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decent and dull; lead to a smooth procession of the nobility in their and unerring mediocrity, secure only state dresses—a mere doating on rich of not giving offence, and at the same stuffs and gaudy colours-an idle time subdue all that has most power adoration of irrelevant velvet and to yield delight. Be this as it may impertinent feathers. We should adin poetry, it is certain that, in the mire them in the same spirit were conduct of life, a studious and ex- they hung with variegated lamps; or clusive attention to refinement, with could come to the grace, I have no its small delicacies and critical punc- doubt, with a little discipline, of retilios, invariably tends to reduce garding with a pleasing wonder substance and vigour, to cripple all Knights Grand Crosses, and Comfreedom of action, and stifle all manders, rolling and ducking along warmth and alacrity of feeling. As- in the guise of " Jack in the Green." I perities are removed-coarseness is have heard of a tribe of people in softened down; but with the same America, or somewhere, who, being kind of consequences as attend the rather ill-provided with the ordinary labours of certain renovators of old manufactures that supply the magnipictures, who, offended by here and ficence of dress, help out their pothere a speck of dirt, set themselves verty by borrowing from the more to scrubbing and scraping with such costly and portable part of their resolution, that dirt, and colour, and household furniture. Among them form, yield before them, and a pic- you shall see a dignitary, on state ture finally comes forth from their occasions, covered, under pretence hands, smooth and clean—and no- of shirt and coat, with a miscellanething else.

ous load of crockery and hardwareMan, to shelter himself from the glittering and jingling in a musical cold, put on clothing; and, without attire of tea-pots, spoons, warmingstopping to inquire at present how pan, and fire-irons. Very pretty all much he may have lost hy this mea- this, I am ready to grant, in a bare sure in power and freedom of bodily view of ornament. I am maintainaction, as he gained something in ing only, that such adventurous nicepoint of comfort and enjoyment, we ties are apt to do violence to qualiwill admit that he did well. Having ties of far more importance than thus satisfied a plain necessity, he ornament. We sneer at the naked begins, under new influences of lazic savage, besmeared with tallow and ness and leisure, to improve and re- ochre; and his embellishments are fine; makes a sort of plaything of his certainly coarse enough, ill-applied, dress; converts it, without the least and none of the sweetest: but be it regard to its original purposes, into remembered that, simple and greasy a simple subject of experimental des as he stands, he can run down a fox at coration ; pursues a continual round a moment's notice, or swim a river, of unmeaning changes, only because or scale a precipice; while a Knight they are changes, not adapting his Grand Cross, in the full glory of his finery to his body, but forcing his wardrobe, shall scarcely perchance be body to be the servant of his finery, able to walk without help.--After turning it into a mere clothes-peg, all, simplicity is the prime element —a convenient kind of thing made to of all that is truly great and lastingly show off the beauty of red cloth and pleasing. Whatever the proprietors shining satin. We admire all this, of silk breeches and cocked hats may it is true; though it would be diffi- think of the matter, the naked figure cult to justify ourselves for so doing exhibits man in his most striking to good taste-if taste has any con- form of beauty and power. I am not nection with plain sense and come contending that every man out of his mon propriety. In the matter of clothes is an Apollo: it is enough dress, taste would certainly admit for my argument if it be admitted, nothing tending to disguise the “ fair that Apollo in a coat and breeches proportions” of the body, or to ob- would at once lose all his dignity and struct the ease, and grace, and dig- grace. nity, of its natural movements. We A scheme of torture, analogous to admire fine clothes wherever we see that applied to dress, is extended by them; but purely on their own ac- “ the first circles" to all their concount. We look with delight on a cernments. Their passions and affections, their loves and friendships, annihilate the great for twenty-three are so encumbered with dull rites hours out of the twenty-four. We and irrelevant forms, that they can talk of the twinkling of an eye-and scarcely live under the load. "They half a minute-divisions of time accumulate drapery and figure-work, which a man of quality has no con, till substance is quite buried under ception of. His business is delay; show, and nothing remains but hol- his enjoyment, not to be lively in low signs and heartless appearances; every thing, but to be long, till dropping a card at his door is a The worst effect of these forms and visit to an acquaintance, and sending superfluities is, that they break down an empty coach to his funeral is the energies of the mind, and thomourning for a friend. Etiquette is roughly incapacitate a man from the sovereign controller of conduct, acting, in any circumstances, with -the sole representative of nature, directness and promptitude. They among certain classes. They cast are not to be cast aside, as an artisan out the unruly souls that were born puts off his Sunday clothes, when with them, banish rebellious reason they might distract his attention and and pragmatical conscience, and fill obstruct his labour. Once become themselves with an entirely new or- endeared and habitual, they cling to der of machinery, quiet, precise, a man for ever. Though adapted passive-and as true to the Court only to the service of a morning levee. Calendar as the needle to the pole. or an evening ball, he will be faithThe vulgar, or the mass of mankind, ful to them under every aspect of have heads and hearts, and will be fortune. If called upon for dispatch thrusting themselves forward into by any untried emergency, however all the serious duties and illustrious critical and perilous, he is called in cares of life; so that nothing con- vain : he must still refer to his little nected with the highest aims of rea- system of regulated movements, and son and invention, or with the noblest prescribed delays; he has no notion or the kindest affections, is left un- of sudden impulses, and sudden actouched by their vile participation. tion; he must have his appointed How then are “ the great” to distin- signals, and due permits; and, though guish themselves? What sacred pe- death should stare him in the face, culiarities can they assume, except will provide for his safety only accertain small modes, superadded to cording to law. He loves forms for the ordinary ways of doing ordinary their own sake: they have been cathings, which the multitude are too pable, he has found, of giving interfull of business and enjoyment to no- est to the smallest occasions, and the tice or imitate? Shut out from the greatest occasions cannot induce him animating bustle of common life-its to dispense with them. The fatal anxious wants and earnest interests, capture of J.ouis XVI. at Varennes, they have no resource against time, and was caused, Madame de Staël deno provision for glory, except that of clares, “ by some delays of form and investing little things with great ceremony, without which it was imnames; dignifying tritles by magni- possible for the King to get into his ficent devices, and helping out their coach.” As for bundling him in at shortness and insipidity with cir- once, and scampering off with him cuitous ceremony and intricate pa- for his life, as though he had been rade. Think of the popular pro- nothing but a man in his senses, it cess of despatching a pound or two was not to be thought of. True, the of food into the stomach, to re- danger was pressing and nothing less lieve hunger and emptiness, and then than death-but the Gold Stick! and turn your attention to the multipli- the Silver Stick! and all the other ed entanglements--the plot and stra- sticks, bearing or borne, would you tagem, of a grand dinner-party in think of neglecting them for a mohigh life. You and I “jump into” ment, or in any moment? our clothes-“just swallow a mouth- Cardinal de Retz gives us an acful," -“ toss off” a draught-put on count of a charming little interlude our hats and “ are off," -and still of court politics happening in his find enough to do before we take time, which is strikingly illustrative another jump-into bed: but such of the absorbing influence of forms, brevities of conduct would absolutely and the kind of serious and impas

sioned frivolity that they fix in the verns them like a fatality, bending mind-a frivolity not to be daunted to neither time nor circumstance. In by the threats and frowns of the their blind obedience, they remind me most momentous occasions. At a of a little animal I have read of, callperiod when the nation was in arms ed the Lapland Marmot, whose infor its best and dearest rights, and stinct it is, when in motion, to ad the monarchy trembled to its base, vance invariably straight forwards. the Prince of Condè interceded, with Whatever impediments may oppose his high authority, to have a stool at it, fire or water, this instinct precourt granted the Countess of vails : it can indulge in neither cirFoix, a privilege hitherto enjoyed cuit nor “ short cut;" if it encounonly by duchesses. Mazarin opposes ters a well, it plunges into it, and is the measure with his whole soul, and seen crawling up on the other side ; if incites all the young noblemen at it is stopped by a hay-stack, it gnaws court to resist, with their lives, all its way through it; if it meets a boat orders of stools that were not grant- on the water, it passes over it-in ed upon special warrant. The Prince short, it gives way to nothing, and seeing this formidable array, headed goes round nothing, but keeps boring by the Mareschal de L'Hôpital, on in its inflexible line, " through thought it prudent to recede; though dense and rare," though its life still not without trying some means should be the sacrifice of its con. of gratifying the pride and jealousy stancy. of his friend the Countess. As he Age and approaching death, one could not raise her to a stool, the would imagine, might sober even a next best mode of establishing an courtier ; force him at last to be in equality, he thought, would be to earnest; to put away all solemn pull the duchesses down; and ac- trifling and imposture, and prepare cordingly, he proposed that all stools for his change in simplicity and truth. of all privileged houses should be The case, however, is otherwise. suppressed. The Family of Rohan Decrepitude, with its rigid back, may was the first of the number, and have its little tricke ; and something would as soon have given up their in the way of juggle and show may lives. De Retz now took the alarm, be got up even on a death-bed. As and resolved upon a counter-assem- long as there is breath, there may be bly “ for maintaining the stool of the etiquette-nay, when a man has cehouse of Rohan.” He used, at the remoniously ceased to exist, his cold same time, all his personal influence and corrupting remains may still go with the Prince of Condè, and pre- through their course of mummery, vailed. “I promise you,” said that under the direction of his surviving great man, " not to oppose the pri- and sympathetic friends : he may vilege of the stool, in the house of “lie in state” till he is quite rotten, Rohan.” This point established, and then be carried to the grave in people could then proceed to consi- the face of day, amidst the palpable der,whether some measures might not woe of a thousand coaches, all rebe adopted for saving_Paris from spectfully empty, a state horse, and massacre and pillage.--De Retz re- a lid of feathers. Madame du Def. Jates his story with the most perfect fand, on her death-bed, though withgravity, being himself not a little in- out an atom of religious feeling in her fected with the great epidemic of heart, would on no account go out of courts, the disease of frivolity and the world without the polite custom forms. Hurrying one day to mediate of a clergyman-making, however, between the soldiers and the people, an especial provision against being in the heat and peril of a bloody disturbed by any seriousness of meanscuffle, he had one of his pages ing on the occasion. “ Monsieur le wounded, he informs us, who held Curè," said the dying penitent to the up his cassock behind.Conceive a priest who attended her, “you will man so attended in such a moment! be perfectly satisfied with me, as I Cardinals, it may be said, always shall be with you, if you perplex me have their train-bearers : and this is with no reasons, questions, or serprecisely what I have been contend- mons.” Montaigne cites a very reing for. The great must have their markable instance of death-bed foolforms, cost what it may; fashion go- ery. Speaking of the insignificance of death in certain minds, he mentions might exclaim,~" Send us to our a great man, who spent his last hours caves again-strip us to the wind, in arranging the honours of his own and rain, and sun; give us our gross funeral. Haying earnestly solicited loves—our fierce hatred-our bloody the attendance of his friends of rank revenge ; many thing, if it be but naand wealth, and settled with mi- ture.” Such a burst over, we soon nute exactness the whole method and take heart again, and perceive that order of this his final show, he seemed there is no pressing necessity for quite at ease, and died content. “I adopting so tremendous a remedy. have seldom heard," adds Montaigne, Etiquette, in its mawkish mixture of “ of so long-lived a vanity."

stateliness and imbecility, though the On such a system of refinement as exclusive currency of the “ first sothis, the great, that is, the very great, ciety," does not certainly represent found their claims to superiority over human nature in an attractive dress. the bulk of mankind-the vulgar, the But civilization is not responsible for people, the rabble, or any other con- its abominations, and she can point temptuous collective you please, that to millions upon millions of useful, shall designate the active, thinking, intelligent, and happy creatures of feeling crowd, whose pitiful lot it is, her work, to refute such a scandal. to fill up their time with useful indus- We may remember too for our try, or natural enjoyments. He is the comfort, that even in the class which, first in rank who is least independent by right of station, is most chargeof rules and ceremonies. The Court able with the sins of vanity and affecCalendar, that unanswerable distri- tation, there are numberless illusbutor of degrees, so determines, and trious examples, with whom high there can be no doubt of it. A peer rank is but subsidiary to all that can is greater than a baronet, a duke is exalt and adorn human nature. The greater than a peer, and a king takes mere puppets of etiquette are, in this precedence of all. Greater than a country at least, in a minority, even King !--Inconceivable! A Welsh bi, at court. The capability of folly is shop made an apology to James 1, pretty equally distributed among all for preferring God-to his Majesty. classes: we can only say, that it is

The question of precedence was deli- most likely to meet with dangerous cate, but the Deity, it was believed, encouragement among those who in the phrase of the court, had the are farthest removed from the repas.

straints of wholesome labour, and Contemplating enormities like these, the sobering cares of common life. one is disposed almost to justify A man who has his bread to get, has Rousseau, or any man, in abhorring no time to make himself very ridithe very name of civilization, and, in culous. a paroxysm of overpowering disgust,

R. A.


The Dramatic Poem, which occu.. myself, in a very sunny day, and with one pies the chief bulk of this agreeable of Bramah's extra patent-pens. . I cannot volume, has been so highly spoken make neat work without, such

appurof by the first literary authority in tenances. this country that it is almost need

Captain Clutterbuck. Do you mean Al. less, not to sayimpertinent, to add lan Ramsay ? our mite of approbation to it. The I mean Allan Cunningham, who has just

Author. No, nor Barbara Allan either. Author of Waverley thus expresses published his tragedy of Sir Marmaduke his cordial opinion of it in his Pre- Maxwell, full of merry-making and mut. face to the Fortunes of Nigel.

ond' dering, kissing and cutting of throats, and Author. There is my friend Allan has passages which lead to nothing, and which written just such a play as I might write are very pretty passages for all that. Not

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• Sir Marmaduke Maxwell, a Dramatic Poem; The Mermaid of Galloway: The Legend of Richard Faulder; and Twenty Scottish Songs. By Allan Cunningham. • cond Edition. Taylor and Hessey, 1822.

a glimpse of probability is there about the crowned with more triumphant sucplot, but so much animation in particular cess, for our author does not want passages, and such a vein of poetry through resources in feeling or nature. In the whole, as I dearly wish I could infuse

case Mr. Cunningham gives us aninto my Culinary Remains, should I ever be tempted to publish them. With a po- vise him (as far as he may think

other Scottish tragedy, we would adpular impress, people would read and admire the beauties of Allan-as it is, they

our opinion worth attending to) to may, perhaps, only note his defects-or, get rid of the mixture of quaint what is worse, not note him at all." But proverbial phrases and northern never mind them, honest Allan ; you are a

dialect. A pastoral drama (like credit to Caledonia for all that. There Allan Ramsay's GENTLE SHEPHERD) are some lyrical effusions of his too, which may be written entirely in the you would do well to read, Captain. “ It's Scottish idiom: a tragedy, or even hame and it's hame,” is equal to Burns. a dramatic poem, with stately and

We ourselves agree to this une- heroic characters in it, should (we quivocal and enviable testimony in conceive) be written entirely in its favour; and we are the more glad. English: the jumbling the two lanto avail ourselves of it, as (besides guages together is decidedly bad in private reasons which would lead us either case, and is only proper to the to avoid any thing that might be narrative or ballad style, where the construed into a pul) it enables us dignity of no individual is committed, to speak our minds more freely with and where the author is privileged (as respect to a few faults which strike a remote spectator of the scene) to us (like specks on the sun's disk) in speak either in his own person or to this very interesting performance.- throw in occasional sprinklings of We think (though we do not know local and national expression, with a that this is a fault) that the effect of view to produce a more lively sense this Dramatic Poem is more that of reality and to give it a dramatic which arises from the perusal of a air. But where the form itself is romance than of a tragedy. The in- dramatic, the same licence (to our terest of the story prevails over the feelings) is neither necessary nor alforce of the dialogue, though the last lowable. In a romantic description is spirited and natural : the charac- of an invincible knight of old, it may ters serve more as vehicles to convey be a peasant that speaks, or from a series of extraordinary incidents, whom we have learnt the story-we than to display the extreme workings may avail ourselves therefore of all of the passions or the hidden springs the bye-resources, the quaint or caof action. We read on, without sual varieties of the language, to being violently stimulated or much touch, to identify, to surprise. But startled, with an unabated and per- where the knight himself speaks in sonal anxiety about the event of the his own character, his language fable and the fate of the different should be one, and it should be (accharacters—with a love of the good, cording to the prevailing prejudice) and a hatred of the vicious agents in dignified. Otherwise, “the blank the plotmas we should read the nar- verse. halts for it." Such words as rative of any striking occurrence in shealing, and cushat, and cummer, actual life, put into pleasing and fan- and dowl, come in very well among ciful verse. Perhaps Mr. Cunninge' the rude rhymes of a ballad-strain, ham too often lays aside the tragic which (for any thing that appears to buskin to assume the Minstrel’s harp, the contrary) might have been said or to rehearse the affecting passages or sung by an old Highland bagpipeof Traditional Literature. We can player five hundred years ago they attribute this not more to 'a want of assist the illusion, which is favourable confirmed practice than to an amiable to the poet, and flattering to the reamodesty. Scarce conscious of uni- der and we can turn at leisure to versally-acknowledged merit in his the glossary to know the meaning, as favourite pursuits, it is no wonder an improvement of the mind and an that he touches the strings with a enlargement of our knowledge. But trembling and uncertain hand in a it is not so well, when a noble and new department of art. Increased accomplished person is speaking in experience would give greater bold- good set lines of ten syllables, to have ness; and greater boldness would be to stop him' repeatedly with “What

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