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call him) should seem from his style The glorious counsels of the Gods decide to have been contemporary with He wends from Xanthus to broad Tiber's other poet-grammarians of the fifth
tide ; century: such as Coluthus and Try- And rears a sacred city, far and near, phiodorus. That he lived under the To rule the world, while distant ages fear ;
His race shall bid the course of empire run Roman monarchy 'is evident, from the prophecy which he puts into the
from east to west, and track th' unwearied mouth of Calchas respecting the pose terity of Æneas, book 13.
This is the language of a flatterer Cease round Æneas' gallant head to ply
of his masters and his contempoThe deadly spears, or darts that groaning raries.
PODALIRIUS CONSOLED BY NESTOR FOR THE DEATH OF HIS BROTHER
Foodless in dust was Podalirius thrown,
Anguish'd he cried, when Nestor ceased to speak,
The sage again the mourning man address'd :
There happen time and chance to sons of earth.
He softly raised the mourner from the ground,
CONFESSIONS OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM-EATER.
The interest excited by the two papers bearing this title, in our Numbers for September and October, 1821, will have kept our promise of a THIRD Part fresh in the remembrance of our Readers. That we are still unable to fulfil our engagement in its original meaning, will, we are sure, be matter of regret to them, as to ourselves, especially when they have perused the following affecting narrative. It was composed for the purpose of being appended to an Edition of the CONFESSIONS, in a separate Volume, which is already before the public; and we have reprinted it entire, that our Subscribers may be in possession of the whole of this extraordinary history.
The Proprietors of this little work judgment, and not much illuminated having determined on' reprinting it, by any of the masters in casuistry some explanation seems called for, to whom he has consulted on the occaaccount for the non-appearance of a
sion. On the one hand it seems geThird Part promised in the LONDON nerally agreed that a promise is bindMagazine of December last; and ing in the inverse ratio of the numthe more so, because the Proprietors, bers to whom it is made: for which under whose guarantee that promise reason it is that we see many persons was issued, might otherwise be im- break promises without scruple that plicated in the blame-- little or much are made to a whole nation, who
attached' to its non-fulfilment. keep their faith religiously in all pri'This blame, in mere justice, the vate engagements, -breaches of proauthor takes wholly upon himself. mise towards the stronger party beWhat may be the exact amount of ing committed at a man's own peril : the guilt which he thus appropriates, on the other hand, the only parties is a very dark question to his own interested in the promises of an au
thor are his readers; and these it is such a state of suffering necessarily a point of modesty in any author to presumes in the recorder a power of believe as few as possible ; or per- surveying his own case as a cool haps only one, in which case any spectator, and a degree of spirits for promise imposes a sanctity of moral adequately describing it, which it obligation which it is - shocking to would be inconsistent to suppose in think of. Casuistry dismissed how- any person speaking from the station ever,--the author throws himself on of an actual sufferer : secondly, bethe indulgent consideration of all who cause I, who had descended from so may conceive themselves aggrieved large a quantity as 8,000 drops to so by his delay-in the following ac- small a one (comparatively speaking) count of his own condition from the as a quantity ranging between 300 end of last year, when the engage- and 160 drops, might well suppose ment was made, up nearly to the that the victory was in effect achievpresent time.
For any purpose of ed. In suffering my readers, thereself-excuse, it might be sufficient to fore, to think of me as of a reformed say that intolerable bodily suffering Opium-eater, I left no impression but had totally disabled him for almost what I shared myself; and, as may any exertion of mind, more especially be seen, even this impression was left for such as demand and presuppose to be collected from the general tone a pleasurable and genial state of feel- of the conclusion, and not from any ing: but, as a case that may by pos- specific words—which are in no insibility contribute a trifle to the me- stance at variance with the literal dical history of Opium, in a further truth.-In no long time after that stage of its action than can often paper was written, I became sensible have been brought under the notice that the effort which remained would of professional men, he has judged cost me far more energy than I had that it might be acceptable to some anticipated: and the necessity for readers to have it described more at making it was more apparent every length. Fiat experimentum in cor- month. In particular I became aware pore vili is a just rule where there is of an increasing callousness or defect any reasonable presumption of bene- of sensibility in the stomach; and fit to arise on a large scale; what the this I imagined might imply a schirbenefit may be, will admit of a rous state of that organ either formed doubt: but there can be none as to or forming. An eminent physician, the value of the body: for a more to whose kindness I was at that worthless body than his own, the time deeply indebted, informed me author is free to confess, cannot be: that such a termination of my case it is his pride to believe that it is was not impossible, though likely to the very ideal of a base, crazy, des- be forestalled by a different terminapicable human system—that hardly tion, in the event of my continuing ever could have been meant to be the use of opium. Opium therefore sea-worthy for two days under the I resolved wholly to abjure, as soon ordinary storms and wear-and-tear of as I should find myself at liberty to life: and indeed, if that were the bend my undivided attention and creditable way of disposing of human energy to this purpose. It was not bodies, he must own that he should however until the 24th of June last almost be ashamed to bequeath his that any tolerable concurrence of fawretched structure to any respectable cilities for such an attempt arrived. dog:-But now to the case ; which, On that day I began my experiment, for the sake of avoiding the constant having previously settled in my own recurrence of a cumbersome peri- mind that I would not flinch, but phrasis, the author will take the lie would “ stand up to the scratch”berty of giving in the first person. under any possible “ punishment."
I must premise that about 170 or Those who have read the Confes- 180 drops had been my ordinary alsions will have closed them with the lowance for many months: occasionalimpression that I had wholly re- ly I had run up as high as 500; nounced the use of Opium. "This and once nearly to 700 : in repeated impression I meant to convey: and preludes to my final experiment I that for two reasons: first, because had also gone as low as 100 drops; the very act of deliberately recording but had found it impossible to stand it beyond the 4th day+which, by the cough. But now a 'violent cold atway, I have always found more tacked me, and a cough soon after. difficult to get over than any of the In an unfinished fragment of a letter preceeding three. I went off under begun about this time to I find easy sail-130 drops a day for three these words: “ You ask me to write days: on the fourth I plunged at the
+ Do you know once to 80: the misery, which I now Beaumont and Fletcher's play of suffered “ took the conceit” out of Thierry and Theodoret? There you me at once: and for about a month will see my case as to sleep: nor is I continued off and on about this it much of an exaggeration in other mark: then I sunk to 60: and the features. I protest to you that I next day to none at all. This have a greater influx of thoughts in was the first day for nearly ten years one hour at present than in a whole that I had existed without opium. 1 year under the reign of opium. It persevered in my abstinence for 90 seems as though all the thoughts hours ; i. e. upwards of half a week. which had been frozen up for a decad Then I took ask me not how of years by opium, had now, accordmuch: say, ye severest, what would ing to the old fable, been thawed at ye have done ? Then I abstained once-such a multitude stream in again: then took about 25 drops: upon me from all quarters. Yet such then abstained : and so on.
is my impatience and hideous irritaMeantime the symptoms which bility-that, for one which I detain attended my case for the first six and write down, fifty escape me: in weeks of the experiment were these: spite of my weariness from suffering enormous irritability and excite- and want of sleep, I cannot stand ment of the whole system : the sto- still or sit for two minutes together. mach in particular restored to a full “I nunc, et versus tecum meditare feeling of vitality and sensibility; canoros.'” but often in great pain: unceasing At this stage of my experiment I restlessness night and day:. sleep sent to a neighbouring surgeon, re
I scarcely knew what it was: questing that he would come over to three hours out of the twenty-four see me. Ju the evening he came : was the utmost I had, and that so and after briefly stating the case to agitated and shallow that I heard him, I asked this question :-Wheevery sound that was near me: lower ther he did not think that the opium jaw constantly swelling: mouth ul- might have acted as a stimulus to the cerated: and many other distressing digestive organs; and that the presymptoms that would be tedious to sent state of suffering in the stomach, repeat; amongst which however I which manifestly was the cause of must mention one, because it had the inability to sleep, might arise never failed to accompany any at- from indigestion? His answer was tempt to renounce opium-viz. vio- -No: on the contrary he thought lent sternutation: this now became that the suffering was caused by diexceedingly troublesome: sometimes gestion itself, which should naturally lasting for two hours at once, and re- go on below the consciousness, but curring at least twice or three times which from the unnatural state of the a day. I was not much surprised at stomach, vitiated by so long a use of this, on recollecting what I had someopium, was become distinctly perwhere heard or read, that the mem- ceptible. This opinion was plausibrane which lines the nostrils is a ble: and the unintermitting nature prolongation of that which lines the of the suffering disposes me to think stomach; whence, I believe, are ex that it was true : for, if it had been plained the inflammatory appearances any mere irregular affection of the about the nostrils of dram-drink- stomach, it should naturally have iners. The sudden restoration of its termitted occasionally, and constantoriginal sensibility to the stomach ly fluctuated as to degree. The inexpressed itself, I suppose, in this tention of nature, as manifested in the way. It is remarkable also that, healthy state, obviously is—to withduring the whole period of years draw from our notice all the vital through which I had taken opium, I motions, such as the circulation of the had never once caught cold (as the blood, the expansion and contraction phrase is), nor even the slightest of the lungs, the peristaltic action of the stomach, &c.; and opium, it (sometimes affecting the shoulders, seems, is able in this, as in other in- &c., but more often appearing to stances, to counteract her purposes.- be seated in the stomach), seemed By the advice of the surgeon I tried again less probably attributable to bitters: for a short time these greatly the opium or the want of opium than mitigated the feelings under which I to the dampness of the house * which laboured: but about the forty-second I inhabit, which had about that time day of the experiment the symptoms attained its maximum-July having already noticed began to retire, and been, as usual, a month of incessant new ones to arise of a different and far rain in our most rainy part of Engmore tormenting class : under these, land. but with a few intervals of remission, Under these reasons for doubting I have since continued to suffer. But whether opium had any connexion I dismiss them undescribed for two with the latter stage of my bodily reasons : lst, because the mind re- wretchedness (except indeed as an volts from retracing circumstantial- occasional cause, as having left the ly any sufferings from which it body weaker and more crazy, and is removed by too short or by thus predisposed to any mal-influence no interval: to do this with minute whatever), --I willingly spare my ness enough to make the review of any reader all description of it: let it use-would be indeed - infandum perish to him: and would that I renovare dolorem," and possibly with- could as easily say, let it perish to out a sufficient motive: for 2dly, I my own remembrances: that any doubt whether this latter state be future hours of tranquillity may not any way referrible to opium-posiz be disturbed by, too vivid an ideal of tively considered, or even negatively; possible human misery! that is, whether it is to be numbered So much for the sequel of my examongst the last evils from the di- periment: as to the former stage, in rect action of opium, or even amongst which properly lies the experiment the earliest evils consequent upon a and its application to other cases, I want of opium in a system long dee must request my reader not to forget ranged by its use. Certainly one the reasons for which I have recordpart of the symptoms might be ac, ed it: these were two: 1st, a belief counted for from the time of year that I might add some trifle to the (August): for, though the summer history of opium as a medical agent: was not a hot one, yet in any case in this I am aware that I have not the sum of all the heat funded (if at all fulfilled my own intentious, in one may say so) during the previous consequence of the torpor of mind months, added to the existing heat pain of body- and extreme disgust of that month, naturally renders Au- to the subject which besieged me gust in its better half the hottest whilst writing that part of my paper, part of the year: and it so happened which part, being immediately sent that the excessive perspiration, which off to the press (distant about five even at Christmas attends any great degrees of latitude), cannot be correduction in the daily quantum of rected or improved. But from this opium--and which in July was so account, rambling as it may be, it is violent as to oblige me to use a bath evident that thus much of benefit five or six times a day, had about may arise to the persons most inthe setting in of the hottest season. terested in such a history of opiumwholly retired: on which account viz. to Opium-eaters in general—that any bad effect of the heat might it establishes, for their consolation be the more unmitigated. Another and encouragement, the fact that symptom, viz. what in my igno- opium may be renounced; and withrance I call internal rheumatism out greater sufferings than an ordi-,
• In saying this, I mean no disrespect to the individual house, as the reader will understand when I tell him, that, with the exception of one or two princely mansions, and some few inferior ones that have been coated with Roman cement, I am not acquainted with any house in this mountainous district which is wholly water-proof. The architecture of books, I fatter myself, is conducted on just principles in this county : but for any other architecture it is in a barbarous state; and, what is worse, in a retrograde state.