senate dispersed; in this informed of this measure, shall engage emergency, however, a last effort in writing to take no part henceforseems to have been determined on ward, under any pretext, in any seby the provisional government, which cret society, under whatever wellimmediately issued a proclamation, meaning name it may exist, either in ordering a levy en masse of all the the empire or in foreign countries, Greek population between sixteen and and under various other regulations, sixty, procuring an instant accession all officers, either civil or military, of 30,000 troops, who had hemmed who do not strictly conform to this in the barbarians in Corinth, not document are to be dismissed from without sanguine hopes of recovering their employments, and incapacitated that important fortress.

from ever hereafter serving the state ! In the mean time, the Grand Con- We hope that his Grace of Wellinggress of the European powers at ton, who has departed for Verona, Verona approaches. The Emperor will keep it a Freemason-secret from Alexander arrived at Vienna on the Alexander that his refractory British Tth of September, attended by a ally actually laid by proxy, during suite much more numerous than the summer, in Scotland, the first usual. The Emperor of Austria re- stone of one of these anti-imperial paired to Wolkersdorf to meet his lodges, and that his royal brother the august visitor, who, however, at his Duke of Sussex followed the illusown request, entered Vienna without trious example personally in the any public ceremony. It is uncer- north of England. tain what stay his Russian Majesty In Spain the beloved Ferdinand may make in the Austrian capital; has finally resigned himself into the hands of the Constitutional adminis- Emperor of the United Kingdom and tration. His favourites, the Arch- me King of Brazil.” Such is the bishop of Saragossa, and the Bishops pith of the letter. Under these cirof Malaga and Ceuta, are sentenced cumstances the Portuguese Cortes tobanishment; the Duke del Infantado have issued an address to the people is exiled to the Canaries, and other of the Brazils, offering them a full parpowerful Grandees to Ibiza and Se- ticipation in the advantages of their ville. In addition to this, the Gene newly acquired constitutional sys. ral Don Francisco Laviec Elio, the tem, the residence of a local regal persecuting Ultra Champion of Van authority in their country, and those lencia, has suffered death by the numerous blessings which must result garotte. This is the second trial and from the union of the countries. condemnation of Elio; but on the first From France the intelligence is of occasion the congenial spirit of the such a nature as, from recent events, then predominant authority saved might have been expected--the de him. "On the 28th of August the velopment of fresh plots against the new administration presented a writ- existing government, counteracted by ten demand to the King for the con- such practices on their part, that it vocation of the Extraordinary Cortes, would be more than wonderful if 'as the only means of giving confidence such plots did not exist. Of this the to the nation amid surrounding dis- trial of Berton and his associates at orders. The demand has been of Poitiers presents a memorable incourse complied with, and the Cortes stance. We might say the mock stand convoked for the 25th of Sept. trial, for certainly a greater mockery Not in Madrid alone, however, does was never exhibited in any Court of the Constitutional spirit seem to be Justice; at least, according to our triumphant. Espinosa and Mina, antiquated English notions of juriswith large bodies of regular troops, prudence. When Berton was put are advancing into the disturbed dis- upon his trial, and on a charge sotricts. The Trappist, in an attempt lemnly affecting his life, he naturally to join Quesada, has been overtaken, selected an advocate in whom he routed, and obliged to fly, with the placed confidence, to defend him. loss of all his baggage, artillery, and But not only was this just request ammunition. Quesada himself, with refused, but a young advocate, who the army of the faith, has been com- never held a brief before, and who pletely defeated near Jaca.

loudly protested his incompetence to In Portugal, on the 26th of Au- the task, was forced upon the acgust, the King laid hefore the Cor- cused, in defiance of his vehement tes two letters, which he had re- remonstrances ! The progress of ceived from the Prince Regent of the this proceeding was worthy its com· Brazils, by which it appears, that mencement. The Advocate-general the King, anticipating, no doubt, the seems to have acted all through with ordeal he was to undergo in Portugal, sufficient zeal. His struggle was advised the Prince to shift for himself two-fold ; first, to convict the acin his American dominions. Accord-cused, and next, if possible, to imingly the Prince now dutifully an- plicate some of the leading Liberals nounces the approaching separation in their alleged treason. For this lat-of' the Brazils from the mother coun- ter purpose every mention of the names try; and declares his intention of fol- La Fayette, B.Constant, General Foy, lowing the paternal advice. The pas- Manuel, Lafitte, and Voyer d'Au*sage is really curious—" Under these genson, made by the conspirators, in circumstances," says he, “ recollects the absence of the parties thus sought ing what your Majesty said to me in to be involved, was studiously elicitRio, that in case of a separation it ed, and sedulously dwelt on. Upon would be better that ) should be with these persons, it was said, the conspithat kingdom, rather than an adven- rators had fixed as a provisional goturer, I have adhered to what the in- vernment, in case of success; and habitants of Brazil wished, the greater the casual acquaintance which, from part of the provinces having already his rauk in life, General Berton might recognized me as their perpetual de- very innocently have had with them, fender, and having made manifest was assigned as strongly suspicious. their desire to proclaim your Majesty The conclusions of the Advocate-ge

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neral, drawn from such premises, They were then sentenced to imare admirable,-“ Moral proofs," prisonment for various periods, from said he, “ abound in the cause, but a year downwards,—to very consithe material proofs are wanting !derable fines, and to exclusion from -The Court then called upon M. the publication of any judicial proDrault, the young Advocate to whom ceeding whatever for a certain term. 'we have alluded, to proceed with In such a state of the French press the defence of Berton. M. Drault the only wonder is, how it gives us declined the office, inasmuch as he even the feeble glimmering by which had not only not been selected, but we can discern the surface of the rejected by the accused. This raised country. the wrath of the Advocate-general, Our domestic intelligence this who foresaw that the whole proceeds month is of very little interest. The ings against Berton must become nul- principal topic is the change which Jified by the French law, if it should has taken place in the ministry, in appear upon the record that he was consequence of the death of Lord not defended by Counsel. In this Londonderry. His place has been dilemma the President interfered, supplied by Mr. Canning, who, of and called on the Advocate to pro- course, relinquishes the government ceed. M. Drault's reply does him of India. It would be useless here honour: “ I declare from my soul,” to recount all the flying rumours said he, “ that I would rather be sa- which preceded this event, the princrificed myself, than sacrifice the in- cipal of which were the obstacles terest of the accused-in fact, I am which rendered it unlikely. A dounot prepared for his defence under ble antipathy, on the part of the such circumstances !"--The Court Lord Chancellor and a higher personwas then adjourned for three quarters age, was assigned as insurmountable. of an hour, in order that the elder However, if such really existed, it members of the bar might advise has been overcome. One of the their colleague. But M. Drault great sources of discontent, on the would not learn, even from the more part of the Chancellor, was said experienced, that the best way to to be Mr. Canning's adherence to the rise in his profession was to sacrifice Roman Catholic question; how this his principles, and he deliberately re- has been got rid of, the next session fused. The consequence was, that will show. The other was some verbal he was afterwards struck off the list skirmishing about the New Marriage of Advocates, for not doing that Act, and in this we are bound to say which, if he had condescended to do, the Chancellor seems to have been he ought to have been proscribed right in his doubts. From all parts of from the society of every man of con- the country there is an universal outscience. Berton indignantly declaim- cry against its continuance; and Scoted upon the injustice with which he land and Ireland are become the was treated.

The result was a con- scenes of many an unlooked-for hoviction; but Berton has appealed neymoon in consequence.

In one to the Court of Cassation, on the week there landed in Dublin no less ground of informality; and there than twenty-three pair of candidates seems to be little doubt that he must for wedlock, who preferred even have a new trial. The editors of the the love-repelling sympathy of seaConstitutionnel, the Courier Fran- sickness, to the “ standing rubric" çais, the Journal du Commerce, and upon a church-door, and swearing the Pilote, all Liberal papers, were themselves by wholesale out of their summoned before the Court of Assize“ single blessedness.” It is quite at Paris, and charged with untrue clear that the act can only survive reports of the proceedings in the till the commencement of the session. case of the Rochelle conspiracy. The We are sorry to hear that the cares Editors offered to prove, by credible of the new arrangements are said to witnesses upon oath, the truth of have preyed considerably upon his their reports; but this was refused, Majesty's health, and to have caused on the ground that the accusation of a great depression of his spirits. the Attorney-general was quite suf- 25 Sept. ficient proof of their culpability.


OCTOBER 1, 1822.

AGRICULTURAL REPORT. There is something like a pause in the the increased consumption which a low state of landed property and of farming price of subsistence and active employment produce which indicates an uncertainty of the manufacturing population occasions, a suspension, as it were, between hopes and which will ultimately tend to raise the fears. The undecided question, as to the price. He has now the complete monotrue relation of domestic growth to demand poly of the home market, and now or never -the impossibility of ascertaining, even will the effects of the depression in driving with an approach to truth, whether the vast poor soils out of cultivation be seen. Cerimportations of the years 1817-1818 have tain it is, that the provincial newspapers yet ceased to affect the market - the were never so full of advertisements for the abundance of four successive harvests—and, disposal of farms and farming property as finally, the early period at which this last at present. In one of the Norfolk papers year's crop has been brought into consump- (the Norwich Mercury) there were, during tion all these circumstances render the each of the three last weeks, not less than possible advance or depression in wheat a 150 of this nature this too, in one of matter of the greatest doubt, while there the most opulent agricultural districts ! is a struggle between necessity and hope, The excess above common years in the that in some instances forces the production ordinary course of time may be taken at of the farm to sale, and in others pro- one-third of the whole number. duces a desire to withhold as long as possi. The writer of this article has known, at ble. There never was a time perhaps when no reniote period, no less than fifty-four opinion was so completely unsettled and applications made for one farm of no pecuunformed. We know merchants in the liar excellence roithin four days after it was out-ports who are at this moment actually announced to be vacant. Now the columns speculating in wheat on the following prin. of the newspapers are occupied by “ farms ciple. The capital set loose by the depres- to let.” The consequence, not the least sion of the general price of commodities destructive, is the enormous depression wants employment, and the choice of the which attends the sale of stock; for alcapitalist falls upon wheat this year; first, though where one man goes out another on account of the excellence of the quality ; comes in, generally speaking, yet no one and secondly, from a belief that things can cares to buy, because every one knows if go no lower; therefore if a profit be not he be not supplied to-day at one sale, he realised, no loss is likely to be incurred; can be to-morrow at another. This aug. while the mere act of buying for specula- ments the tenant's loss in a way neither felt tion will, probably, by withholding a con- nor computed by the landlord. siderable quantity from the central market All these facts demonstrate how mo(the metropolis), raise the price. This mode mentous will be the transactions of this of reasoning will consequently affect both year upon the general bearing of the agri. the supply and the price for a time at least cultural question, at the sam etime, proving -perhaps till Christmas, and thus add that the grand changes wrought by dimipro tempore to the uncertainty as to final nished price are now only beginning to and general results. Wheat is now reduced operate upon an extended scale. From this se nearly to the continental level, that it we infer that speculation will be briskly at cannot go much lower in any event; and work, and some considerable fluctuations with respect to quality, the following facts are probable during the coming year ; but may be relied on. Eight bushels (or one until the next harvest, at the very soonest, quarter) were last year required to manu- the final consequences cannot completely facture a sack of flour, six bushels and a develope themselves. half of the present year's produce will yield Great exertions are every where making a sack, and the flour will absorb more to increase the consumption of barley, by water, and consequently give a heavier the sale of malt at a low rate, and by the weight of bread. These facts are immensely introduction of domestic brewing among important; for so soon as they are univer- the agricultural labourers, as well as by sally known, the effect will be to create a the farmers making allowances of beer in distaste for the old stock, and a great dif- part payment of labour. These endeavours, ference between the value of the old and together with the deficiency of the crop, its

mixed growth and inferior quality, on the The hopes of the farmer are placed on whole, will probably give it an indefinitely l'oli VI.-Mon. Reg.



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