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examine the pretended titles which road to honour and glory open and are set up, and to investigate the in- disembarrassed.' Virtue and merit justice of such unreasonable preten- will be seen in conjunction to adorn sions. This examination, which in- the sanctuary of the country, while sulted reason counselled and required, intrigue will no longer close the avenues has proved to the Brazilians that to the throne, hitherto open only to Portugal, in overthrowing all esta- hypocrisy and deceit!! Citizens of blished forms-in changing all the every, class—Brazilian youth, you ancient and respectable institutions shall have a national code of public of the monarchy-in passing the instruction, which shall cultivate Sponge of moral oblivion over all her and cherish the talents of this relatious, and in re-constituting here blessed climate, and will place self anew, cannot compel us to ac- our constitution under the safeguard cept a dishonourable and degrading of future generations, transmitting to system, without violating those very the whole nation a liberal education principles on which she has founded which will cornmunicate to each her revolution, and the right of member the instruction necessary for changing her political institutions." promoting the happiness of the great After much declamation similar to Brazilian whole." This manifesto the preceding, he declares himself appears to have been received with ready to accede to the expressed the utmost enthusiasm, and certainly voice of the southern provinces of with justice, if its promises are likely Brazil-declares himself their king, to be realized ; at the same time, we but still the delegate of his august cannot avoid noticing some strange father, and congratulates the counæ admissions with respect to the avetry that in this way, “ avoiding the pues of access to the throne hitherto, fascinating example of neighbouring particularly as coming from a prince states, royalty may be preserved in of the Blood Royal. If the present the great American continent, and posture of affairs lasts, however, the rights of the august house of Brazil, although lost to Portugal, is Braganza acknowledged.” The Prince still possessed

by the house of Brathen draws a flattering, and we hope ganza—with this only difference, that it may for their sakes turn out a true, the old king waves a new flag at picture of the blessings which await Lisbon, and the young king branthe Brazilians under their new form dishes the old flag at Rio-still the of government; the language in fee simple of both countries happily which it concludes is so eloquent, remains in the family. This manithat we will not do it the injustice of festo was followed up next day by a abridging it. Your representa- decree of a very decided character, tives (he says,) will give you a code in which the prince declares that, of laws adequate to the nature of “considering the necessity of prompt your local circumstances, of your measures, and considering also that population, interests, and relations, his Majesty Don John Vi. our the execution of which will be con- Lord, whose name and authority fided to upright judges; they will the Cortes at Lisbon, for their administer gratuitous justice, and own sinister ends, pretend to emwill cause to disappear all the petti- ploy, is a prisoner in the kingdom fogging cavils of your forum, found of Portugal, deprived of his own free ed on ancient, ridiculous, compli- will, and without that liberty of accated, and contradictory laws. They tion which belongs to the executive will give you a penal code, dictated power in constitutional monarchies," by reason and humanity, in place of all Portuguese troops landing in those sanguinary and absurd laws of Brazil shall be considered as enemies. which you have hitherto been the The only alarm felt at Rio, was on suffering victims. You will have a account of the negroes, who began to system of imposts which will respect be infected with the prevailing spirit the labours of agriculture, the works of independence, and who, it was of industry, the dangers of naviga- feared, were not likely much longer tion, and the freedom of trade. Cul- to believe that a difference of colour tivators of literature and science, should properly exclude them from almost always abhorred or despised the benefits of a system which proby despotism, you will now find the fessed to be universal in its philan

thropy. These people are princi- said to have taken place at Souli; pally employed in the mines; and it extraordinary on account of some of was apprehended that, when the troops the combatants. The Turks suddenwhich watch over them were with= ly appeared at the foot of the Souli drawn, they would rise and seize mountains with a force of 15,000 upon some part of the country for men; and the Greeks, knowing the themselves; the fear was naturally cruelties which would be exercised the greater from the recollection that towards the helpless in case of defeat, they had always been treated with resolved at once to sacrifice their wives the greatest severity.

and children, and sell their own lives With respect to the state of the as dearly as possible. The females, Greek cause, we wish sincerely we however, had sufficient influence to had any thing sufficiently authentic counteract this determination, and inof a favourable nature to communi- sisted upon arming and sharing at caté. In saying this, however, we least the chances of the combat. They are glad to add, that almost all the actually fell into the ranks to the reports are favourable to the cause number of 800, and after a desperate of liberty, humanity, and literature. action, the Ottoman forces were In an article, even from Constantino- obliged to retreat, leaving, besides ple itself, we find that the possession the killed, 1,350 prisoners, and four of the key of the Morea has not by pieces of cannon. The Greeks lost 17 any means secured the peaceable or females and 167 men. These are some permanent possession of the Isthmus of the rumours as they have reached On the contrary, 20,000 Turks are us through the foreign press; but, said to have fallen in battles and am- though rumours, they are so generalbuscades, and Corinth alone remain- ly credited, that there can be but ed in their possession destitute of little doubt that the affairs of Greece every means of defence. They say have not fallen off during the last also, that now that the plunder of the month. Lord Strangford has depart, Greeks is at an end, the Porte be- ed from Constantinople for Congress, gan to feel the want of money, and and is, it is said, charged with an imhad issued a very arbitrary firman, portant declaration from the Porte, ordering every thing made of gold It is a sort of anticipatory protest and silver to be instantly deposited against every interference of the foin the royal treasury for an indemnity reign powers with the internal coninamed by the government. In addi- cerns of the Ottoman empire, to the tion to this, it is stated, that after a arrangement of which the Porte degreat Turkish Fleet had been disa clares itself fully adequate without patched to Patras, a second expedi- any assistance. It is a pity that a tion, consisting of 40 transports, three monarch so determined has not a more frigates, and one line of battleship, with just cause. 8,000 troops on board, was fitted out In France, the situation of affairs at Constantinople for the purpose of seems any thing but satisfactory to ravaging the Archipelago, while the the ruling powers. Arrests, trials, and Greek squadron should be gone round executions, follow one another in rapid the Morea after the Turkish fleet of succession, varied only by a whimsical Patras. The Greek Admiralty had, alternation of propitiatory atonements however, a squadron of reserve, which for the sins of the past, and religious it caused to lurk about Negropont, ceremonies to mark the piety of the and which attacked this second Ot- present generation. The conduct of toman expedition in the dangerous the Ultra government fully countechannel called Bocca-Silota, between nances the suspicions entertained of Negropont and Andros. The Turks, it by the Madrid administration. The not expecting this, were panic struck, Cordon Sanitaire is daily increasing; and the result was, that between bats and by accounts from Bayonne, it tle and shipwreck they lost three- appears, that transports have arrived fourths of their squadron, and at at that place, laden with ammunition least 'two-thirds of their troops. and provisions, and a still greater Whatever may be the result of this number is expected. The materials contest, the Turks seem to be singu- for sieges alone would, they say, fill larly unfortunate in their naval enter- 500 waggons, and are sufficient for prises. An extraordinary battle is an army of 200,000 men. The storehouses are insufficient for the hay, failing excitement to every kind of forage, and ammunition. Surely depredation.

The tithe system there must be some hidden meaning seems to be the ostensible pretence, in this “ note of preparation; "-it but we fear the evil is much deeper seems much too extended and too seated. The great land-holders and ample for a mere precautionary mea- gentry of the country have, however, sure. In its internal administration met, and endeavoured, as far as in the government proceeds in the same them lay, to obviate this pretence, steady and determined system of seve- by entering into a resolution to rerity. The fourconspirators, condemn- commend the commutation of tithes ed at Rochelle, have perished on the to the legislature. Such a recomscaffold, and Berton and his associ- mendation will, we hope, have its ates, their appeal having been dis- weight, although we are disposed to allowed, have shared the same fate. doubt very much the ultimate sucThe papers are filled with very in- cess of the experiment. In Dublin, teresting details as to the bravery indeed, the troubles of Ireland seem with which these men met their to have been by some ascribed to death. They are, however, much another, and a very different source, too minute for our transcription; but namely, the Union. A motion was as Berton excited so much notice, the lately made in the Guild of Mermanner in which he conducted him- chants, and unanimously agreed to, self through the last great trial may to present a petition for a repeal of not be unacceptable to our readers, that measure. It would be premaparticularly as the truth of the ac- ture to offer any observations now count is vouched for by his confessor. upon the policy of this attempt; as At half past nine, on the morning of to its fate, however, we may venture the day of the execution, Cafe, one of to predict, without the danger of the condemned, who had been lying bringing our repute as prophets into on his bed apparently listening to his question. Even Mr. Fox, when askconfessor, contrived to open the feed for his support of such a petition, moral artery with some instrument is reported to have said, that “it which he had concealed under the was a very different thing to oppose bed clothes ; his death was so sud- a measure in the first instance, and den, that he had only time to say to afterwards to vote for its repeal, if his confessor, “Give me your blessing carried." We saw little in the last and embrace me.” In consequence days of the Irish parliament to call of this event, Berton was more closely in question Swift's double sarcasm watched, and his arms tied. When against both it and the Irish univerled to execution, he was dressed in sity, where, in his “ Legion Club, a blue great coat, and had a helmet speaking of the situation of the buildon his head ; on the way to the scaf- ing, he describes it as fold he behaved with every courtesy to the priest who attended him, and Not a bowshot from the college, died, after having received the sacra

Half the globe from sense and knowledge. ments. He was much altered in his Another motion was made in the appearance after his condemnation, same Guild, to admit catholics to but died with great firmness. His its freedom; and, with singular conlast words, pronounced in a firm voice, sistency, almost unanimously rejectand twice repeated, were, Vive la ed. The same men who loudly called France !"_" Vive la Liberté !for the emancipation of themselves,

The intelligence from Ireland oc- were just as loud in denying it, even cupies, and we fear is long likely to partially, to others. occupy, the leading feature in our do- A great reduction is taking place in mestic abstract. Now that the new the military department of Scotland. harvest has been gathered, and has Many persons have already been disfully equalled, in its produce, the missed; and it is now said, that Lord hopes of the most sanguine, the dis- Robert Kerr, with the assistance of position to commit every kind of out- one clerk, with a salary of half a rage seems rather to have increased crown a day, will be able to manage than diminished. In the south, par- the Adjutant-general's department. ticularly, the possession of property, The appointment of Lord Amherst or a good house, constitutes the un- as Governor-general of India, in the room of the Marquis of Hastings, has on some serious political charge. at last taken place, and been con- Some private letters with which this firmed by the Board of Directors. gentleman was entrusted, and a ma

Parliament will not, it is rumour- nuscript copy of verses, are reported ed, be called upon to meet till Fe- to have compromised him. He has bruary, unless something important protested loudly against his detenin the meantime should occur to ren- tion, and also against the seizure of der their convocation necessary. One a sealed dispatch, of which he was of the first measures to be proposed by the bearer from the Portuguese amthe Chancellor of the Exchequer will, bassador at Paris to the Portuguese if report speak true, be the reduction ambassador in London. The French of the old four per cents. to three government, however, have taken and a half. This idea has originated but little notice of his complaints, as in the success of the experiment made he was confined au secret; and the last year upon the five per cents. report, that he was to be tried on a

The Chief Justice has been sitting charge of treason, was in extensive at Nisi prius, during the latter half circulation. Mr. Bowring lately pubof October. Few trials of any in- lished in this country a work enterest took place, if we except some titled, “ Specimens of the Russian for blasphemous and political libels, Poets.” A measure equally decisive, instituted by the Bridge-street and the though not equally severe, has been Suppression of Vice Societies. All adopted towards Sir Robert Wilson. the defendants were convicted. Lit- He was ordered to quit Paris within tle Waddington, the bill-sticker, of 24 hours, and the French territory radical notoriety, was among the as fast as he could travel. sufferers. He defended himself, and His Majesty has, we are happy to in such a manner, that the Chief say, quite recovered his health and Justice expressed considerable doubts spirits during his sojournment at his as to his sanity.

cottage in Windsor-park. He has We do not know that we ought signified his intention of passing some not to have mentioned, under our time at the Pavilion. foreign head, the arrest of Mr. Bow- Oct. 24, 1822. ring, an English merchant, at Calais,

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, &c. Illustrations of Italian Architecture.— studied by many of our scene-painters and A work now publishing by Leske, of Darm- decorators. stadt, contains an interesting selection of Sculpture.- Hermann and Pettrich, two outline engravings of some of the various young Danes, and pupils of Thorvaldsen, and numerous specimens of architecture bid fair to become illustrious ornaments of abounding in Italy; its title is Kirchen, Pa- the school of that great muster. The for läste, und Klöster in Italien nach Monumen- mer of these has lately executed a bas-relief ten gezeichnet von J. L. Ruhl, folio, 1, 2, 3 in marble, the subject of which is BacHeft. The subjects are not only very judici- chus and Ariadne; its execution is particuously chosen, but such as have not often been larly excellent. Pettrich has also executed a delineated. The admirers of the Gotico-Te- relief, representing our Saviour inviting desco style will here meet with several curious Little Children to approach him. The specimens of the ecclesiastical architecture young artist has treated the subject with a of the middle ages : for instance, the Ca. feeling that discovers real genius, and adthedral at Spoleto, San Feliciano at Fu. dresses itself immediately to the soul of the ligno, San Giacomo at Vicovaro. One or spectator. In manual execution it indicates two very beautiful and picturesque Cortili much ability, and partakes considerably of are introduced, particularly that of San the character of Thorvaldsen's style. FerApostolo at Rome, and one belonging to a dinand Pettrich, the only son of Professor palace in the Via Sacra in the same city. Pettrich, the sculptor, was born at Dress An interior of the Sacristy of San Martino den, Dec. 17th, 1798. From his earliest a Monte at Rome proves from what appa. years he discovered an innate predilection rendy slight and inadequate materials an for the art practised by his father, who first interesting architectural subject may be initiated him into its mysteries. At the formed: the effect is most pleasing; and beginning of 1819 he was sent to Rome to the ensemble presents an architectural complete his studies, where he was so fortu. composition that might be very usefully nate as to become the pupil, and gain the personal attachment, of Thorvaldsen. One taste and abilities of their architect, M. of his first attempts was an Infant Christ Klenze. The former of these fine strucsleeping on the Cross. He is at present tures is the glyptotheca, or gallery, erected employed upon a large composition the by the crown-prince of Bavaria for the reEntombing of Christ, in the model of which ception of his valuable collection of an. he at length succeeded to his wish, after re- cient statues and marbles. It consists of peated alterations.

thirteen noble halls (one is not less than 140 Musco Borgia.- This valuable collection feet in length), each of which accords in its of Egyptian monuments has been united to architecture and decorations with the class the Borboni Museum, and arranged by of statues to which destined. The Arditi, the director of the royal museum at building is a square, with a cortile in the Naples, and superintendent of the excava- centre. The facade, which is of the Ionic tions and antiquities. They are placed in order, is constructed entirely of whitish one of the lower porticos, and amount to up- Salzburgh marble, a material worthy of the wards of 600 different subjects, among which beautiful decoration which this front disare, an obelisk of red granite, an altar with plays. A majestic octastyle portico consti22 mummy-looking figures in bas-relief, se- tutes its principal feature, and gives the veral Harpocrates tablets, a basaltic torso whole a very temple-like appearance ; and covered with hieroglyphics of such extreme the tympanum of the pediment contains a elegance, that they resemble cameos, and a profusion of sculpture in relief. Extensive as stàtue of Ptolemæus Epiphanes. Among this building is, it forms but the part of a the Cufic antiquities is a celestial globe, design for a magnificent place, among whose formed of metal, with its meridian ; this embellishments a catholic church and a tritruly unique monument of its kind was umphal arch will be important features. executed by Kaissar, an Arabian astrono- The second edifice is the New Ridingmer and mechanist, at the command of Mu. House. Here the architect had many diffihamed Alkamel, sixth king of Egypt, in culties to contend with ; for the stables hay. the year 1225 of our æra, &c. &c. ing been already erected, he was quite limit

Duc D'Enghien.—The monument erect- ed, both as to situation and extent, in this ed to the memory of this unfortunate additional building. It is a parallelogram of prince will ere long be completed. The 320 feet by 85, of which the façade occupies cenotaph is surrounded by four figures of the longest side. A somewhat lofty basement white marble. One of these represents the gives an air of majesty to this front. Above prince, who is proceeding tranquilly to his this basement rises a Roman-Doric order of execution; the second figure is Fortitude, colossal proportions, consisting of pilasters who supports him in this trying moment; at the extremities, and insulated columns the third Malice, who is lurking for him; in the centre. Over the large arched winand the fourth France in fetters. These dows, of the centre division, are circular statues are about 7 fcet 6 inches high, and bronze shields, 8 or 9 feet in diameter, the entire height of the mausoleum is 22 adorned with colossal horses' heads; and feet. The sculptor is M. Deseine, first the attic is decorated with an inscription in sculptor to the Bourbon-Conde family, and bronze. The interior is still more imposing; member of the academies of Bourdeaux resting on a lofty stylobate, are pilasters and Copenhagen.

supporting a richly decorated entablature; Life-PrescrverThe newly invented and, at the ends, are open tribunes or gal. life-preserver is most valuable on account of leries with Ionic columns. The ceiling is deits extreme simplicity. Its advantages are, corated with square caissoons and pannels. that it is air-tight, and impenetrable to wa. Of this edifice the construction and deter ; that it does not occasion the least pres- tails are alike admirable ; nor is there sure on the chest; that it can be inflated in all Germany any building more characand adjusted to the body in a moment, and teristic of the purpose for which it was is then capable of sustaining the weight of erected. Wagner's bas-reliefs of the Cen. an additional person in case of emergency ; taurs and Lapithæ are particularly fine: he that it can be worn by females over their has executed besides for this building two clothes ; and, lastly, that it is light and groups of extraordinary beauty, each conportable. The inventor exhibited it on the sisting of three figures, larger than life. Thames, Aug. 20th, in the presence of nu. The first of these groups consist of a Cenmerous spectators, who expressed their un- taur combating with two Lapithæ, one of qualified approbation.-M. Scheerbaum whom is almost vanquished, while the other made an experiment on Aug. 15, with an is still endeavouring to defend himself. In artificial horse, a machine with which he the second group, the Centaur is raising rode into the sea at Scheveningen while a large fragment of rock to crush one of his breakers rose to the height of 12 feet, and adversaries; the other has leaped aside. advanced 400 yards into that element with For beauty of form, energy of expression, perfect safety.

and strong poetical feeling, these producMunich.-—This city is now adorned by tions deserve to rank very high indeed two very fine pieces of architecture, both of among the noblest efforts of modern art.

ich will long remain monuments of the

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